- Cost-Effectiveness of Scaling Up HCV Prevention and Treatment in the United States for People Who Inject Drugs. [Journal Article]
- AAddiction 2019 Jul 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis C screening and treatment for people who inject drugs, combined with medication-assisted treatment and syringe-service programs, is a cost-effective strategy for reducing hepatitis C burden in the United States.
- Estimating the transmissibility of hand, foot, and mouth disease by a dynamic model. [Journal Article]
- PHPublic Health 2019 Jul 12; 174:42-48
- CONCLUSIONS: The epidemic of HFMD in Changsha City is still grim, and integrated strategies should be taken for controlling and preventing HFMD.
- Part II - Ectoparasites: Pediculosis and Tungiasis. [Review]
- JAJ Am Acad Dermatol 2019 Jul 12
- Pediculosis is an infestation of lice on the body, head, and/or pubic region that occurs worldwide. Lice are ectoparasites of the order Phthiraptera that feed on the blood of infested hosts. Their mo…
Pediculosis is an infestation of lice on the body, head, and/or pubic region that occurs worldwide. Lice are ectoparasites of the order Phthiraptera that feed on the blood of infested hosts. Their morphotype dictates their clinical features. Body lice may transmit bacterial pathogens that cause trench fever, relapsing fever, and epidemic typhus, which are potentially life-threatening diseases that remain relevant in contemporary times. Recent data from some settings suggest head lice may harbor pathogens. Herein, the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and management of body, head, and pubic louse infestation are reviewed. New therapies for head lice and screening considerations for pubic lice are discussed. Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic disease caused by skin penetration by the female Tunga penetrans or, less commonly, Tunga trimamillata flea. It is endemic in Latin America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa and seen in travelers returning from these regions. Herein, risk factors for acquiring tungiasis, associated morbidity, and potential strategies for prevention and treatment are discussed.
- Contribution of brown adipose tissue to human energy metabolism. [Review]
- MAMol Aspects Med 2019 Jul 12
- The present "obesogenic' environment has favored excessive energy intake resulting in the current obesity epidemic and its associated diseases. The epidemic has incentivized scientists to develop nov…
The present "obesogenic' environment has favored excessive energy intake resulting in the current obesity epidemic and its associated diseases. The epidemic has incentivized scientists to develop novel behavioral and pharmacological strategies that enhance energy expenditure to compensate for excessive energy intake. Although physical activity is effective to increase total energy expenditure, it is insufficient to induce negative energy balance and weight loss. With the discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans, BAT activation soon emerged as a potential strategy for elevating energy expenditure. BAT is the only tissue that expresses uncoupling protein 1, conferring on this tissue high thermogenic capacity due to a low efficiency for mitochondrial ATP generation. Potential manipulation of BAT mass and activity has fueled the interest in altering whole-body energy balance through increased energy expenditure. Remarkable advances have been made in quantifying the amount and activity of BAT in humans. Many studies have concluded that the amount of active BAT appears insufficient to induce meaningful increases in energy expenditure. Thus, the majority of studies report that BAT activation does not influence body weight and metabolic control in humans. Strategies to increase BAT mass and/or to potentiate BAT activity seem necessary.
- High-resolution contact networks of free-ranging domestic dogs Canis familiaris and implications for transmission of infection. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jul 15; 13(7):e0007565
- Contact patterns strongly influence the dynamics of disease transmission in both human and non-human animal populations. Domestic dogs Canis familiaris are a social species and are a reservoir for se…
Contact patterns strongly influence the dynamics of disease transmission in both human and non-human animal populations. Domestic dogs Canis familiaris are a social species and are a reservoir for several zoonotic infections, yet few studies have empirically determined contact patterns within dog populations. Using high-resolution proximity logging technology, we characterised the contact networks of free-ranging domestic dogs from two settlements (n = 108 dogs, covering >80% of the population in each settlement) in rural Chad. We used these data to simulate the transmission of an infection comparable to rabies and investigated the effects of including observed contact heterogeneities on epidemic outcomes. We found that dog contact networks displayed considerable heterogeneity, particularly in the duration of contacts and that the network had communities that were highly correlated with household membership. Simulations using observed contact networks had smaller epidemic sizes than those that assumed random mixing, demonstrating the unsuitability of homogenous mixing models in predicting epidemic outcomes. When contact heterogeneities were included in simulations, the network position of the individual initially infected had an important effect on epidemic outcomes. The risk of an epidemic occurring was best predicted by the initially infected individual's ranked degree, while epidemic size was best predicted by the individual's ranked eigenvector centrality. For dogs in one settlement, we found that ranked eigenvector centrality was correlated with range size. Our results demonstrate that observed heterogeneities in contacts are important for the prediction of epidemiological outcomes in free-ranging domestic dogs. We show that individuals presenting a higher risk for disease transmission can be identified by their network position and provide evidence that observable traits hold potential for informing targeted disease management strategies.
- National Partnership for Maternal Safety: Consensus Bundle on Obstetric Care for Women With Opioid Use Disorder. [Journal Article]
- OGObstet Gynecol 2019 Jul 09
- The opioid epidemic is a public health crisis, and pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality due to substance use highlights the need to prioritize substance use as a major patient safety issue. T…
The opioid epidemic is a public health crisis, and pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality due to substance use highlights the need to prioritize substance use as a major patient safety issue. To assist health care providers with this process and mitigate the effect of substance use on maternal and fetal safety, the National Partnership for Maternal Safety within the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care has created a patient safety bundle to reduce adverse maternal and neonatal health outcomes associated with substance use. The Consensus Bundle on Obstetric Care for Women with Opioid Use Disorder provides a series of evidence-based recommendations to standardize and improve the quality of health care services for pregnant and postpartum women with opioid use disorder, which should be implemented in every maternity care setting. A series of implementation resources have been created to help providers, hospitals, and health systems translate guidelines into clinical practice, and multiple state-level Perinatal Quality Collaboratives are developing quality improvement initiatives to facilitate the bundle-adoption process. Structure, process, and outcome metrics have also been developed to monitor the adoption of evidence-based practices and ensure consistency in clinical care.
- Pharmacologic Management of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Using a Protocol. [Journal Article]
- ANAdv Neonatal Care 2019 Jul 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on current literature, following a standardized, stringent weaning protocol is more beneficial than the pharmacologic agent used. Studies reveal shorter weaning times and hospital stays in almost every group that followed rigid guidelines.As the occurrence of NAS continues to rise, its management must vigorously meet the challenges of the diagnosis. Institutions should reevaluate their current protocols based on reassuring data showing that stringent guidelines using morphine or methadone can improve clinical outcomes, reduce hospital length, and lower healthcare costs.
- Updated assembly resource of Phytophthora ramorum Pr102 isolate incorporating long reads from PacBio sequencing. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Plant Microbe Interact 2019 Jul 15
- The NA1 clonal lineage of Phytophthora ramorum is responsible for Sudden Oak Death, an epidemic that has devastated California's coastal forest ecosystems. An NA1 isolate Pr102 derived from coast liv…
The NA1 clonal lineage of Phytophthora ramorum is responsible for Sudden Oak Death, an epidemic that has devastated California's coastal forest ecosystems. An NA1 isolate Pr102 derived from coast live oak in California was previously sequenced and reported with 65 Mb assembly containing 12 Mb gaps in 2576 scaffolds. Here we report an improved 70 Mb genome in 1512 scaffolds with 6752 bp gaps after incorporating PacBio P5-C3 longreads. This assembly contains 19494 gene models (average gene length 2515 bp) compared to 16134 genes (average gene length of 1673 bp) in the previous version. We predicted 29 new RXLRs and 76 new paralogs of a total 392 RXLRs from this assembly. We predicted 35 CRNs compared to 19 in earlier version with six paralogs. Our lncRNAs prediction identified 255 candidates. This new resource will be invaluable for future evolution studies on the invasive plant pathogen.
- Simplifying switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy in sub Saharan Africa: predicted effect of using a single viral load to define efavirenz-based first-line failure. [Journal Article]
- AIDSAIDS 2019 Aug 01; 33(10):1635-1644
- CONCLUSIONS: As a step towards reducing unnecessary mortality associated with delayed second-line ART switch, defining failure of first-line efavirenz-based regimens as a single viral load more than 1000 copies/ml should be considered.
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- Effectiveness of deep general anesthesia compared to the standard depth of general anesthesia on acute postoperative pain and patient safety: a systematic review protocol. [Journal Article]
- JDJBI Database System Rev Implement Rep 2019 Jul 11
- The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence related to the effectiveness of deep general anesthesia on acute postoperative pain and patient safety in adult pa…
The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence related to the effectiveness of deep general anesthesia on acute postoperative pain and patient safety in adult patients.