- A step forward in the quest for a mobile EEG-designed epoch for psychophysiological studies. [Journal Article]
- BTBiomed Tech (Berl) 2019 Jul 19
- The aim of this study was to compare a reconfigurable mobile electroencephalography (EEG) system (M-EMOTIV) based on the Emotiv Epoc® (which has the ability to record up to 14 electrode sites in the …
The aim of this study was to compare a reconfigurable mobile electroencephalography (EEG) system (M-EMOTIV) based on the Emotiv Epoc® (which has the ability to record up to 14 electrode sites in the 10/20 International System) and a commercial, clinical-grade EEG system (Neuronic MEDICID-05®), and then validate the rationale and accuracy of recordings obtained with the prototype proposed. In this approach, an Emotiv Epoc® was modified to enable it to record in the parieto-central area. All subjects (15 healthy individuals) performed a visual oddball task while connected to both devices to obtain electrophysiological data and behavioral responses for comparative analysis. A Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a good between-devices correlation with respect to electrophysiological measures. The present study not only corroborates previous reports on the ability of the Emotiv Epoc® to suitably record EEG data but presents an alternative device that allows the study of a wide range of psychophysiological experiments with simultaneous behavioral and mobile EEG recordings.
- EEG-based outcome prediction after cardiac arrest with convolutional neural networks: Performance and visualization of discriminative features. [Journal Article]
- HBHum Brain Mapp 2019 Jul 19
- Prognostication for comatose patients after cardiac arrest is a difficult but essential task. Currently, visual interpretation of electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the main modality used in outcom…
Prognostication for comatose patients after cardiac arrest is a difficult but essential task. Currently, visual interpretation of electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the main modality used in outcome prediction. There is a growing interest in computer-assisted EEG interpretation, either to overcome the possible subjectivity of visual interpretation, or to identify complex features of the EEG signal. We used a one-dimensional convolutional neural network (CNN) to predict functional outcome based on 19-channel-EEG recorded from 267 adult comatose patients during targeted temperature management after CA. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) on the test set was 0.885. Interestingly, model architecture and fine-tuning only played a marginal role in classification performance. We then used gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM) as visualization technique to identify which EEG features were used by the network to classify an EEG epoch as favorable or unfavorable outcome, and also to understand failures of the network. Grad-CAM showed that the network relied on similar features than classical visual analysis for predicting unfavorable outcome (suppressed background, epileptiform transients). This study confirms that CNNs are promising models for EEG-based prognostication in comatose patients, and that Grad-CAM can provide explanation for the models' decision-making, which is of utmost importance for future use of deep learning models in a clinical setting.
- Quantum-state-selective electron recombination studies suggest enhanced abundance of primordial HeH. [Journal Article]
- SciScience 2019 Jul 18
- The epoch of first star formation in the early universe was dominated by simple atomic and molecular species consisting mainly of two elements: hydrogen and helium. Gaining insight into this constitu…
The epoch of first star formation in the early universe was dominated by simple atomic and molecular species consisting mainly of two elements: hydrogen and helium. Gaining insight into this constitutive era requires thorough understanding of molecular reactivity under primordial conditions. We used a cryogenic ion storage ring combined with a merged electron beam to measure state-specific rate coefficients of dissociative recombination, a process by which electrons destroy molecular ions. We found a dramatic decrease of the electron recombination rates for the lowest rotational states of HeH+, compared to previous measurements at room temperature. The reduced destruction of cold HeH+ translates into an enhanced abundance of this primordial molecule at redshifts of first star and galaxy formation.
- Reward anticipation changes corticospinal excitability during task preparation depending on response requirements and time pressure. [Journal Article]
- CCortex 2019 Jun 18; 120:159-168
- The preparation of an action is accompanied by transient corticospinal (CS) excitability changes. Motivation can modulate these changes. Specifically, when a cue indicates that a reward can be obtain…
The preparation of an action is accompanied by transient corticospinal (CS) excitability changes. Motivation can modulate these changes. Specifically, when a cue indicates that a reward can be obtained, CS excitability initially increases, followed by a pronounced decrease. This dynamic could reflect processes related to reward expectancy, processes related to action preparation, or a combination of both. Here we set up two experiments to dissociate these accounts. A rewarded choice reaction time task was used in which individuals were cued at the beginning of each trial whether or not a response would be required at target onset and whether or not a reward could be obtained. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (spTMS) over the left primary motor cortex (M1) early (shortly after cue onset) or late (shortly before target onset) preceding target onset to examine CS excitability during motivated action preparation. Electromyography (EMG) was obtained from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. In the first experiment, we used a lenient response deadline, whereas a strict response time-out procedure was employed in the second experiment. Reward modulated CS excitability differentially only in the second experiment: CS excitability was highest during reward anticipation for the early stimulation epoch and was reduced for the late stimulation epoch when individuals were required to prepare a response, while CS excitability remained unchanged during non-reward anticipation. Our findings suggest that the reward effect on CS excitability is dependent on the actual implementation of effort to attain reward (i.e., the preparation of an actual action), as well as on temporal requirements (i.e., time pressure) invoked by the task.
- Human augmentation of ecosystems: objectives for food production and science by 2045. [Review]
- NSNPJ Sci Food 2018; 2:16
- Current food production systems require fundamental reformation in the face of population growth, climate change, and degradation of health and the environment. Over the course of human history, ever…
Current food production systems require fundamental reformation in the face of population growth, climate change, and degradation of health and the environment. Over the course of human history, every agricultural system that has emerged has featured some sort of trade-off between productivity and environmental load. These trade-offs are causing the planet to exceed the boundaries of its biogeochemical cycles and are triggering an unprecedented extinction rate of wild species, thus pushing global ecosystems to the brink of collapse. In this era, characterized as it is by human activity that can profoundly influence climate and the environment (i.e., the Anthropocene epoch), tipping points can be either negative or positive. While a negative tipping point can produce sudden, rapid, and irreversible deterioration of social and environmental systems, a positive tipping point can produce improved health and sustainable social-ecological systems. The key to promoting positive global tipping points is a thorough understanding of human activity and life history on an evolutionary scale, along with the comprehensive integration of science and technology to produce intelligent policies and practices of food production, particularly in the developing world (See Supplementary Material 1 summary for policymakers). Simply increasing the efficiency and scale of monoculture-intensive agriculture is unlikely to drive social-ecological change in a positive and sustainable direction. A new solution to the health-diet-environment trilemma must be developed to achieve a net positive impact on biodiversity through the anthropogenic augmentation of ecosystems based on the ecological foundation of genetic, metabolic, and ecosystem health. This paper discusses the fundamental requirements for sustainable food production on the molecular, physiological, and ecological scales, including evolutionary and geological insights, in an attempt to identify the global conditions needed for the primary food production to ensure we survive this century. Particular emphasis is placed on how to make extensive use of this planet's genetic resources without irretrievably losing them.
- Actigraphy versus Polysomnography to Measure Sleep in Youth Treated for Craniopharyngioma. [Journal Article]
- BSBehav Sleep Med 2019 Jul 14; :1-9
- CONCLUSIONS: Actigraphy was highly sensitive and accurate and was a reliable measure of SE and SL. Although there were differences in TST and WASO measurements by actigraphy and PSG, our findings provide the basis for future studies on the use of actigraphy to monitor treatment response to wakefulness-promoting medications in youth with craniopharyngioma who demonstrate excessive daytime sleepiness.
- A Mixed Methods Study to Explore the Effects of Program Design Elements and Participant Characteristics on Parents' Engagement With an mHealth Program to Promote Healthy Infant Feeding: The Growing Healthy Program. [Journal Article]
- FEFront Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019; 10:397
- Purpose: Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have great potential to promote health. To increase consumer engagement in mHealth interventions it is necessary to address factors that influence the …
Purpose: Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have great potential to promote health. To increase consumer engagement in mHealth interventions it is necessary to address factors that influence the target demographic. The Growing healthy (GH) program is the first obesity prevention program delivered via a smartphone app and website offering evidence-based information on infant feeding from birth until 9 months of age. This sub-study aimed to explore how the design features, quality of the app and participant characteristics influenced parents' engagement with the GH app. Methods: A sequential mixed methods design was used. The GH app participants (225/301) were considered for this sub-study. Participant app engagement was measured through a purpose-built Engagement Index (EI) using app metrics. Participants were categorized as low, moderately or highly engaged based on their EI score upon completing the 9 months program and were then invited to participate in semi-structured telephone interviews. Participants who used the app program, given an EI score and expressed interest to participate in these interviews were eligible. The interviews explored factors that influenced app engagement including delivery features and quality. Thematic analysis networks was used for analysis. Results: 108/225 expressed interest and 18 interviews were conducted from low (n = 3), moderately (n = 7), or highly (n = 8) engaged participants based on purposeful sampling. Participants defined as highly engaged were likely to be a first-time parent, felt the app content to be trustworthy and the app design facilitated easy navigation and regularly opened the push notifications. Participants defined as having low or moderate engagement were likely to have experience from previous children, felt they had sufficient knowledge on infant feeding and the app did not provide further information, or experienced technological issues including app dysfunction due to system upgrades. Conclusions/Implications: This study demonstrated a novel approach to comprehensively analyse engagement in an mHealth intervention through quantitative (Engagement Index) and qualitative (interviews) methods. It provides an insight on maximizing data collected from these programs for measuring effectiveness and to understand users of various engagement levels interaction with program features. Measuring this can determine efficacy and refine programs to meet user requirements.
- Development of a human-computer collaborative sleep scoring system for polysomnography recordings. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0218948
- The overnight polysomnographic (PSG) recordings of patients were scored by an expert to diagnose sleep disorders. Visual sleep scoring is a time-consuming and subjective process. Automatic sleep stag…
The overnight polysomnographic (PSG) recordings of patients were scored by an expert to diagnose sleep disorders. Visual sleep scoring is a time-consuming and subjective process. Automatic sleep staging methods can help; however, the mechanism and reliability of these methods are not fully understood. Therefore, experts often need to rescore the recordings to obtain reliable results. Here, we propose a human-computer collaborative sleep scoring system. It is a rule-based automatic sleep scoring method that follows the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guidelines to perform an initial scoring. Then, the reliability level of each epoch is analyzed based on physiological patterns during sleep and the characteristics of various stage changes. Finally, experts would only need to rescore epochs with a low-reliability level. The experimental results show that the average agreement rate between our system and fully manual scorings can reach 90.42% with a kappa coefficient of 0.85. Over 50% of the manual scoring time can be reduced. Due to the demonstrated robustness and applicability, the proposed approach can be integrated with various PSG systems or automatic sleep scoring methods for sleep monitoring in clinical or homecare applications in the future.
- Hitting back at lymphoma: How do modern diagnostics identify high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subsets and alter treatment? [Review]
- CCancer 2019 Jul 09
- Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous disease. Diagnostic tools in the clinic can now identify distinct subsets characterized by unique molecular featur…
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous disease. Diagnostic tools in the clinic can now identify distinct subsets characterized by unique molecular features, which are increasingly transforming how these patients are managed. Activated B-cell-like DLBCL is characterized by NF-κB activation and chronic B-cell receptor signaling and may be targeted with lenalidomide or ibrutinib in the relapsed setting. Germinal center-like DLBCL is enriched for activating EZH2 mutations, and encouraging activity has been observed for the EZH2 inhibitor tazemetostat, which now has a fast-track US Food and Drug Administration designation. Double-hit lymphoma is a high-grade B-cell lymphoma characterized by translocations of MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 and carries a poor prognosis. Intensive chemoimmunotherapy strategies appear to be superior to standard R-CHOP (rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) as initial therapy, and anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells are inducing remission in patients with relapsed/refractory disease who previously had few available options. Primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma is a molecularly distinct large-cell lymphoma with clinical and molecular features that overlap with those of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. R-CHOP has been associated with an unacceptably high rate of primary treatment failure in this young population, whereas dose-adjusted EPOCH-R (etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin plus rituximab) produces durable remissions without the need for radiotherapy in most patients. For relapsed/refractory disease, immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-1 have shown promising activity in chemotherapy-refractory disease, as have anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells. Additional therapeutic targets, including JAK2, continue to be evaluated. The identification of discrete biological subsets is steadily moving us away from a "one-size-fits-all" approach in DLBCL.
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- Incidence and risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in Denmark from 1994-2014. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0219268
- CONCLUSIONS: While the overall incidence of NEC increased over the study period, the overall risk of NEC did not increase when considering the increased survival. Nevertheless, there seemed to be an increased risk of NEC in the most premature infants which was masked by a decreased risk in the term infants. This study suggests that research to prevent NEC in the most preterm infants is more important now than ever.