- Impact of legislation to reduce the drink-drive limit on road traffic accidents and alcohol consumption in Scotland: a natural experiment study [BOOK]
- BOOKNIHR Journals Library: Southampton (UK)
- CONCLUSIONS: The change to drink-drive legislation in Scotland in December 2014 did not have the expected effect of reducing RTAs in the country, and nor did it change alcohol drinking levels in Scotland. This main finding for RTAs was unexpected and the research has shown that a lack of enforcement is the most likely reason for legislation failure.
- Short-term traffic speed prediction under different data collection time intervals using a SARIMA-SDGM hybrid prediction model. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(6):e0218626
- Short-term traffic speed prediction is a key component of proactive traffic control in the intelligent transportation systems. The objective of this study is to investigate the short-term traffic spe…
Short-term traffic speed prediction is a key component of proactive traffic control in the intelligent transportation systems. The objective of this study is to investigate the short-term traffic speed prediction under different data collection time intervals. Traffic speed data was collected from an urban freeway in Edmonton, Canada. A seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average plus seasonal discrete grey model structure (SARIMA-SDGM) was proposed to perform the traffic speed prediction. The model performance of SARIMA-SDGM model was compared with that of the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model, seasonal discrete grey model (SDGM), artificial neural network (ANN) model, and support vector regression (SVR) model. The results showed that SARIMA-SDGM model performs best with the lowest mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and the root mean square error (RMSE). The traffic speed prediction accuracy under different time intervals were compared based on the SARIMA-SDGM model. The results showed that the prediction accuracy improves with the increase in time interval. In addition, when the time interval is greater than 10 min, the prediction results yield stable prediction accuracy.
- Physics driven behavioural clustering of free-falling paper shapes. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(6):e0217997
- Many complex physical systems exhibit a rich variety of discrete behavioural modes. Often, the system complexity limits the applicability of standard modelling tools. Hence, understanding the underly…
Many complex physical systems exhibit a rich variety of discrete behavioural modes. Often, the system complexity limits the applicability of standard modelling tools. Hence, understanding the underlying physics of different behaviours and distinguishing between them is challenging. Although traditional machine learning techniques could predict and classify behaviour well, typically they do not provide any meaningful insight into the underlying physics of the system. In this paper we present a novel method for extracting physically meaningful clusters of discrete behaviour from limited experimental observations. This method obtains a set of physically plausible functions that both facilitate behavioural clustering and aid in system understanding. We demonstrate the approach on the V-shaped falling paper system, a new falling paper type system that exhibits four distinct behavioural modes depending on a few morphological parameters. Using just 49 experimental observations, the method discovered a set of candidate functions that distinguish behaviours with an error of 2.04%, while also aiding insight into the physical phenomena driving each behaviour.
- Interactions between motor exploration and reinforcement learning. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurophysiol 2019 Jun 26
- Motor exploration, a trial-and-error process in search for better motor outcomes, is known to serve a critical role in motor learning. This is particularly relevant during reinforcement learning wher…
Motor exploration, a trial-and-error process in search for better motor outcomes, is known to serve a critical role in motor learning. This is particularly relevant during reinforcement learning where actions leading to a successful outcome are reinforced while unsuccessful actions are avoided. Although early on motor exploration is beneficial to find the correct solution, maintaining high levels of exploration later in the learning process might be deleterious. Whether and how the level of exploration changes over the course of reinforcement learning, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we evaluated temporal changes in motor exploration while healthy participants learned a reinforcement-based motor task. We defined exploration as the magnitude of trial-to-trial change in movements as a function of whether the preceding trial resulted in success or failure. Participants were required to find the optimal finger-pointing direction using binary feedback of success or failure. We found that the magnitude of exploration gradually increased over time when learning the task. Conversely, exploration remained low in participants who were unable to correctly adjust their pointing direction. Interestingly, exploration remained elevated when participants underwent a second training session, which was associated with faster relearning. These results indicate that the motor system may flexibly upregulate the extent of exploration during reinforcement learning as if acquiring a specific strategy to facilitate subsequent learning. Also, our findings showed that exploration affects reinforcement learning and vice versa, indicating an interactive relationship between them. Reinforcement-based tasks could be used as primers to increase exploratory behavior leading to more efficient subsequent learning.
- Evaluation of renal function equations to predict amikacin clearance. [Journal Article]
- ERExpert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2019 Jun 26
- CONCLUSIONS: Revised Lund-Malmö (rLM) and CKD-EPI showed superior predictive performance of amikacin drug elimination comparing to all the alternative metrics evaluated.
- Long-Range Hairpin Slippage Reconfiguration Dynamics in Trinucleotide Repeat Sequences. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Phys Chem Lett 2019 Jun 26
- Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) sequences, which are responsible for several neurodegenerative genetic diseases, fold into hairpins that interfere with the protein machinery in replication or repair, thus…
Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) sequences, which are responsible for several neurodegenerative genetic diseases, fold into hairpins that interfere with the protein machinery in replication or repair, thus leading to dynamic mutation abnormal expansions of the genome. Despite their high thermodynamic stability, these hairpins can undergo configurational rearrangements, which may be crucial for continuous dynamic mutation. Here, we used CTG repeats as a model system to study their structural dynamics at the single-molecule level. A unique dynamic two-state configuration interchange was discovered over a wide range of odd-numbered CTG repeat sequences. Employing repeat-number-dependent kinetic analysis, we proposed a bulge translocation model, which is driven by the local instability and can be extended reasonably to longer (pathologically relevant) hairpins, implying the potential key role in error accumulation in repeat expansion.
- Affiliation Added and Error in the Introduction. [Journal Article]
- JSJAMA Surg 2019 Jun 26
- Importance of over-reading ambulatory ECG-based microvolt T-wave alternans to eliminate three main sources of measurement error. [Journal Article]
- ANAnn Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2019 Jun 26; :e12670
- CONCLUSIONS: Relying only on automated MMA-TWA values obtained during ambulatory ECG monitoring can lead to incorrect measurement of TWA. Our findings offer the potential to reduce false-positive TWA results and to achieve more accurate detection of true repolarization alternans.
- Correction for multiple testing in candidate-gene methylation studies. [Journal Article]
- EEpigenomics 2019 Jun 26
- CONCLUSIONS: For genes with substantial correlation across measured CpGs, GEA and ETT can appropriately correct for multiple testing in candidate gene methylation studies.
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- Analysis of the Qatari R336C Cystathionine β-Synthase Protein in Mice. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Inherit Metab Dis 2019 Jun 26
- Classical homocystinuria is a recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene. The highest incidence of CBS deficiency in the world is found in …
Classical homocystinuria is a recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene. The highest incidence of CBS deficiency in the world is found in the country of Qatar due to the combination of high rates of consanguinity and the presence of a founder mutation, c.1006C>T (p.R336C). This mutation does not respond to pyridoxine and is considered severe. Here we describe the creation of a mouse that is null for the mouse Cbs gene and expresses human p.R336C CBS from a zinc-inducible transgene (Tg-R336C Cbs-/-). Zinc treated Tg-R336C Cbs-/- mice have extreme elevation in both serum tHcy and liver tHcy compared to control transgenic mice. Both the steady-state protein levels and CBS enzyme activity levels in liver lysates from Tg-R336C Cbs-/- mice are significantly reduced compared to that found in Tg-hCBS Cbs-/- mice expressing wild-type human CBS. Treatment of Tg-R336C Cbs-/- mice with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib results in stabilization of liver CBS protein and an increase in activity to levels found in corresponding Tg-hCBS Cbs-/- wild type mice. Surprisingly, serum tHcy did not fully correct even though liver enzyme activity was as high as control animals. This discrepancy is explained by in vitro enzymatic studies of mouse liver extracts showing that p.R336C causes reduced binding affinity for the substrate serine by almost seven-fold and significantly increased dependence on pyridoxal phosphate in the reaction buffer. These studies demonstrate that the p.R336C alteration effects both protein stability and substrate/cofactor binding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.