- Emerging Human Parvoviruses: The Rocky Road to Fame. [Journal Article]
- ARAnnu Rev Virol 2019 Jul 05
- Parvoviruses are structurally simple viruses with linear single-stranded DNA genomes and nonenveloped icosahedral capsids. They infect a wide range of animals from insects to humans. Parvovirus B19 i…
Parvoviruses are structurally simple viruses with linear single-stranded DNA genomes and nonenveloped icosahedral capsids. They infect a wide range of animals from insects to humans. Parvovirus B19 is a long-known human pathogen, whereas adeno-associated viruses are nonpathogenic. Since 2005, many parvoviruses have been discovered in human-derived samples: bocaviruses 1-4, parvovirus 4, bufavirus, tusavirus, and cutavirus. Some human parvoviruses have already been shown to cause disease during acute infection, some are associated with chronic diseases, and others still remain to be proven clinically relevant-or harmless commensals, a distinction not as apparent as it might seem. One initially human-labeled parvovirus might not even be a human virus, whereas another was originally overlooked due to inadequate diagnostics. The intention of this review is to follow the rocky road of emerging human parvoviruses from discovery of a DNA sequence to current and future clinical status, highlighting the perils along the way. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology Volume 6 is September 30, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
- Role of Viral Infections in Testicular Cancer Etiology: Evidence From a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. [Systematic Review]
- FEFront Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019; 10:355
- The most represented histotype of testicular cancer is the testicular germ-cell tumor (TGCT), both seminoma and non-seminoma. The pathogenesis of this cancer is poorly known. A possible causal relati…
The most represented histotype of testicular cancer is the testicular germ-cell tumor (TGCT), both seminoma and non-seminoma. The pathogenesis of this cancer is poorly known. A possible causal relationship between viral infections and TGCTs was firstly evoked almost 40 years ago and is still a subject of debate. In the recent past, different authors have argued about a possible role of specific viruses in the development of TGCTs including human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Parvovirus B-19, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this present review was to summarize, for each virus considered, the available evidence on the impact of viral infections on the risk of developing TGCTs. The review was reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We included all observational studies reported in English evaluating the correlations between viral infections (HPV, CMV, EBV, Parvovirus B19, and HIV) and TGCTs. The methodological quality of studies included in the meta-analysis was evaluated using a modified version of the "Newcastle-Ottawa Scale." Meta-analyses were conducted using the "Generic inverse variance" method, where a pooled odds ratio (OR) was determined from the natural logarithm (LN) of the studies' individual OR [LN (OR)] and the 95% CI. A total of 20 studies (on 265,057 patients) were included in the review. Meta-analysis showed an association with TGCTs only for some of the explored viruses. In particular, no association was found for HPV, CMV, and Parvovirus B-19 infection (p = ns). Conversely, EBV and HIV infections were significantly associated with higher risk of developing TGCTs (OR 7.38, 95% CI 1.89-28.75, p = 0.004; OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.51-1.93, p < 0.00001). In conclusion, we found adequate evidence supporting an oncogenic effect of HIV and EBV on the human testis. Conversely, available data on HPV and TGCTs risk are conflicting and further studies are needed to draw firm conclusions. Finally, current evidence does not support an effect of CMV and Parvovirus B-19 on testicular carcinogenesis.
- Human parvovirus B19 infection in patients with or without underlying diseases. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Microbiol Immunol Infect 2019 Jun 19
- CONCLUSIONS: The classical parvovirus B19 manifestations were less frequently observed in patients with a preexisting disease compared with previously healthy patients. Depending on host factors, the symptoms of parvovirus B19 infection can be multifaceted.
- Upregulation of Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Genes by Parvovirus B19 in Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells. [Journal Article]
- BGBiochem Genet 2019 Jun 27
- Chronic inflammation plays a prominent role in cancer initiation and development. On the other hand, the Inflammation can be established by a number of factors such as viral infections. Parvovirus B1…
Chronic inflammation plays a prominent role in cancer initiation and development. On the other hand, the Inflammation can be established by a number of factors such as viral infections. Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a pathogen with widespread infection, which infects bone marrow erythroid progenitor cells. It has been shown that B19V can also enter human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). In this study, we hypothesized that BM-MSCs as the main cellular component of bone marrow niche may be induced to secret pro-inflammatory cytokines after B19V infection. BM-MSCs were cultured up to passage 3. The cells were then subjected to nucleofection to transfer a plasmid containing B19V genome. After 36 h, total RNA was extracted and the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB genes were examined using qRT-PCR. Data analysis showed the significant increase in expression levels of all studied genes in the B19V-transfected cells (P < 0.05). Although further researches are required, our findings for the first time suggest the importance of B19V infection to establish an inflammatory microenvironment in the bone marrow and its involvement in inflammation-related diseases. Finally, based on our results, molecular assay to diagnose B19V infection of BM-MSCs prior to stem cell therapy is strongly recommended.
- Microscopic visualization of virus removal by dedicated filters used in biopharmaceutical processing: Impact of membrane structure and localization of captured virus particles. [Journal Article]
- BPBiotechnol Prog 2019 Jun 22; :e2875
- Virus filtration with nanometer size exclusion membranes ("nanofiltration") is effective for removing infectious agents from biopharmaceuticals. While the virus removal capability of virus removal fi…
Virus filtration with nanometer size exclusion membranes ("nanofiltration") is effective for removing infectious agents from biopharmaceuticals. While the virus removal capability of virus removal filters is typically evaluated based on calculation of logarithmic reduction value (LRV) of virus infectivity, knowledge of the exact mechanism(s) of virus retention remains limited. Here, human parvovirus B19 (B19V), a small virus (18-26 nm), was spiked into therapeutic plasma protein solutions and filtered through Planova™ 15N and 20N filters in scaled-down manufacturing processes. Observation of the gross structure of the Planova hollow fiber membranes by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Planova filter microporous membranes to have a rough inner, a dense middle and a rough outer layer. Of these three layers, the dense middle layer was clearly identified as the most functionally critical for effective capture of B19V. Planova filtration of protein solution containing B19V resulted in a distribution peak in the dense middle layer with an LRV >4, demonstrating effectiveness of the filtration step. This is the first report to simultaneously analyze the gross structure of a virus removal filter and visualize virus entrapment during a filtration process conducted under actual manufacturing conditions. The methodologies developed in this study demonstrate that the virus removal capability of the filtration process can be linked to the gross physical filter structure, contributing to better understanding of virus trapping mechanisms and helping the development of more reliable and robust virus filtration processes in the manufacture of biologicals.
- Current mechanistic insights into the role of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus. [Review]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2019 Jun 18; 117:109122
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and abnormal production of autoantibody, but the mechanisms of the aberrant immune responses are curr…
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and abnormal production of autoantibody, but the mechanisms of the aberrant immune responses are currently unknown. Recently, growing evidence has suggested that infection plays a pivotal role in SLE. Here, we investigate the role of infectious agents (e.g., Epstein-Barr virus, parvovirus B19, human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and endogenous retroviruses) in the pathogenesis of SLE. More importantly, we explore the known mechanisms underlying the involvement of infectious agents in the pathogenesis of SLE, including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, superantigen production, bystander activation, persistent viral infection, altered apoptosis, clearance deficiency, and epigenetic alterations (e.g., DNA methylation and microRNAs). However, some infectious agents (e.g., malaria parasites, hepatitis B virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Helicobacter pylori) may exert protective effects on SLE. Therefore, the relationship between infection and SLE is multifaceted and multidirectional, including causative and/or protective associations, which warrant further investigation in the future.
- Metagenomic next-generation sequencing of samples from pediatric febrile illness in Tororo, Uganda. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(6):e0218318
- Febrile illness is a major burden in African children, and non-malarial causes of fever are uncertain. In this retrospective exploratory study, we used metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) t…
Febrile illness is a major burden in African children, and non-malarial causes of fever are uncertain. In this retrospective exploratory study, we used metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) to evaluate serum, nasopharyngeal, and stool specimens from 94 children (aged 2-54 months) with febrile illness admitted to Tororo District Hospital, Uganda. The most common microbes identified were Plasmodium falciparum (51.1% of samples) and parvovirus B19 (4.4%) from serum; human rhinoviruses A and C (40%), respiratory syncytial virus (10%), and human herpesvirus 5 (10%) from nasopharyngeal swabs; and rotavirus A (50% of those with diarrhea) from stool. We also report the near complete genome of a highly divergent orthobunyavirus, tentatively named Nyangole virus, identified from the serum of a child diagnosed with malaria and pneumonia, a Bwamba orthobunyavirus in the nasopharynx of a child with rash and sepsis, and the genomes of two novel human rhinovirus C species. In this retrospective exploratory study, mNGS identified multiple potential pathogens, including 3 new viral species, associated with fever in Ugandan children.
- Systematic Review of PCR Proof of Parvovirus B19 Genomes in Endomyocardial Biopsies of Patients Presenting with Myocarditis or Dilated Cardiomyopathy. [Review]
- VViruses 2019 Jun 18; 11(6)
- CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review reveals that the mean rate of PCR detected B19V genomes in patients presenting with MC/DCM does not differ significantly from the findings in control myocardial tissues. These data imply pathogenetically insignificant latency of B19V genomes in a proportion of myocardial tissues, both in MC-/DCM-patients and in controls. More information (i.e., replicative status, viral protein expression) is pertinent to achieve a comprehensive workup of myocardial B19V infection.
- First report of collapsing variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis triggered by arbovirus: dengue and Zika virus infection. [Journal Article]
- CKClin Kidney J 2019; 12(3):355-361
- CONCLUSIONS: This study provided strong evidence that DENV can infect renal tissue and possibly functions as a second hit to the development of the collapsing variant of FSGS. Nonetheless, this study also highlights the possible implication of ZIKV infection in FSGS and supports the argument that risk alleles of the APOL1 gene may not be implicated in the susceptibility to FSGS in these patients.
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- The diagnostic conundrum of maternal mirror syndrome progressing to pre-eclampsia - A case report. [Case Reports]
- CRCase Rep Womens Health 2019; 23:e00122
- Mirror syndrome, also called Ballantyne syndrome, is a rare condition in pregnancy, defined by the presence of the clinical triad of fetal hydrops, placentomegaly and maternal oedema. Any aetiology o…
Mirror syndrome, also called Ballantyne syndrome, is a rare condition in pregnancy, defined by the presence of the clinical triad of fetal hydrops, placentomegaly and maternal oedema. Any aetiology of fetal hydrops, including rhesus iso-immunization, congenital infection, twin-to-twin transfusion, structural anomalies and fetal malignancies, can lead to the syndrome. The pathogenesis, although not well established, mimics trophoblastic damage and maternal vascular endothelial dysfunction, as is also seen in pre-eclampsia, and, hence, the two conditions may have a similar clinical presentation. They may even co-exist, where a patient with maternal mirror syndrome develops features of pre-eclampsia. A timely, accurate diagnosis and prompt interventions are needed to prevent fetal mortality and maternal morbidity.