- On the assessment of the stability of vitrified cryo-media by differential scanning calorimetry: A new tool for biobanks to derive standard operating procedures for storage, access and transport. [Journal Article]
- CCryobiology 2019 Jun 13
- When a vitrified sample is heated over the glass transition temperature it may start to devitrify endangering the sample. The ability to estimate the stability of the vitrified state can help in the …
When a vitrified sample is heated over the glass transition temperature it may start to devitrify endangering the sample. The ability to estimate the stability of the vitrified state can help in the development of new vitrification media as well as handling procedures. By employing differential scanning calorimetry, we can measure the ice crystallization rate in a vitrified sample and thus study the devitrification kinetics. Using this technique, we have studied samples comprised of PBS with cryoprotective additives (CPA) as dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO), ethylene glycol (EG) and mixtures thereof, regarding the dependence of the devitrification kinetics on the CPA concentration. We found that already small concentration changes lead to significant changes in the devitrification times. Changing the CPA concentration with 4 wt% changed the devitrification time with a factor of 342 and 271 for Me2SO and EG, respectively. Concentration changes in EG/Me2SO mixtures was found to have a smaller impact on the devitrification kinetics compared to the pure CPA samples. Our data suggest that these significant increases in the devitrification times are primarily due to a relation between nucleation rates and the CPA concentration. Finally, we investigated an established vitrification medium used to preserve human embryonic stem cells. This medium was found to have the poorest glass stability in this study and reflects the tradeoff between stability and biocompatibility. The present work finally provides a tool to evaluate handling and storage procedures when employing vitrification as a cryopreservation method and underlines the importance of these.
- Molecular inner-shell photoabsorption/photoionization cross sections at core-valence-separated coupled cluster level: Theory and examples. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chem Phys 2019 Jun 14; 150(22):224104
- Oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon K-shell photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections have been calculated within core-valence-separated coupled cluster (CC) linear response theory for a number of …
Oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon K-shell photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections have been calculated within core-valence-separated coupled cluster (CC) linear response theory for a number of molecular systems, namely, water, ammonia, ethylene, carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, furan, and pyrrole. The cross sections below and above the K-edge core ionization thresholds were obtained, on the same footing, from L2 basis set calculations of the discrete electronic pseudospectrum yielded by an asymmetric-Lanczos-based formulation of CC linear response theory at the CC singles and doubles (CCSD) and CC singles and approximate doubles (CC2) levels. An analytic continuation procedure for both discrete and continuum cross sections as well as a Stieltjes imaging procedure for the photoionization cross section were applied and the results critically compared.
- Multifunctional PEG-b-polypeptide-decorated gold nanorod for targeted combined chemo-photothermal therapy of breast cancer. [Journal Article]
- CSColloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2019 May 12; 181:602-611
- The combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy is acknowledged as one of the most promising approaches in cancer treatment. Targeted delivery and controlled drug release are two important f…
The combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy is acknowledged as one of the most promising approaches in cancer treatment. Targeted delivery and controlled drug release are two important factors for combined chemo-photothermal therapy. In this study, a multifunctional nanoplatform based on gold nanorod (GNR) decorated with folate-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-γ-glutamylhydrazine) (FEGGH) containing disulfide linker and dihydroxyphenyl groups was developed for targeted combined chemo-photothermal therapy of breast cancer. FEGGH was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of γ-benzyl-l-glutamate-N-carboxyanhydride using folate/cystamine-heterobifunctionalized poly(ethylene glycol) as an initiator, following by hydrazinolysis and carbodiimide reactions. FEGGH was decorated onto GNR through Au-catechol bonds. Chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded onto the nanoplatform through pH-sensitive hydrazone linkage, obtaining final product FEGGHDOX-GNR. The DOX-loaded nanoplatform displayed excellent photostability and reduction/pH dual-responsive drug release behavior. Cytological studies demonstrated the effective internalization of FEGGHDOX-GNR into MCF-7 cells via folate-mediated endocytosis and additive therapeutic effect of combined photothermal-chemotherapy. These results indicate that our nanoplatform may be a promising strategy for targeted combined chemo-photothermal therapy of breast cancer.
- Chemical Modification of 1-Aminocyclopropane Carboxylic Acid (ACC) Oxidase: Cysteine Mutational Analysis, Characterization, and Bioconjugation with a Nitroxide Spin Label. [Journal Article]
- MBMol Biotechnol 2019 Jun 14
- 1-Aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid oxidase (ACCO) catalyzes the last step of ethylene biosynthesis in plants. Although some sets of structures have been described, there are remaining questions on t…
1-Aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid oxidase (ACCO) catalyzes the last step of ethylene biosynthesis in plants. Although some sets of structures have been described, there are remaining questions on the active conformation of ACCO and in particular, on the conformation and potential flexibility of the C-terminal part of the enzyme. Several techniques based on the introduction of a probe through chemical modification of amino acid residues have been developed for determining the conformation and dynamics of proteins. Cysteine residues are recognized as convenient targets for selective chemical modification of proteins, thanks to their relatively low abundance in protein sequences and to their well-mastered chemical reactivity. ACCOs have generally 3 or 4 cysteine residues in their sequences. By a combination of approaches including directed mutagenesis, activity screening on cell extracts, biophysical and biochemical characterization of purified enzymes, we evaluated the effect of native cysteine replacement and that of insertion of cysteines on the C-terminal part in tomato ACCO. Moreover, we have chosen to use paramagnetic labels targeting cysteine residues to monitor potential conformational changes by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Given the level of conservation of the cysteines in ACCO from different plants, this work provides an essential basis for the use of cysteine as probe-anchoring residues.
- Real-Time and Online Monitoring of Glucose Contents by Using Molecular Imprinted Polymer-Based IDEs Sensor. [Journal Article]
- ABAppl Biochem Biotechnol 2019 Jun 14
- A highly sensitive, selective, reversible, and reusable glucose sensor is developed by using molecularly imprinted polymer-based artificial receptors onto interdigital transducer. Sensor receptors we…
A highly sensitive, selective, reversible, and reusable glucose sensor is developed by using molecularly imprinted polymer-based artificial receptors onto interdigital transducer. Sensor receptors were synthesized through bulk imprinting technology by using styrene as monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker, and AIBN as free radical initiator. Topography of the synthesized receptors was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fabricated sensor showed concentration-dependent linear and reversible response with lower limit of detection of 30 ppb and upper limit of detection ~ 500 ppm. Furthermore, newly fabricated sensor is highly selective towards its analyte of interest in the presence of other competing agents, and the regeneration of sensor response has been assessed with the percentage error of less than 2% under the period of 1 year at room temperature and pressure conditions. The reported sensor may have potential technological applications in the field of medical diagnostics, food, and pharmaceutical industry.
- Phytoassessment of Vetiver grass enhanced with EDTA soil amendment grown in single and mixed heavy metal-contaminted soil. [Journal Article]
- EMEnviron Monit Assess 2019 Jun 14; 191(7):434
- Over the years, ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetate (EDTA) has been widely used for many purposes. However, there are inadequate phytoassessment studies conducted using EDTA in Vetiver grass. Hence, this …
Over the years, ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetate (EDTA) has been widely used for many purposes. However, there are inadequate phytoassessment studies conducted using EDTA in Vetiver grass. Hence, this study evaluates the phytoassessment (growth performance, accumulation trends, and proficiency of metal uptake) of Vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash in both single and mixed heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn)-disodium EDTA-enhanced contaminated soil. The plant growth, metal accumulation, and overall efficiency of metal uptake by different plant parts (lower root, upper root, lower tiller, and upper tiller) were thoroughly examined. The relative growth performance, metal tolerance, and phytoassessment of heavy metal in roots and tillers of Vetiver grass were examined. Metals in plants were measured using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS) after acid digestion. The root-tiller (R/T) ratio, biological concentration factor (BCF), biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and metal uptake efficacy were used to estimate the potential of metal accumulation and translocation in Vetiver grass. All accumulation of heavy metals were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in both lower and upper roots and tillers of Vetiver grass for Cd + Pb + Cu + Zn + EDTA treatments as compared with the control. The single Zn + EDTA treatment accumulated the highest overall total amount of Zn (8068 ± 407 mg/kg) while the highest accumulation for Cu (1977 ± 293 mg/kg) and Pb (1096 ± 75 mg/kg) were recorded in the mixed Cd + Pb + Cu + Zn + EDTA treatment, respectively. Generally, the overall heavy metal accumulation trends of Vetiver grass were in the order of Zn >>> Cu > Pb >> Cd for all treatments. Furthermore, both upper roots and tillers of Vetiver grass recorded high tendency of accumulation for appreciably greater amounts of all heavy metals, regardless of single and/or mixed metal treatments. Thus, Vetiver grass can be recommended as a potential phytoextractor for all types of heavy metals, whereby its tillers will act as the sink for heavy metal accumulation in the presence of EDTA for all treatments.
- PEGylated cyanine dye nanoparticles as photothermal agents for mosquito and cancer cell control. [Journal Article]
- BMBioorg Med Chem Lett 2019 May 30
- Conversion of light energy to heat via photothermal conversion agents (PTCAs) is of great interest and has potential applications. Here, we described a heptamethine cyanine (Cy7) dye nanoparticles (C…
Conversion of light energy to heat via photothermal conversion agents (PTCAs) is of great interest and has potential applications. Here, we described a heptamethine cyanine (Cy7) dye nanoparticles (Cy7-PEG NPs) prepared from heptamethine cyanine and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG400) via a simple solvothermal process as novel PTCA. Cy7-PEG NPs have absorption maximum at about 808 nm and good photothermal conversion ability. Upon irradiation, Cy7-PEG NPs can effectively kill living mosquito larva (Aedes albopictus) through heat generation. Furthermore, Cy7-PEG NPs have excellent phototoxic activity to Sf9, HeLa and MCF-7 cells. Our results indicated that Cy7-PEG NPs can be used as controlling agent for mosquito larvae and cancer cells.
- Oil Gel-Based Phantom for Evaluating Quantitative Accuracy of Speed of Sound Measured in Ultrasound Computed Tomography. [Journal Article]
- UMUltrasound Med Biol 2019 Jun 11
- To evaluate the quantitative accuracy of the measured speed of sound in ultrasound computed tomography for breast imaging, it is necessary to use a phantom with inclusions whose speed of sound is kno…
To evaluate the quantitative accuracy of the measured speed of sound in ultrasound computed tomography for breast imaging, it is necessary to use a phantom with inclusions whose speed of sound is known. Accordingly, a phantom with known-speed-of-sound inclusions (e.g., containing water and saltwater solution) under the control of temperature was developed. In addition, an oil gel was used as the phantom material for mimicking wave refraction from fatty breast tissue to dense breast tissue. The oil gel was generated by adding SEBS (styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene, 10% w/w) to paraffin oil. The oil gel-based phantom has a cylindrical shape and contains rod-shaped inclusions that can be filled with water or saltwater solution (3.5% w/w sodium chloride in water). When temperature increases, the speed of sound in the water increases, while that in the oil gel decreases; in particular, the speed of sound in the oil gel was higher than that in the water at temperatures <20.6°C, while the speed of sound in the oil gel was lower than that in the water at temperatures >20.6°C. It has been reported that the speed of sound in dense breast tissue is higher than that in water, while that in fatty breast tissue is lower than that in water. Ultrasound is refracted owing to the difference between the speed of sound in the breast tissue and that in the background water. By controlling the temperatures of the oil gel and water, the oil gel-based phantom simulates the refraction of an ultrasound wave from fatty breast tissue to dense breast tissue. For 43 d, the variation ranges of the speed of sound and attenuation in the oil gel in the reconstructed images were 0.7 m/s and 0.03 dB/MHz/cm, respectively. The concentration of the saltwater solution in the polyacrylamide gel-based phantom decreased from 1% (w/w) to 0.48% (w/w) after 24 h, while that in the oil-gel-based phantom was constant. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging of the oil gel-based phantom revealed that NiSO4 solution was stably contained in the phantom for 42 d. It is therefore concluded that the liquid cannot penetrate the oil gel. This oil gel-based phantom with such high temporal stability is suitable for multicenter distribution and may be used for standardization of data acquisition and image reconstruction across centers.
- Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides and risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline in an older population: a prospective analysis from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. [Journal Article]
- EHEnviron Health 2019 Jun 14; 18(1):57
- CONCLUSIONS: PCB and OC pesticide plasma concentrations were not related to the incident diagnosis of neither dementia, nor AD. Using the 3MS scores as the outcome, higher concentrations of four PCB congeners and two OC pesticides were associated with lower cognitive performances in subjects. The association of p,p'-DDE with cognitive decline in time in incident cases of dementia merits further investigation.
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- Self-assembled nanofibrils from RGD-functionalized cellulose nanocrystals to improve the performance of PEI/DNA polyplexes. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Jun 03; 553:71-82
- Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are promising bio-derived nanomaterials for the bottom-up fabrication of biomedical constructs. In this report, dicarboxylic acid-functionalized CNC (DCC) was functional…
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are promising bio-derived nanomaterials for the bottom-up fabrication of biomedical constructs. In this report, dicarboxylic acid-functionalized CNC (DCC) was functionalized with arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide as a motif for improved cell adhesion and targeting. The product (DCC-RGD) self-assembled into a more elongated nanofibrillar structure through lateral and end-to-end association. When added into poly(ethylene imine) (PEI)/pDNA polyplex solution, nanocelluloses interacted electrostatically with positively charged polyplexes without affecting their integrity. The constructs were tested for their potentials as non-viral transfection reagents. Cell viability and transfection efficiency of fibroblast NIH3T3 cells were monitored as a function of CNC concentration where, in general, viability increased as the CNC concentration increased, and transfection efficiency could be optimized. Using wild-type MDCK and αV-knockout MDCK cells, the construct was able to provide targeted uptake of polyplexes. The findings have potential applications, for example, cell-selective in vitro or ex vivo transfection of autologous mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy, or bottom-up design of future innovative biomaterials.