- Vitamin D Replacement Mitigates Menopause-Associated Dyslipidaemia and Atherogenic Indices in Ovariectomized Rats; A Biochemical Study. [Journal Article]
- ECExp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2019 Jun 24
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study sheds light on alarming levels of VD deficiency among ovariectomized rats. VD repletion improved the menopause-associated dyslipidaemia and atherogenic indices through hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects.
- The Impact of Ethinyl Estradiol on Metformin Action on Prolactin Levels in Women with Hyperprolactinemia. [Journal Article]
- ECExp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2019 Jun 24
- CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results suggest that the effect of metformin on overactive lactotropes depends on estrogen levels.
- Feeding Specialization of Flies (Diptera: Richardiidae) in Aroid Infructescences (Araceae) of the Neotropics. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Insect Sci 2019 Jun 24
- Evolution and radiation between insects and flowering plants are both opportunistic and obligatory when the former feeds on the reproductive structures of the latter, whereas direct and indirect effe…
Evolution and radiation between insects and flowering plants are both opportunistic and obligatory when the former feeds on the reproductive structures of the latter, whereas direct and indirect effects can influence the fitness of individuals, populations, and plant communities. The Araceae family constitutes an important element of the tropical rainforest of the Neotropics, and its morphology and floral biology provide a remarkable system for studying trophic interactions with insects, including the Richardiidae flies (Diptera). We studied the trophic interactions of the aroid-fly system, assessing infestation rates under natural conditions over an annual cycle. In the Neotropical region, we discovered for the first time that seven aroid species became infested by four richardiid species: Beebeomyia tuxtlaensis Hernández-Ortiz and Aguirre with Dieffenbachia oerstedii Schott and D. wendlandii Schott; B. palposa (Cresson) with Xanthosoma robustum Schott; Beebeomyia sp.3. in association with Philodendron radiatum Schott, P. tripartitum (Jacq.) Schott, and P. sagittifolium Liebm.; while Sepsisoma sp. only infested Rhodospatha wendlandii Schott. Infestation rates differed significantly among hosts, but comparisons with morphological traits did not provide evidence of a causal factor of the infestation. In contrast, larval density and time of development both exhibited significant differences between hosts. The findings suggest the high specialization of the flies, and that intrinsic factors of the plants, such as the presence of secondary metabolites and their maturation periods, may influence their infestation rates.
- Alcohol use disorder and sleep disturbances: a feed-forward allostatic framework. [Review]
- NNeuropsychopharmacology 2019 Jun 24
- The development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) involves binge drinking to high levels of intoxication that leads to compulsive intake, the loss of control in limiting intake, and a negative emotional …
The development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) involves binge drinking to high levels of intoxication that leads to compulsive intake, the loss of control in limiting intake, and a negative emotional state when alcohol is removed. This cascade of events occurs over an extended period within a three-stage cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. These three stages map onto the dysregulation of functional domains of incentive salience/habits, negative emotional states, and executive function, mediated by the basal ganglia, extended amygdala, and frontal cortex, respectively. Sleep disturbances, alterations of sleep architecture, and the development of insomnia are ubiquitous in AUD and also map onto the three stages of the addiction cycle. During the binge/intoxication stage, alcohol intoxication leads to a faster sleep onset, but sleep quality is poor relative to nights when no alcohol is consumed. The reduction of sleep onset latency and increase in wakefulness later in the night may be related to the acute effects of alcohol on GABAergic systems that are associated with sleep regulation and the effects on brain incentive salience systems, such as dopamine. During the withdrawal/negative affect stage, there is a decrease in slow-wave sleep and some limited recovery in REM sleep when individuals with AUD stop drinking. Limited recovery of sleep disturbances is seen in AUD within the first 30 days of abstinence. The effects of withdrawal on sleep may be related to the loss of alcohol as a positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, a decrease in dopamine function, and the overactivation of stress neuromodulators, including hypocretin/orexin, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing factor, and cytokines. During the preoccupation/anticipation stage, individuals with AUD who are abstinent long-term present persistent sleep disturbances, including a longer latency to fall asleep, more time awake during the night, a decrease in slow-wave sleep, decreases in delta electroencephalogram power and evoked delta activity, and an increase in REM sleep. Glutamatergic system dysregulation that is observed in AUD is a likely substrate for some of these persistent sleep disturbances. Sleep pathology contributes to AUD pathology, and vice versa, possibly as a feed-forward drive to an unrecognized allostatic load that drives the addiction process.
- Ubiquitous Promoters Direct the Expression of Fatty Acid Delta-6 Desaturase from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Jun 24; 28(6):281-292
- In general, promoters have significant influence on recombinant protein production. Herein, we compared the performance of actin (pACT), phosphoglycerate kinase (pPGK), and translational elongation f…
In general, promoters have significant influence on recombinant protein production. Herein, we compared the performance of actin (pACT), phosphoglycerate kinase (pPGK), and translational elongation factor (pTEF) promoters for driving the expression of fatty acid delta-6 (Δ6) desaturase from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus; Oni-fads2) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results showed that by applying real-time RT-PCR, the highest level of Oni-fads2 mRNA was observed in S. cerevisiae carrying the expression vector driven by pTEF promoters. Exogenous substrate C18:2n-6 was used to determine Δ6 activity by quantitatively determining the C18:3n-6 product. The results showed that highest Δ6 desaturation was observed when using pTEF as a promoter. Recombinant S. cerevisiae cells expressing Oni-fads2 driven by pTEF were tested with the substrate C18:3n-3, and Δ6 desaturation efficiently converted C18:3n-3 to C18:4n-3. Furthermore, crude extract of recombinant yeast also exhibited Δ6 activity. Thus, recombinant S. cerevisiae cells expressing Oni-fads2 driven by the pTEF promoter have potential as a yeast factory for the sustainable production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
- Remediation and accumulation characteristics of dissolved pollutants for stormwater in improved bioretention basins. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jun 17; 685:763-771
- Dissolved pollutants in stormwater are more mobile/bioavailable, and are captured via different mechanisms than particles. Column-scale bioretention basins are constructed by filling different media,…
Dissolved pollutants in stormwater are more mobile/bioavailable, and are captured via different mechanisms than particles. Column-scale bioretention basins are constructed by filling different media, which is used to study the remediation and accumulation characteristics of dissolved pollutants by improved bioretention basins (increased infiltration and adsorption capacity of the media). The media factor (ratio of specific surface area to cubic of porosity) is used to characterize the basic properties of different media, while considering the key factors: infiltration capacity, inflow concentration, recurrence interval, discharge ratio, antecedent dry period, and rainfall duration. The results showed that stormwater pollutants load reduction rate decreased with the increase of recurrence interval and discharge ratio, and increased with the increase of inflow concentration. Based on response surface methodology (RSM), a quantitative relationship model between major pollutants and influencing factors were established (R2 > 0.715), which can be used to estimate the design and operation of the media. By detecting changes in media carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents, the results showed that partial pollutants leaching were greater than their accumulation in the initial stage of system operation, and their contents in the media reduced during simulated rainfall. After the pollution contents tend to stabilize, the accumulated pollutants were greater than the leaching, and media pollution contents showed the trend of upper > middle > lower (corresponding to the 10, 35, and 60 cm sections of the media from top to bottom). Six enzymes closely related to the accumulation and migration of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in the media were selected. Pearson correlation analysis found that: the significant correlations between the selected enzyme activity and pollutants were not consistent in bioretention system. For example, catalase was significantly correlated with all the pollutants (P < 0.01), whereas acid phosphatase was not significantly correlated with all the pollutants.
- The application of a high-density street-level air temperature observation network (HiSAN): The relationship between air temperature, urban development, and geographic features. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jun 06; 685:710-722
- The urban heat island effect in cities has become an important problem in relation to not only urban climate but also public health and urban planning. Tainan, which located in Southern Taiwan, is a …
The urban heat island effect in cities has become an important problem in relation to not only urban climate but also public health and urban planning. Tainan, which located in Southern Taiwan, is a compact city with intense development. Therefore, this study investigated the urban thermal condition by employing a high-density street-level air temperature observation network (HiSAN). A total of 100 measurement points were set in various urban development areas. The geographic factors in Tainan can be used for indicating the relationship between thermal conditions and urban built environments to comprehensively compare the approaches, such as conducting traverse measurement and utilizing only a single datum or a small amount of weather station data. Buffer zone analysis was used in this study for zones of different sizes, and it was determined that a 300-m scale is optimal to illustrate the effects of land features on microclimate. The results revealed that the thermal condition in Tainan is influenced by urban development factors, such as the floor area and land cover area, and by geographic factors, such as the distance to the sea. A better cooling effect can be obtained from a vegetation area during the night time and from a water body during the daytime. Moreover, different cooling effects are observed based on the distance to the sea. Through these results, a model for predicting the thermal condition for different periods can be established using a multiple regression model. Urban planners and architects can proffer design and planning suggestions for different areas based on the findings of this study to reduce thermal stress in urban areas.
- A competent synthesis and efficient anti-inflammatory responses of isatinimino acridinedione moiety via suppression of in vivo NF-κB, COX-2 and iNOS signaling. [Journal Article]
- BCBioorg Chem 2019 Jun 11; 90:103047
- A potent Nonsterodial Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID) candidates has been conceived and built by an assembly of a hydrophilic, fluorescent and COX-2 inhibiting units in the same molecule. The isatinim…
A potent Nonsterodial Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID) candidates has been conceived and built by an assembly of a hydrophilic, fluorescent and COX-2 inhibiting units in the same molecule. The isatinimino-acridinedione core (TM-7) was achieved in a simple three step synthetic procedure viz (i) a multicomponent reaction between dimedone, aldehyde and amine to furnish the nitroacridinedione (4), (ii) reduction step and (iii) schiff's-base condensation with isatin. The excellent anti-inflammatory pharmacological efficiency of the drug was established by in vivo biological experiments. Accordingly, it was found that the treatment with the synthesized isatinimino analogues (dosage: 30 mg/kg) inhibited protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) as well as production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels induced by carrageenan. Further, a comparative molecular modeling analysis of TM-7 carried out with the crystal structure of aspirin acetylated human COX-2 suggested effectively binding and efficient accommodation inside the active site's gorge.
- Impaired local dynamic stability during treadmill walking predicts future falls in patients with multiple sclerosis: A prospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- CBClin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2019 May 09; 67:197-201
- CONCLUSIONS: The results may indicate that the assessment of local stability of walking can identify patients who would benefit from gait retraining and fall prevention programs.
New Search Next
- What can half a million change detection trials tell us about visual working memory? [Journal Article]
- CCognition 2019 Jun 21; 191:103984
- Visual working memory (VWM) represents the surrounding world in an active and accessible state, but its capacity is severely limited. To better understand VWM and its limits, we collected data from o…
Visual working memory (VWM) represents the surrounding world in an active and accessible state, but its capacity is severely limited. To better understand VWM and its limits, we collected data from over 3,800 participants in the canonical change detection task. This unique population-level data-set sheds new light on classic debates regarding VWM capacity. First, the result supported a view of VWM as an active process, as manifested by the fact that capacity estimates were not stable across set-sizes, but rather lower for the larger set-size. Another support for this notion came from the tight connection capacity estimates had with a measure of attentional control. Together, the data suggested that individual differences in capacity do not reflect only differences in storage-size, but differences in the efficiency of using this storage. Second, we found a response bias such that subjects are more likely to respond that the probed item changed, and this criterion bias was further shifted as the set-size increased. These findings are naturally explained by a slot-like theory arguing that when load exceeds capacity, certain items remain completely outside of VWM (instead of all items being represented in lower resolution), therefore causing subjects to perceive them as different from VWM contents even when they are unchanged. Additionally, we found that the pattern of d' also confirmed the predictions of a slot-like view of VWM, such that some items are represented with high fixed resolution and others are not represented at all, although this finding is based on two measures with very different underlying assumptions. We also discuss how flexible-resource views can accommodate these results. Moreover, comparing performance between the first and last trials demonstrated no evidence for proactive interference as the driving factor of capacity limitations. We provide further details regarding the distribution of individual capacity, the relations between capacity and demographic variables, and the spatial prioritization of the items.