- Tick-borne pathogens in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from various domestic and wild hosts in Corsica (France), a Mediterranean island environment. [Journal Article]Transbound Emerg Dis 2019TE
- Corsica is a mountainous French island in the north-west of the Mediterranean Sea presenting a large diversity of natural environments where many interactions between humans, domestic animals and wild fauna occur. Despite this favourable context, tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) have not systematically been investigated. In this study, a large number of TBPs were screened in ticks collected over a per…
Corsica is a mountainous French island in the north-west of the Mediterranean Sea presenting a large diversity of natural environments where many interactions between humans, domestic animals and wild fauna occur. Despite this favourable context, tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) have not systematically been investigated. In this study, a large number of TBPs were screened in ticks collected over a period of one year from domestic and wild hosts in Corsica. More than 1,500 ticks belonging to nine species and five genera (Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Ixodes and Haemaphysalis) were analysed individually or pooled (by species, gender, host and locality). A real-time microfluidic PCR was used for high-throughput screening of TBP DNA. This advanced methodology enabled the simultaneous detection of 29 bacterial and 12 parasitic species (including Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Bartonella, Candidatus Neoehrlichia, Coxiella, Francisella, Babesia and Theileria). The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus was investigated individually in tick species known to be vectors or carriers of this virus. In almost half of the tick pools (48%), DNA from at least one pathogen was detected and eleven species of TBPs from six genera were reported. TBPs were found in ticks from all collected hosts and were present in more than 80% of the investigated area. The detection of DNA of certain species confirmed the previous identification of these pathogens in Corsica, such as Rickettsia aeschlimannii (23% of pools), Rickettsia slovaca (5%), Anaplasma marginale (4%) and Theileria equi (0.4%), but most TBP DNA identified had not previously been reported in Corsican ticks. This included Anaplasma phagocytophilum (16%), Rickettsia helvetica (1%), Borrelia afzelii (0.7%), Borrelia miyamotoi (1%), Bartonella henselae (2%), Babesia bigemina (2%) and Babesia ovis (0.5%). The high tick infection rate and the diversity of TBPs reported in this study highlight the probable role of animals as reservoir hosts of zoonotic pathogens and human exposure to TBPs in Corsica.
- Skin infections in Australian Aboriginal children: a narrative review. [Review]Med J Aust 2019MJ
- Impetigo, scabies, cellulitis and abscesses are common in Australian Aboriginal children. These conditions adversely affect wellbeing and are associated with serious long term sequelae, including invasive infection and post-infectious complications, such as acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis and acute rheumatic fever, which occurs at the highest documented rates in the world in remote Ab…
Impetigo, scabies, cellulitis and abscesses are common in Australian Aboriginal children. These conditions adversely affect wellbeing and are associated with serious long term sequelae, including invasive infection and post-infectious complications, such as acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis and acute rheumatic fever, which occurs at the highest documented rates in the world in remote Aboriginal communities. Observational research in remote communities in northern Australia has demonstrated a high concurrent burden of scabies and impetigo and their post-infectious complications. Few data are available for other Australian states, especially for urban Aboriginal children; however, nationwide hospital data indicate that the disparity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in skin infection prevalence also exists in urban settings. The Australian National Healthy Skin Guideline summarises evidence-based treatment of impetigo, scabies and fungal infections in high burden settings such as remote Aboriginal communities. It recommends systemic antibiotics for children with impetigo, and either topical permethrin or oral ivermectin (second line) for the individual and their contacts as equally efficacious treatments for scabies. β-Lactams are the treatment of choice and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin are effective alternatives for treatment of paediatric cellulitis. Abscesses require incision and drainage and a 5-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or clindamycin. Addressing normalisation of skin infections and the social determinants of skin health are key challenges for the clinician. Research is underway on community-wide skin health programs and the role for mass drug administration which will guide future management of these common, treatable diseases.
- Ebola virus disease preparedness and response in Central East Africa. [Journal Article]Med J Aust 2019MJ
- Concealed Penis after Circumcision: Is It Beneficial in Lowering Uropathogenic Colonization in Penile Skin and Preventing Recurrence of Febrile Urinary Tract Infections? [Journal Article]Urol J 2019UJ
- To discuss whether concealed penis after circumcision lowers perimeatal urethral and glanular sulcus uropathogenic bacterial colonization in healthy boys with no urinary tract problems and prevents attacks of febrile urinary tract infections in non-healthy boys with defined urinary tract abnormalities. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was…
To discuss whether concealed penis after circumcision lowers perimeatal urethral and glanular sulcus uropathogenic bacterial colonization in healthy boys with no urinary tract problems and prevents attacks of febrile urinary tract infections in non-healthy boys with defined urinary tract abnormalities. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Ibn-i Sina Hospital and retrospectively collected data of 471 boys were analyzed. All patients were scanned for any urinary tract abnormality and those with any defined abnormalities were classified as non-healthy group. (123 patients) Non-healthy patients were divided into two subgroups as concealed (n:31) and non-concealed (n:92) penis after circumcision. Healthy patients with no urinary problems were divided into three groups as circumcised without concealed penis (n:144), with concealed penis after circumcision (n:104) and uncircumcised control group (n:100). Patients with phimosis or history of recurrent balanoposthitis, patients with serious complications of circumcision or post-circumcision scarring, patients who perform regular cleaning of glans despite being uncircumcised or having concealed penis and unhealthy patients who lack their follow-up were not included in the study. Bacterial cultures were obtained from both periurethral meatal and glanular sulcus areas by adhering strictly to the rules of obtaining bacterial culture to avoid false-positive or negative culture results. Also only uropathogenic bacterias were evaluated, irrelevant results were excluded. Healthy patients were compared with ANOVA analysis whereas non-healthy with student t test separately. P value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Mean age was similar in healthy population. Comparison of three groups showed that there was a significant difference in both cultures.(P = .026 for periurethral meatal region, P = .039 for glanular sulcus region) In post hoc analysis, non-concealed group had a lower rate of culture positivity in both areas compared to other groups. Mean age was also similar in non-healthy population. Mean follow-up period was 18.2 months. Patients with concealed penis after circumcision had a significantly higher number of febrile UTI attacks (20 attacks in 8 patients vs 7 attacks in 5 patients) compared to non-concealed group.(P = .019) All febrile UTI attacks except one in this group occurred below the age of 12 months. A total of 10 patients in both healthy and non-healthy groups had postoperative hemorrhage after circumcision and only 1 patient had a wound infection. Conclusion: Concealed penis after circumcision does not lower perimeatal urethral and glanular sulcus uropathogenic bacterial colonization in healthy patients and not protect unhealthy patients from febrile urinary tract infection attacks. If circumcision is planned, concealed penis should be avoided and also parents should be informed about the possible risks due to concealed penis before the procedure, particularly in patients with urinary tract abnormalities.
- Clinical clues predictive of Stevens-Johnson syndrome as the cause of chronic cicatrising conjunctivitis. [Journal Article]Br J Ophthalmol 2019BJ
- CONCLUSIONS: The combination of clinical clues identified in this study can help clinicians confirm SJS as the aetiology of conjunctival cicatrisation, especially when reliable documentation of the acute episode is not available.
- Differential functional patterns of memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells from volunteers immunized with Ty21a typhoid vaccine observed using a recombinant Escherichia coli system expressing S. Typhi proteins. [Journal Article]Vaccine 2019V
- It is widely accepted that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells play a significant role in protection against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of the typhoid fever. However, the antigen specificity of these T-cells remains largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system to uncover the antigen specif…
It is widely accepted that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells play a significant role in protection against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of the typhoid fever. However, the antigen specificity of these T-cells remains largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system to uncover the antigen specificity of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Here, we expanded these studies to include the evaluation of 12 additional S. Typhi proteins: 4 outer membrane proteins (OmpH, OmpL, OmpR, OmpX), 3 Vi-polysaccharide biosynthesis proteins (TviA, TviB, TviE), 3 cold shock proteins (CspA, CspB, CspC), and 2 conserved hypothetical proteins (Chp 1 and Chp2), all selected based on the bioinformatic analyses of the content of putative T-cell epitopes. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from 15 adult volunteers, obtained before and 42 days after immunization with oral live attenuated Ty21a vaccine, were assessed for their functionality (i.e., production of cytokines and cytotoxic expression markers in response to stimulation with selected antigens) as measured by flow cytometry. Although volunteers differed on their T-cell antigen specificity, we observed T-cell immune responses against all S. Typhi proteins evaluated. These responses included 9 proteins, OmpH, OmpR, TviA, TviE, CspA, CspB, CspC, Chp 1 and Chp 2, which have not been previously reported to elicit T-cell responses. Interestingly, we also observed that, regardless of the protein, the functional patterns of the memory T-cells were different between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In sum, these studies demonstrated the feasibility of using bioinformatic analysis and the E. coli expressing system described here to uncover novel immunogenic T-cell proteins that could serve as potential targets for the production of protein-based vaccines.
- Cranial melioidosis presenting as osteomyelitis and/or extra-axial abscess: Literature review. [Review]World Neurosurg 2019WN
- CONCLUSIONS: Cranial melioidosis presenting as OSEAA is associated with good outcomes, in contrast to other neurologic presentations. Intensive phase for atleast 2-3 weeks followed by maintenance phase for 3-6 months is the standard treatment, similar to other melioid presentations. High degree of suspicion and accurate identification of organism is crucial. Patients need to be monitored for recurrences, both clinically and radiologically.
- Identifying potential emerging threats through epidemic intelligence activities - looking for the needle in the haystack? [Journal Article]Int J Infect Dis 2019IJ
- CONCLUSIONS: PHE's manual EI process quickly and accurately detected global public health threats at the earliest stages and allowed for monitoring of events as they evolved.
- Emergent versus urgent ERCP in acute cholangitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]Gastrointest Endosc 2019GE
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals that performing emergent ERCP within 48 hours in patients with AC is associated with lower IHM, 30 days' mortality, organ failure, and shorter LOS.
New Search Next
- Infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus acidominimus. [Journal Article]Am J Health Syst Pharm 2019AJ
- CONCLUSIONS: An 81-year-old Caucasian man underwent an elective transcatheter aortic valve implantation due to his severe aortic valve stenosis. He presented to the hospital 3 weeks later with a 1-week history of fever (39ºC) that did not resolve following a 3-day course of azithromycin and a 5-day course of ciprofloxacin. Three sets of blood sample cultures were taken. Empirical antimicrobial treatment was initiated to target gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms and consisted of vancomycin 1 g intravenous (i.v.) every 12 hours and imipenem-cilastatin 500 mg i.v. every 6 hours. After 48 hours, the blood culture was positive for S. acidominimus. The strain was sensitive to ampicillin, cephalosporins, tetracycline, and vancomycin. It was resistant to penicillin, macrolides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and fosfomycin. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a small mobile vegetation attached to the anterior mitral valve leaflet, along with mild mitral regurgitation. The patient was diagnosed with native mitral valve infective endocarditis, and imipenem-cilastatin was discontinued. The patient showed clinical and laboratory improvement during his 2-week hospitalization. A peripherally inserted central catheter was put in place, and the patient was discharged on i.v. vancomycin to complete a total of 6 weeks treatment, after which the infection resolved.An 81-year-old man diagnosed with mitral valve endocarditis caused by S. acidominimus was successfully treated with vancomycin.