- [Effect of intermittent fasting on physiology and gut microbiota in presenium rats]. [Journal Article]
- NFNan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2016 Apr 20; 37(4):423-430
- CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent fasting can decrease the body weight and blood lipid levels and restore normal gut microbiota but can cause impairment of glucose metabolism in obese presenium rats.
- Metabolic and affective consequences of fatherhood in male California mice. [Journal Article]
- PBPhysiol Behav 2017 Apr 13; 177:57-67
- Physiological and affective condition can be modulated by the social environment and parental state in mammals. However, in species in which males assist with rearing offspring, the metabolic and aff...
Physiological and affective condition can be modulated by the social environment and parental state in mammals. However, in species in which males assist with rearing offspring, the metabolic and affective effects of pair bonding and fatherhood on males have rarely been explored. In this study we tested the hypothesis that fathers, like mothers, experience energetic costs as well as behavioral and affective changes (e.g., depression, anxiety) associated with parenthood. We tested this hypothesis in the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Food intake, blood glucose and lipid levels, blood insulin and leptin levels, body composition, pain sensitivity, and depression-like behavior were compared in males from three reproductive groups: virgin males (VM, housed with another male), non-breeding males (NB, housed with a tubally ligated female), and breeding males (BM, housed with a female and their first litter). We found statistically significant (P<0.007, when modified for Adaptive False Discovery Rate) or nominally significant (0.007<P<0.05) differences among reproductive groups in relative testis mass, circulating glucose, triglyceride, and insulin concentrations, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behaviors. A priori contrasts indicated that VM produced significantly more fecal pellets than BM in the tail-suspension test, had significantly higher glucose levels than NB, and had significantly lower average testis masses than did NB and BM. A priori contrasts also indicated that VM had a nominally longer latency to the pain response than NB and that VM had nominally higher insulin levels than did NB. For breeding males, litter size (one to three pups) was a nominally significant positive predictor of body mass, food consumption, fat mass, and plasma leptin concentration. These results indicate that cohabitation with a female and/or fatherhood influences several metabolic, morphological, and affective measures in male California mice. Overall, the changes we observed in breeding males were minor, but stronger effects might occur in long-term breeding males and/or under more challenging environmental conditions.
- Palatability, digestibility, and metabolizable energy of dietary glycerol in adult cats. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Sci 2017; 95(2):752-760
- Glycerol is a humectant, which reduces water activity when added to the diet. This property seems to offer dietary benefits, specifically in high-moisture diets for cats, where some humectants cannot...
Glycerol is a humectant, which reduces water activity when added to the diet. This property seems to offer dietary benefits, specifically in high-moisture diets for cats, where some humectants cannot be used. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, glycerol is generally recognized as sustenance safe (GRAS). It is suggested that cats are able to metabolize glycerol and use it as an energy source without compromising health. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the following characteristics of glycerol in the diet for cats: 1) a preference test, 2) digestibility, ME, and fecal and urinary characteristics, and 3) postprandial plasma glycemia. Twelve healthy adult female cats were randomly distributed among 4 treatments consisting of a basal diet (4,090 kcal ME/kg DM, 32% CP, 11% fat, 2.3% crude fiber, and 7.0% ash) and 3 diets with varying percentages of glycerol, made by replacing the basal diet with 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% purified glycerol (99.5%). The inclusion of glycerol proportionally reduced ( < 0.05) water activity in the diets. The preference test was conducted by observing the contrast between the basal diet and the 5.0% and 10% glycerol diets. Cats did not show a preference for any diet in particular ( > 0.05). The digestibility assays showed that increasing dietary glycerol levels did not affect food intake or the apparent total tract digestibility of macronutrients and energy ( > 0.05). The inclusion of glycerol in the diets did not alter the stool moisture, fecal score, or urine volume. However, glycerol was detected in urine when it was incorporated into the diet at 10%. Glycemia increased up to 900 min following the first meal after the fasting period with no difference between treatments, even when the means were adjusted for food intake. The blood glucose area under the curve also showed no significant difference between treatments ( > 0.05). Cats accepted glycerol under the conditions of the study, and its nutritional value was determined as it has been done for other species. The ME of glycerol for adult cats was estimated to be 3,185 kcal/kg DM. Supplementing the diets of the cats with 10% glycerol may exceed their capacity to metabolize glycerol, possibly leading to urinary excretions.
- Diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in chronic pancreatitis: (13)C-Mixed Triglyceride Breath Test versus Fecal Elastase. [Journal Article]
- PPancreatology 2017 Mar 06
- CONCLUSIONS: FE-1 and TGBT showed similar results for the diagnosis of EPI in CP. In non-operated CP patients, TGBT does not offer any advantage to FE-1 but in operated CP patients TGBT seems a more accurate test.
- Supplementation with dairy calcium and/or flaxseed fibers in conjunction with orlistat augments fecal fat excretion without altering ratings of gastrointestinal comfort. [Journal Article]
- NMNutr Metab (Lond) 2017; 14:13
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support an improvement in orlistat-induced gastrointestinal side effects by concomitant use of FF and Ca. However, fecal fat excretion was increased with both FF and Ca in the absence of a worsening of symptoms, warranting further studies powered to detect potential additive weight loss effects.
- Nursery pig growth performance and tissue accretion modulation due to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus or porcine deltacoronavirus challenge. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Sci 2017; 95(1):173-181
- Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) are both members of the family which induce clinical signs of diarrhea, dehydration, and in some circumstances, mortality. ...
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) are both members of the family which induce clinical signs of diarrhea, dehydration, and in some circumstances, mortality. Most research has been focused on isolation, genome sequencing, pathogenicity, and virulence of these viruses, but there is little information on long-term growth performance and tissue accretion of pigs inoculated with PEDV or PDCoV. Therefore, our objective was to determine the effect of PEDV or PDCoV infection on growth performance and tissue accretion over 42 d following inoculation. A total of 75 Choice Genetics Large White Pureline barrows and gilts (BW = 10.81 ± 0.81 kg) at approximately 2 wk post-wean and naïve for PEDV and PDCoV were selected. Pigs were allotted based on BW and sex, stratified across 3 treatments with 8 pens per treatment. Treatments were: 1) Control ( = 8); 2) PEDV inoculated ( = 8); and 3) PDCoV inoculated ( = 8). On day post inoculation (dpi) 2, 5, 7, and 14 pigs were euthanized for tissue collection and analyses from these tissues are discussed elsewhere. Pen feed intake and BW were recorded on dpi 2, 5, 7, and weekly thereafter until dpi 42. On 1 designated pig per pen, initial and final body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and tissue accretion rates were calculated over 6 wk test period. Peak PEDV infection was noted at 3 dpi compared with 4 dpi for PDCoV pigs as determined by fecal swab quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Control pigs remained negative for PEDV and PDCoV throughout the experiment. Overall, Control and PDCoV pigs did not differ in ADG, ADFI or G:F ( > 0.05). Compared to Control and PDCoV pigs, the overall 42 d ADFI was reduced in the challenged PEDV pigs ( < 0.05) by 19 and 27%, respectively. PEDV did not significantly reduce the overall ADG or G:F compared with Control and PDCoV pigs; however, the biggest reduction in ADG and ADFI for PEDV pigs was within 14 dpi compared to the Control pigs ( < 0.05). Whole body tissue accretion was altered due to PED, with fat, lean, protein, and bone mineral accretion reductions by 24, 20, 21, and 42%, respectively ( < 0.05) compared with Control pigs. Overall, nursery pig performance was greatly impacted by PEDV challenge. Surprisingly, the PDCoV challenge did not negatively influence nursery pig performance. This study provides further insight into the longitudinal impact swine enteric coronaviruses have on growing pigs.
- Methane production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, and milk production of dairy cows fed conventional or brown midrib corn silage. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2017; 100(4):2625-2636
- The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH4 emission, nutrient intake, dig...
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH4 emission, nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and N excretion. Sixteen rumen-cannulated lactating cows used in a crossover design (35-d periods) were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio = 65:35, dry matter basis) based (59% dry matter) on either CCS or BMCS. Dry matter intake and milk yield increased when cows were fed BMCS instead of CCS. Of the milk components, only milk fat content slightly decreased when cows were fed the BMCS-based diet compared with when fed the CCS-based diet (3.81 vs. 3.92%). Compared with CCS, feeding BMCS to cows increased yields of milk protein and milk fat. Ruminal pH, protozoa numbers, total VFA concentration, and molar proportions of acetate and propionate were similar between cows fed BMCS and those fed CCS. Daily enteric CH4 emission (g/d) was unaffected by dietary treatments, but CH4 production expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake or on milk yield basis was lower for cows fed the BMCS-based diet than for cows fed the CCS-based diet. A decline in manure N excretion and a shift in N excretion from urine to feces were observed when BMCS replaced CCS in the diet, suggesting reduced potential of manure N volatilization. Results from this study show that improving fiber quality of corn silage in dairy cow diets through using brown midrib trait cultivar can reduce enteric CH4 emissions as well as potential emissions of NH3 and N2O from manure. However, CH4 emissions during manure storage may increase due to excretion of degradable OM when BMCS diet is fed, which merits further investigation.
- Malabsorption, Orocecal Transit Time and Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Connection. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Clin Biochem 2017; 32(1):84-89
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate insulin secretion. Most of diabetic pati...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate insulin secretion. Most of diabetic patients report significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Entire GI tract can be affected by diabetes from oral cavity to large bowel and anorectal region. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and most fluids are absorbed in small intestine. Malabsorption may occurs when proper absorption of nutrients does not take place due to bacterial overgrowth or altered gut motility. The present study was planned to measure various malabsorption parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. 175 patients and 175 age and sex matched healthy controls attending Endocrinology Clinic in PGI, Chandigarh were enrolled. Lactose intolerance was measured by using non-invasive lactose hydrogen breath test. Urinary d-xylose and fecal fat were estimated using standard methods. Orocecal transit time and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth were measured using non-invasive lactulose and glucose breath test respectively. Out of 175 diabetic patients enrolled, 87 were males while among 175 healthy subjects 88 were males. SIBO was observed in 14.8 % type 2 diabetic patients and in 2.8 % of controls. There was statistically significant increase (p < 0.002) in OCTT in type 2 diabetic patients compared with controls. OCTT was observed to be more delayed (p < 0.003) in patients who were found to have SIBO than in patients without SIBO. Lactose intolerance was observed in 60 % diabetic patients and 39.4 % in controls. Urinary d-xylose levels were also lower in case of diabetic patients but no significant difference was found in 72 h fecal fat excretion among diabetic patients and controls. Urinary d-xylose and lactose intolerance in SIBO positive type 2 diabetic patients was more severe as compared to SIBO negative diabetic patients. From this study we can conclude that delayed OCTT may have led to SIBO which may have instigated the process of malabsorption among type 2 diabetic patients.
- GeneReviews(®) [BOOK]
- BOOKUniversity of Washington, Seattle: Seattle (WA)
- Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disease affecting epithelia of the respiratory tract, exocrine pancreas, intestine, hepatobiliary system, and exocrine sweat glands. Morbidities include progress...
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disease affecting epithelia of the respiratory tract, exocrine pancreas, intestine, hepatobiliary system, and exocrine sweat glands. Morbidities include progressive obstructive lung disease with bronchiectasis, frequent hospitalizations for pulmonary disease, pancreatic insufficiency and malnutrition, recurrent sinusitis and bronchitis, and male infertility. Pulmonary disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in CF. Meconium ileus occurs at birth in 15%-20% of newborns with CF. More than 95% of males with CF are infertile. Congenital absence of the vas deferens (CAVD) is generally identified during evaluation of infertility or as an incidental finding at the time of a surgical procedure. Hypoplasia or aplasia of the vas deferens and seminal vesicles may occur either bilaterally or unilaterally. Testicular development and function and spermatogenesis are usually normal.
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- Dietary Prebiotics and Bioactive Milk Fractions Improve NREM Sleep, Enhance REM Sleep Rebound and Attenuate the Stress-Induced Decrease in Diurnal Temperature and Gut Microbial Alpha Diversity. [Journal Article]
- FBFront Behav Neurosci 2016; 10:240
- Severe, repeated or chronic stress produces negative health outcomes including disruptions of the sleep/wake cycle and gut microbial dysbiosis. Diets rich in prebiotics and glycoproteins impact the g...
Severe, repeated or chronic stress produces negative health outcomes including disruptions of the sleep/wake cycle and gut microbial dysbiosis. Diets rich in prebiotics and glycoproteins impact the gut microbiota and may increase gut microbial species that reduce the impact of stress. This experiment tested the hypothesis that consumption of dietary prebiotics, lactoferrin (Lf) and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) will reduce the negative physiological impacts of stress. Male F344 rats, postnatal day (PND) 24, received a diet with prebiotics, Lf and MFGM (test) or a calorically matched control diet. Fecal samples were collected on PND 35/70/91 for 16S rRNA sequencing to examine microbial composition and, in a subset of rats; Lactobacillus rhamnosus was measured using selective culture. On PND 59, biotelemetry devices were implanted to record sleep/wake electroencephalographic (EEG). Rats were exposed to an acute stressor (100, 1.5 mA, tail shocks) on PND 87 and recordings continued until PND 94. Test diet, compared to control diet, increased fecal Lactobacillus rhamnosus colony forming units (CFU), facilitated non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consolidation (PND 71/72) and enhanced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep rebound after stressor exposure (PND 87). Rats fed control diet had stress-induced reductions in alpha diversity and diurnal amplitude of temperature, which were attenuated by the test diet (PND 91). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between early-life Deferribacteres (PND 35) and longer NREM sleep episodes (PND 71/72). A diet containing prebiotics, Lf and MFGM enhanced sleep quality, which was related to changes in gut bacteria and modulated the impact of stress on sleep, diurnal rhythms and the gut microbiota.