- Effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2017 Jan 11
- The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal mic...
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg RPC/cow per day. They were mixed with a small portion of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. Glucose tolerance test was conducted once during each experimental period by intravenous administration of glucose at a rate of 0.3 g/kg of body weight. Dry matter intake was not affected by RPC. Milk yield tended to increase for RPC treatments compared to the control. Feed efficiency was linearly increased by RPC supplementation. Concentrations of fat, true protein, and lactose in milk were not affected by RPC. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was linearly increased, and fecal nitrogen excretion was linearly decreased by RPC supplementation. Rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin did not affect the composition of fecal bacteria. Glucose concentration in serum was not affected by RPC supplementation post glucose challenge. However, compared to the control, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration at 5, 10, and 40 min post glucose challenge. The area under the insulin concentration curve was also decreased 25% by RPC. Concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in serum were not affected by RPC following glucose administration. In this study, RPC tended to increase milk production and increased feed efficiency in dairy cows. In addition, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration during the glucose tolerance test, but glucose concentration was not affected by treatment.
- [Protective effect of Saccharomyces boulardii against intestinal mucosal barrier injury in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease]. [Journal Article]
- ZGZhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2016 Dec 20; 24(12):921-926
- Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Saccharomyces boulardii against intestinal mucosal barrier injury in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: A total of 36 heal...
Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Saccharomyces boulardii against intestinal mucosal barrier injury in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: A total of 36 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats with a mean body weight of 180±20 g were randomly divided into control group, model group, and treatment group, with 12 rats in each group, after adaptive feeding for 1 week. The rats in the control group were given basic feed, and those in the model group and treatment group were given high-fat feed. After 12 weeks of feeding, the treatment group was given Saccharomyces boulardii (75×10(8) CFU/kg/d) by gavage, and those in the control group and model group were given isotonic saline by gavage. At the 20th week, blood samples were taken from the abdominal aorta to measure the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and endotoxins. The liver pathological changes, intestinal histopathological changes, and expression of occludin in the intestinal mucosa were observed. Fecal samples were collected to measure the changes in Escherichia coli and Bacteroides. A one-way analysis of variance and the SNK test were used for comparison between multiple groups, and the rank sum test was used as the non-parametric test. Results: Compared with the control group, the model group had significantly higher body weight, liver mass, and liver index (P < 0.05), and compared with the model group, the treatment group had significant reductions in body weight, liver mass, and liver index (P < 0.05). The model group had significant increases in TG, ALT, and AST compared with the control group (P < 0.05), the treatment group had a significant reduction in AST compared with the model group (P < 0.05), and the treatment group had slight reductions in TG and ALT compared with the model group (P > 0.05). Compared with the control group, the model group had significant increases in the levels of endotoxin, TNF-α, and IFABP (P < 0.05), and the treatment group had significant reductions in the levels of endotoxin, TNF-α, and IFABP (P < 0.05). Liver tissue staining showed that the model group had significantly increased hepatocyte steatosis compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and that the treatment group had significantly reduced hepatocyte steatosis compared with the model group (P < 0.05). The intestinal villi in the control group had ordered arrangement and a complete structure; in the model group, the intestinal villi were shortened with local shedding and a lack of ordered arrangement; compared with the model group, the treatment group had mild edema and ordered arrangements of the intestinal villi. The model group had a significantly reduced level of occludin protein compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and the treatment group had a slight increase compared with the model group. The model group had a significantly increased number of Escherichia coli and a significantly reduced number of Bacteroides compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and the treatment group had a significantly reduced number of Escherichia coli and a significantly increased number of Bacteroides compared with the model group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: High-fat diet can successfully induce NAFLD in rats, and intervention with Saccharomyces boulardii can reduce body weight and improve hepatocyte steatosis. Saccharomyces boulardii can reduce endotoxemia in NAFLD rats and thus alleviate inflammatory response. Saccharomyces boulardii can also adjust the proportion of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides in the intestine of NAFLD rats.
- Simple and noninvasive method for assessment of digestive efficiency: Validation of fecal steatocrit in greenfinch coccidiosis model. [Journal Article]
- EEEcol Evol 2016; 6(24):8756-8763
- Animals' capability to absorb energy and nutrients from food poses a major internal constraint that affects the amount of resources available for allocation to maintenance, growth, signaling, and rep...
Animals' capability to absorb energy and nutrients from food poses a major internal constraint that affects the amount of resources available for allocation to maintenance, growth, signaling, and reproduction. Intestinal surface is the largest area of contact between immune system and microbial antigens; gut thus appears the main arena where trade-offs between immune function and other components of fitness arise. Assessment of the integrity of digestive machinery should therefore be of high priority in ecophysiological research. Traditional methods of digestive physiology, however, appear unsuitable for most ecological applications due to lethality or complexity of the procedure.Here, we test the reliability of a simple, cheap, and noninvasive procedure, an acid steatocrit that assesses fat content in feces. It is based on centrifugation of a fecal sample, diluted in acid medium, in hematocrit capillary tube and quantifying the percentage of fat in fecal matter. The method has been previously validated in humans and mice; here, we apply it for the first time in birds.When applied to captive wild-caught greenfinches, the method showed reasonable internal consistency (rs = 0.71 for steatocrit values, sampled from the same fecal aliquot in duplicate but processed separately). Individual steatocrit values were significantly repeatable in time in different intervals from eight to at least 20 days (rs = 0.32-0.49). The relationship between intestinal health and steatocrit values was tested by experimental manipulations. Medication against coccidiosis (a naturally pervasive intestinal infection) reduced, and experimental infection with heterologous coccidian strains increased steatocrit. Individual changes in steatocrit correlated negatively with changes of two markers of nutritional state-plasma triglyceride levels and body mass.Findings of this study suggest that steatocrit has a wide application potential as a marker of intestinal health in ecophysiological research. In particular, we see the perspective of this method for increasingly popular immunoecological research, conservation medicine, and studies of animal coloration.
- Lifestyle and geographic insights into the distinct gut microbiota in elderly women from two different geographic locations. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Physiol Anthropol 2016 Dec 12; 35(1):31
- CONCLUSIONS: This study identified differences in the gut microbiota composition between elderly women from different parts of South Korea, and our findings suggest that further studies of the human gut microbiota should evaluate aspects of the living environment.
- Comparison of 72-hour fecal fat quantification and the 13C-mixed triglyceride breath test in assessing pancreatic exocrine sufficiency in children with chronic pancreatitis. [Journal Article]
- DPDev Period Med 2016; 20(3):222-227
- CONCLUSIONS: Although the 72-hour fecal fat quantification remains the gold standard in detecting EPI, both of the methods that had been investigated were shown to be comparable regarding sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV in assessing pancreas exocrine sufficiency in children with CP. Due to the easier execution of the breath test, both for the patient and for medical personnel, its importance may increase.
- Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: Comparing fecal elastase 1 with 72-h stool for fecal fat estimation. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Gastroenterol 2016; 35(6):441-444
- CONCLUSIONS: FE1 is a sensitive test; however, it does not have a good agreement with FFE. FE1 may be used as screening test for PEI in patients with chronic pancreatitis.
- Colonic Transit and Bile Acid Synthesis or Excretion in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Diarrhea Without Bile Acid Malabsorption. [Journal Article]
- CGClin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Nov 14
- CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of overt BAM, the total, primary, and secretory BAs in stool contribute to the acceleration of colonic transit and fecal weight in the diarrhea of patients with IBS-D.
- Weight gain in mice on a high caloric diet and chronically treated with omeprazole depends on sex and genetic background. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2017 Jan 01; 312(1):G15-G23
- The impact of omeprazole (OM), a widely used over-the-counter proton pump inhibitor, on weight gain has not been extensively explored. We examined what factors, e.g., diet composition, microbiota, ge...
The impact of omeprazole (OM), a widely used over-the-counter proton pump inhibitor, on weight gain has not been extensively explored. We examined what factors, e.g., diet composition, microbiota, genetic strain, and sex, might affect weight gain in mice fed a high caloric diet while on OM. Inbred C57BL/6J strain, a 50:50 hybrid (B6SJLF1/J) strain, and mice on a highly mixed genetic background were fed four diets: standard chow (STD, 6% fat), STD with 200 ppm OM (STD + O), a high-energy chow (HiE, 11% fat), and HiE chow with OM (HiE + O) for 17 wk. Metabolic analysis, body composition, and fecal microbiota composition were analyzed in C57BL/6J mice. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using mice on the mixed background. After 8 wk, female and male C57BL/6J mice on the HiE diets ate less, whereas males on the HiE diets compared with the STD diets gained weight. All diet treatments reduced energy expenditure in females but in males only those on the HiE + O diet. Gut microbiota composition differed in the C57BL/6J females but not the males. Hybrid B6SJLF1/J mice showed similar weight gain on all test diets. In contrast, mixed strain male mice fed a HiE + O diet gained ∼40% more weight than females on the same diet. In addition to increased weight gain, mixed genetic mice on the HiE + O diet cleared glucose normally but secreted more insulin. We concluded that sex and genetic background define weight gain and metabolic responses of mice on high caloric diets and OM.
- IS THE IMMUNOCROMATOGRAPHIC FECAL ANTIGEN TEST EFFECTIVE FOR PRIMARY DIAGNOSIS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN DYSPEPTIC PATIENTS? [Journal Article]
- AGArq Gastroenterol 2016 Oct-Dec; 53(4):224-227
- CONCLUSIONS: Immunochromatographic FAT is less expensive than the other methods and readily accepted by the patients but its diagnostic performance does not recommend its use in the primary diagnosis, when the patient may have an active infection.
New Search Next
- Medium-chain triglycerides promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and improve atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet. [Journal Article]
- NRNutr Res 2016; 36(9):964-73
- We previously observed that medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) could reduce body fat mass and improve the metabolism of cholesterol. We hypothesized that MCTs can improve atherosclerosis by promoting ...
We previously observed that medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) could reduce body fat mass and improve the metabolism of cholesterol. We hypothesized that MCTs can improve atherosclerosis by promoting the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the roles of MCTs in macrophage RCT and the progression of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, 30 4-week-old ApoE-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed a diet of 2% MCTs or long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) for 16 weeks. Ten age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet of 2% LCTs as the control. Macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed in vivo by intraperitoneal injection of RAW 264.7 macrophages containing (3)H-labeled cholesterol, and atherosclerotic plaques were measured. The mRNA and protein expressions were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. There was a greater decrease in body fat mass, atherosclerotic plaques, and an improvement in serum lipid profiles. In addition, the MCT mice group showed an increase in (3)H-tracer in the feces and a decrease in the liver. Significantly higher levels of mRNA and protein expression of hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, ATP-binding cassette transporter G5, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, and intestinal ATP-binding cassette transporter G8, as well as lower levels of expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, were found in the MCT group. These results suggest that MCTs could obviously promote macrophage RCT and improve atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice, indicating that MCTs have the potential to prevent cardiovascular disease.