- Aggie Play: A Gender-Relevant Physical Activity Program for Girls. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sport Exerc Psychol 2019 Jul 21; :1-12
- A majority of U.S. children age 6-17 years do not meet the recommended 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. Girls are less likely to meet these daily physical activity guidelines…
A majority of U.S. children age 6-17 years do not meet the recommended 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. Girls are less likely to meet these daily physical activity guidelines than boys. Following a call for greater gender-relevant physical activity programming, Aggie Play, an after-school physical activity program, engaged female student athletes to serve as active role models who lead girls through high-energy activities twice a week over a school year. The purpose of this study was to explore how Aggie Play affected girls' self-efficacy and expected enjoyment for physical activity, time spent in various physical activity intensities during free play, and fitness, relative to a control group. Results revealed that the girls participating in Aggie Play increased ratings of physical activity self-efficacy and enjoyment compared with girls at a control site. Aggie Play girls also demonstrated greater improvements on the muscle-endurance test than girls at a control site. Results are consistent with prior gender-relevant physical activity and physical education research. This study extends prior results by documenting the benefits of gender-relevant physical activity programming when led by active female role models.
- Effects of Suspension Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Explosive Strength in Elementary School-Aged Boys. [Journal Article]
- PEPediatr Exerc Sci 2019 Jul 22; :1-7
- CONCLUSIONS: Traditional RT and ST seem to be effective methods for improving explosive strength in prepubescent boys. ST could be considered as an alternative modality to optimize explosive strength training in school-based programs.
- Inflammatory biomarkers and brain health indicators in children with overweight and obesity: the activebrains project. [Journal Article]
- BBBrain Behav Immun 2019 Jul 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Inflammation was slightly associated with brain health (i.e., academic performance, behavioural and emotional functioning and regional brain volume) in children with overweight or obesity. Further larger longitudinal and interventional studies are warranted to elucidate the short-term and long-term effect of systemic low-grade inflammation on children's brain health.
- Does the built environment influence the effectiveness of behavioral weight management interventions? [Journal Article]
- PMPrev Med 2019 Jul 19; :105776
- Outcomes of behavioral lifestyle interventions for promoting weight loss vary widely across participants. The effectiveness of a weight management intervention may depend on a person's environmental …
Outcomes of behavioral lifestyle interventions for promoting weight loss vary widely across participants. The effectiveness of a weight management intervention may depend on a person's environmental context. This study compared short- and longer-term effects of a structured nationwide weight management program for people living in neighborhoods with different levels of walkability and different access to recreational places (parks, fitness facilities). Drawing on the health production model, we tested competing hypotheses for whether treatment effects of the program complement environmental supports or substitute for environmental constraints. We studied the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) MOVE! weight management program using VA electronic heath record data (2009-2014) and a difference-in-differences design with an inverse propensity score matched comparison group. A total of 114,256 program participants and 498,494 non-participants comprised the sample. Built environment features were measured within one-mile of each person's home. We estimated program effects on body mass index (BMI) for subgroups with different built environments at 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up using linear regressions with person and year fixed effects. At 6 months, the program reduced BMI by 0.4-0.6 kg/m2 among men and 0.3-0.5 kg/m2 among women. The effect diminished at 12, 18, and 24 months. The program effect did not vary significantly across subgroups with different walkability, park access, or fitness facility access. The MOVE! program was not sensitive to environmental context. Results did not lend support to either hypothesis that the MOVE! program complements or substitutes for a person's built environment to affect weight management outcomes.
- Social information drives ecological outcomes among competing species. [Journal Article]
- EEcology 2019 Jul 22
- Through its behavior, an organism intentionally or unintentionally produces information. Use of this 'social information' by surrounding conspecifics or heterospecifics is a ubiquitous phenomenon tha…
Through its behavior, an organism intentionally or unintentionally produces information. Use of this 'social information' by surrounding conspecifics or heterospecifics is a ubiquitous phenomenon that can drive strong correlations in fitness-associated behaviors, such as predator avoidance, enhancing survival within and among competing species. By eliciting indirect positive interactions between competing individuals or species, social information might alter overall competitive outcomes. To test this potential, we present new theory that quantifies the effect of social information, modeled as predator avoidance signals/cues, on the outcomes from intraspecific and interspecific competition. Our analytical and numerical results reveal that social information can rescue populations from extinction and can shift the long-term outcome of competitive interactions from mutual exclusion to coexistence, or vice versa, depending on the relative strengths of intraspecific and interspecific social information and competition. Our findings highlight the importance of social information in determining ecological outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Creative challenge: Regular exercising moderates the association between task-related heart rate variability changes and individual differences in originality. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0220205
- Coping with mental challenges is vital to everyday functioning. In accordance with prominent theories, the adaptive and flexible adjustment of the organism to daily demands is well expressed in task-…
Coping with mental challenges is vital to everyday functioning. In accordance with prominent theories, the adaptive and flexible adjustment of the organism to daily demands is well expressed in task-related changes of cardiac vagal control. While many mental challenges are associated with increased effort and associated decreased task-related heart rate variability (HRV), some cognitive challenges go along with HRV increases. Especially creativity represents a cognitive process, which not only results from mental effort but also from spontaneous modes of thinking. Critically, creativity and HRV are associated with regular exercising and fitness. Furthermore, the cross-stressor adaptation theory suggests that changes in cardiac reactions to physical challenges may generalize to mental challenges. In line with this idea the amount of regular exercising was hypothesized to moderate the association between HRV changes and creativity. A sample of 97 participants was investigated. They reported the amount of regular exercise and their ECG was measured at baseline and during a creativity task. An association between task-related HRV changes and originality as a function of participants' amount of regular exercise was found. Participants reporting more regular exercising produced more original ideas when they had higher HRV increases during the task, while more sedentary participants showed the opposite association. Results suggest that individuals with a higher amount of regular exercise achieve higher originality probably via the engagement in more spontaneous modes of thinking, while more sedentary people may primarily benefit from increased mental effort. This supports the conclusion that higher creativity can be achieved by different strategies.
- Preanalytics and Precision Pathology: Pathology Practices to Ensure Molecular Integrity of Cancer Patient Biospecimens for Precision Medicine. [Journal Article]
- APArch Pathol Lab Med 2019 Jul 22
- Biospecimens acquired during routine medical practice are the primary sources of molecular information about patients and their diseases that underlies precision medicine and translational research. …
Biospecimens acquired during routine medical practice are the primary sources of molecular information about patients and their diseases that underlies precision medicine and translational research. In cancer care, molecular analysis of biospecimens is especially common because it often determines treatment choices and may be used to monitor therapy in real time. However, patient specimens are collected, handled, and processed according to routine clinical procedures during which they are subjected to factors that may alter their molecular quality and composition. Such artefactual alteration may skew data from molecular analyses, render analysis data uninterpretable, or even preclude analysis altogether if the integrity of specimen is severely compromised. As a result, patient care and safety may be affected, and medical research dependent on patient samples may be compromised. Despite these issues, there is currently no requirement to control or record preanalytical variables in clinical practice with the single exception of breast cancer tissue handled according to the guideline jointly developed by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists (CAP) and enforced through the CAP Laboratory Accreditation Program. Recognizing the importance of molecular data derived from patient specimens, the CAP Personalized Healthcare Committee established the Preanalytics for Precision Medicine Project Team to develop a basic set of evidence-based recommendations for key preanalytics for tissue and blood specimens. If used for biospecimens from patients, these preanalytical recommendations would ensure the fitness of those specimens for molecular analysis and help to assure the quality and reliability of the analysis data.
- The extraction method of tooth preparation margin line based on S-Octree CNN. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Numer Method Biomed Eng 2019 Jul 22; :e3241
- The tooth preparation margin line has a significant impact on the marginal fitness for dental restoration. Among the previous methods, the extraction of margin line mainly relies on manual interactio…
The tooth preparation margin line has a significant impact on the marginal fitness for dental restoration. Among the previous methods, the extraction of margin line mainly relies on manual interaction, which is complicated and inefficient. Therefore, we propose a method to extract the margin line with the convolutional neural network based on sparse octree(S-Octree) structure. Firstly, the dental preparations are rotated to augment the dataset. Secondly, the preparation models are treated as the sparse point cloud with labels through the spatial partition method of the S-Octree. Then, based on the feature line, the dental preparation point cloud is automatically divided into two regions by the convolutional neural network (CNN). Thirdly, in order to obtain the margin line, we adopt some methods such as the dense condition random field (dense CRF), point cloud reconstruction and back projection to the original dental preparation model. Finally, based on the measurement indicators of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, the average accuracy of the label predicted by the network model can reach 97.43%. The experimental results show that our method can automatically accomplish the extraction of the tooth preparation margin line.
- A Fluid Shift for Endurance Exercise - Why Hydration Matters. [Journal Article]
- APActa Physiol (Oxf) 2019 Jul 22; :e13347
- As modern-day humans, we still bear the genetic heritage of our ancestors who evolved under conditions very different from today and who were selected for a great amount of daily physical exercise.1 …
As modern-day humans, we still bear the genetic heritage of our ancestors who evolved under conditions very different from today and who were selected for a great amount of daily physical exercise.1 We should be aware of this two-million-year-old heritage 2 and include physical exercise in our everyday lives to prevent civilization-induced disorders, as for example metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases,3 and to stay physically and mentally fit.4 Indeed, regular endurance training has many beneficial consequences such as improved cardiovascular function, lower morbidity, and mortality rates and overall improved physical fitness.5-7 Moreover, exercise training may even reverse pathological changes associated with diseases of civilization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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- An evolutionary profile guided greedy parallel replica-exchange Monte Carlo search algorithm for rapid convergence in protein design. [Journal Article]
- ITIEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2019 Jul 19
- Protein design, also known as the inverse protein folding problem, is the identification of a protein sequence that folds into a target protein structure. Protein design is proved as an NP-hard probl…
Protein design, also known as the inverse protein folding problem, is the identification of a protein sequence that folds into a target protein structure. Protein design is proved as an NP-hard problem. While researchers are working on designing heuristics with an emphasis on new scoring functions, we propose a replica-exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) search algorithm that ensures faster convergence using a greedy strategy. Using biological insights, we construct an evolutionary profile to encode the amino acid variability in different positions of the target protein from its structural homologs. The evolutionary profile guides the REMC, and the greedy approach confirms appreciable exploration and exploitation of the sequence-structure fitness surface. We allow termination of a simulation trajectory once stagnant situation is detected. A series of sequence and structure level validations establish the goodness of our design. On a benchmark dataset, our algorithm reports an average root-mean-square deviation of 1.21 between the target and the design proteins when modeled with protein folding software. Besides, our algorithm assures 6.16 times overall speedup. In Molecular Dynamics simulations, we observe that four out of selected five design proteins report better to comparable stability to the corresponding target proteins.