- Part II - Ectoparasites: Pediculosis and Tungiasis. [Review]
- JAJ Am Acad Dermatol 2019 Jul 12
- Pediculosis is an infestation of lice on the body, head, and/or pubic region that occurs worldwide. Lice are ectoparasites of the order Phthiraptera that feed on the blood of infested hosts. Their mo…
Pediculosis is an infestation of lice on the body, head, and/or pubic region that occurs worldwide. Lice are ectoparasites of the order Phthiraptera that feed on the blood of infested hosts. Their morphotype dictates their clinical features. Body lice may transmit bacterial pathogens that cause trench fever, relapsing fever, and epidemic typhus, which are potentially life-threatening diseases that remain relevant in contemporary times. Recent data from some settings suggest head lice may harbor pathogens. Herein, the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and management of body, head, and pubic louse infestation are reviewed. New therapies for head lice and screening considerations for pubic lice are discussed. Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic disease caused by skin penetration by the female Tunga penetrans or, less commonly, Tunga trimamillata flea. It is endemic in Latin America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa and seen in travelers returning from these regions. Herein, risk factors for acquiring tungiasis, associated morbidity, and potential strategies for prevention and treatment are discussed.
- Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia bellii in Mosquitoes. [Journal Article]
- VBVector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2019 Jul 15
- To add to the limited information on Rickettsia in mosquitoes in China, we carried out a PCR survey on convenience samples of 3051 mosquitoes collected with hand nets in and around domestic dwellings…
To add to the limited information on Rickettsia in mosquitoes in China, we carried out a PCR survey on convenience samples of 3051 mosquitoes collected with hand nets in and around domestic dwellings in 25 provinces. Five species of mosquitoes were identified: Culex pipiens pallens (n = 1620), Aedes albopictus (806), Armigeres subalbatus (377), Anopheles sinensis (168), and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (80). A Rickettsia nested-PCR targeting the variable domain of gltA showed Rickettsia felis in four mosquito species of 16 provinces Cx. pipiens pallens (1.8%, 29/1620); Ae. albopictus (1.2%, 10/806); An. sinensis (1.2%, 2/168); and Ar. subalbatus (2.1%, 8/377). Rickettsia bellii was also widespread, occurring in 12 provinces and 2 species: Cx. pipiens pallens (4.3%, 69/1620) and An. sinensis (0.6%, 1/168). R. felis and R. bellii were found in almost similar numbers in female [1.5% (27/1809) and 1.2% (21/1809), respectively] as in male mosquitoes [1.8% (22/1242) and 4.0% (49/1242), respectively]. Our results indicated that mosquitoes in China are widely infected with R. felis, the agent of human flea-borne spotted fever, and that R. bellii can also occur outside of the Americas and its usual tick hosts.
- A review of the genus Lankaphthona Medvedev, 2001, with comments on the modified phallobase and the unique abdominal appendage of L.binotata (Baly) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini). [Journal Article]
- ZZookeys 2019; 857:29-58
- The flea beetle genus Lankaphthona Medvedev, 2001 is redescribed and a new species L.yunnantarsella sp. nov. Ruan, Konstantinov & Prathapan is described. Longitarsella Medvedev, 2009, syn. nov. and P…
The flea beetle genus Lankaphthona Medvedev, 2001 is redescribed and a new species L.yunnantarsella sp. nov. Ruan, Konstantinov & Prathapan is described. Longitarsella Medvedev, 2009, syn. nov. and Philotarsa Medvedev, 2009, syn. nov. are newly synonymized with Lankaphthona. Philotarsalaosica Medvedev, 2009, syn. nov. is synonymized with Lankaphthonaphuketensis (Gruev, 1989). The following new combinations are proposed: Lankaphthonabinotata (Baly, 1876), comb. nov.; Lankaphthonacostata (Medvedev, 2016), comb. nov.; Lankaphthonacyanipennis (Medvedev, 2017), comb. nov.; Lankaphthonanigronotata (Jacoby, 1896), comb. nov.; Lankaphthonanotatipennis (Medvedev, 2009), comb. nov.; and Lankaphthonaphuketensis (Gruev, 1989), comb. nov., status restored. A highly specialized spoon-shaped 'appendage' is discovered on the first abdominal ventrite of males of Lankaphthonabinotata. Aedeagus of the same species has aberrant sheath-shaped phallobase encircling the median lobe. Morphology and possible function of these structures are discussed. Menispermaceae are newly reported as the host plants of the genus.
- Corrigendum to "Acute toxicity of bisphenol A and its structural analogues and transcriptional modulation of the ecdysone-mediated pathway in the brackish water flea Diaphanosoma celebensis" [Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 179 (2019) 310-317]. [Published Erratum]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Jul 08; 182:109408
- Adaptation of flea beetles to Brassicaceae: host plant associations and geographic distribution of Psylliodes Latreille and Phyllotreta Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). [Review]
- ZZookeys 2019; 856:51-73
- The cosmopolitan flea beetle genera Phyllotreta and Psylliodes (Galerucinae, Alticini) are mainly associated with host plants in the family Brassicaceae and include economically important pests of cr…
The cosmopolitan flea beetle genera Phyllotreta and Psylliodes (Galerucinae, Alticini) are mainly associated with host plants in the family Brassicaceae and include economically important pests of crucifer crops. In this review, the host plant associations and geographical distributions of known species in these genera are summarised from the literature, and their proposed phylogenetic relationships to other Alticini analysed from published molecular phylogenetic studies of Galerucinae. Almost all Phyllotreta species are specialised on Brassicaceae and related plant families in the order Brassicales, whereas Psylliodes species are associated with host plants in approximately 24 different plant families, and 50% are specialised to feed on Brassicaceae. The current knowledge on how Phyllotreta and Psylliodes are adapted to the characteristic chemical defence in Brassicaceae is reviewed. Based on our findings we postulate that Phyllotreta and Psylliodes colonised Brassicaceae independently from each other.
- Seroprevalence of typhus group and spotted fever group Rickettsia exposures on Reunion island. [Journal Article]
- BRBMC Res Notes 2019 Jul 09; 12(1):387
- Murine typhus has been increasingly reported on Reunion island, Indian ocean, following documentation of eight autochthonous infections in 2012-2013. We conducted a serosurvey to assess the magnitude…
Murine typhus has been increasingly reported on Reunion island, Indian ocean, following documentation of eight autochthonous infections in 2012-2013. We conducted a serosurvey to assess the magnitude of the seroprevalence of rickettsioses in the population. Two hundred and forty-one stored frozen sera taken from the 2009 Copanflu-RUN cohort were analysed using an immunofluorescence assay allowing to distinguish typhus group (TGR) and spotted fever group Rickesttsiae (SFGR). Seropositivity was defined for a dilution titre of Rickettsia IgG antibodies ≥ 1:64. Seroprevalence was weighted to account for the discrepancy between the Copanflu-RUN subset and the general population, as to infer prevalence at community level. Prevalence proportion ratios (PPR) were measured using log-binomial models.
- Dissecting the genetic architecture of a stepwise infection process. [Journal Article]
- MEMol Ecol 2019 Jul 08
- How a host fights infection depends on an ordered sequence of steps, beginning with attempts to prevent a pathogen from establishing an infection, through to steps that mitigate a pathogen's control …
How a host fights infection depends on an ordered sequence of steps, beginning with attempts to prevent a pathogen from establishing an infection, through to steps that mitigate a pathogen's control of host resources, or minimising the damage caused during infection. Yet empirically characterising the genetic basis of these steps remains challenging. Although each step is likely to have a unique genetic and environmental signature, and may, therefore, respond to selection in a specific way, events that occur earlier in the infection process can mask or overwhelm the contributions of subsequent steps. In this study, we dissect the genetic architecture of a stepwise infection process using a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approach. We control for variation at the first line of defence against a bacterial pathogen and expose downstream genetic variability related to the host's ability to mitigate the damage pathogens cause. In our model, the water-flea Daphnia magna, we found a single major effect QTL, explaining 64% variance, that is linked to the host's ability to completely block pathogen entry by preventing their attachment to the host oesophagus; consistent with the detection of this locus in prior studies. In susceptible hosts allowing attachment, however, a further 23 QTL, explaining between 5 to 16% variance, were mapped to traits related to the expression of disease. The general lack of pleiotropy and epistasis for traits related to the different stages of the infection process, together with the wide distribution of QTL across the genome, highlights the modular nature of a host's defence portfolio, and the potential for each different step to evolve independently. We discuss how isolating the genetic basis of individual steps can help resolve discussion over the genetic architecture of host resistance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Transepidermal water loss and skin hydration in healthy cats and cats with non-flea non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis (NFNFHD). [Journal Article]
- PJPol J Vet Sci 2019; 22(2):237-242
- Allergic skin diseases in cats are amongst the most prevalent dermatological conditions in this species. The objectives of this study were to evaluate different types of skin barrier measurements in …
Allergic skin diseases in cats are amongst the most prevalent dermatological conditions in this species. The objectives of this study were to evaluate different types of skin barrier measurements in healthy cats and cats with non-flea non-food hypersensitivity dermatitis (NFNFHD). 24 clinically healthy and 19 NFNFHD cats were included in this clinical trial. In each animal, the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration (SH) were assessed on six clipped body sites by VapoMeter SWL 4605 and Corneometer ®CM 825, respectively. Results of TEWL measurement were , significantly higher in one of the six examined body sites, namely on the lumbar area (p=0.0049). Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was found between the average TEWL values (p=0.019). Statistically notable differences were measured at least in one certain body site for SH: in the groin (p=0.02), where the values in the affected cats were lower than in the healthy individuals. These results may suggest that in NFNFHD cats transepidermal water loss is higher than in healthy cats. Skin hydration is, at least, in certain body sites, lower in atopic feline patients than in healthy individuals.
- Host plant associations in Western Palaearctic Longitarsus flea beetles (Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini): a preliminary phylogenetic assessment. [Journal Article]
- ZZookeys 2019; 856:101-114
- Longitarsus Latreille (Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) is a very large genus of phytophagous insects, with more than 700 species distributed in all zoogeographical regions. Patterns of host use…
Longitarsus Latreille (Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) is a very large genus of phytophagous insects, with more than 700 species distributed in all zoogeographical regions. Patterns of host use have been a central topic in phytophagous insect research. In this study a first assessment is provided to test the hypothesis that host-plant association is phylogenetically conserved in Western Palaearctic Longitarsus species. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods were used to infer a phylogeny based on DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes from 52 Longitarsus species from the Western Palaearctic. In agreement with the host phylogenetic conservatism hypothesis, a strict association between most of the recovered clades and specific plant families was found, except for species associated with Boraginaceae. Low phylogenetic resolution at deep nodes limited the evaluation of whether closely related Longitarsus clades are associated with the same plant family or to closely related plant families.
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- Descriptions of Two New Species and a New Subspecies of the Genus Ctenophthalmus (Insecta: Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae) from Turkey. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Entomol 2019 Jun 27
- Two new species and a new subspecies of fleas belonging to the genus Ctenophthalmus Kolenati (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae) were described from Turkey. Ctenophthalmus (Spalacoctenophthalmus) beyzan…
Two new species and a new subspecies of fleas belonging to the genus Ctenophthalmus Kolenati (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae) were described from Turkey. Ctenophthalmus (Spalacoctenophthalmus) beyzanurae n. sp. was collected from Nannospalax leucodon Nordmann (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Tekirdağ province while Ctenophthalmus (Euctenophthalmus) kefelioglui n. sp. and Ctenophthalmus (Euctenophthalmus) teres anatolicus n. ssp. were collected from Microtus guentheri (Danford & Alston) and Apodemus uralensis (Pallas) (Mammalia: Rodentia) in the Aksaray and Kars provinces of Turkey, respectively. Detailed illustrations of new taxa described were also provided.