- Upper camptocormia in Parkinson's disease: Neurophysiological and imaging findings of both central and peripheral pathophysiological mechanisms. [Journal Article]Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2020; 71:28-34PR
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that hyperactivity of OEA might sustain UCC in PD. Concurrent mild myopathic changes in TPS muscles in PD with UCC may be secondary to muscle disuse but nevertheless may contribute to abnormal trunk posture.
- Diagnostic tenoscopy of the carpal sheath with a needle arthroscope in standing sedated horses. [Journal Article]Vet Surg 2020VS
- CONCLUSIONS: Standing carpal sheath tenoscopy allowed a safe and thorough evaluation of most structures in the proximal region of the sheath and offers an alternative diagnostic technique.Horses with unrewarding results after traditional imaging or that require an accurate diagnosis before treatment may benefit from this alternative procedure.
- Plantar flexor muscle-tendon unit length and stiffness do not influence neuromuscular fatigue in boys and men. [Journal Article]Eur J Appl Physiol 2020EJ
- CONCLUSIONS: PF MTU length had no effect on differences in the development and etiology of neuromuscular fatigue between boys and men. Although both groups displayed similar development of fatigue, central mechanisms mainly accounted for fatigue in boys and peripheral mechanisms were mainly involved in men. Additionally, musculotendinous stiffness did not account for difference in peripheral fatigue between children and adults.
- The single-suture technique for anterior cruciate ligament graft preparation provides similar stability as a three-suture technique: a biomechanical in vitro study in a porcine model. [Journal Article]Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2020AO
- CONCLUSIONS: The presented single-suture tendon graft preparation resisted to smaller failure loads than the conventional three-suture technique. However, no failures in the suture-tendon interface were seen and the failure loads observed were far beyond the tension forces that can be expected intraoperatively. Hence, the single-suture graft preparation technique may be a valuable alternative to the conventional technique.
- Adenylosuccinic acid therapy ameliorates murine Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. [Journal Article]Sci Rep 2020; 10(1):1125SR
- Arising from the ablation of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a debilitating and fatal skeletal muscle wasting disease underpinned by metabolic insufficiency. The inability to facilitate adequate energy production may impede calcium (Ca2+) buffering within, and the regenerative capacity of, dystrophic muscle. Therefore, increasing the metabogenic potential…
Arising from the ablation of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a debilitating and fatal skeletal muscle wasting disease underpinned by metabolic insufficiency. The inability to facilitate adequate energy production may impede calcium (Ca2+) buffering within, and the regenerative capacity of, dystrophic muscle. Therefore, increasing the metabogenic potential could represent an effective treatment avenue. The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy of adenylosuccinic acid (ASA), a purine nucleotide cycle metabolite, to stimulate metabolism and buffer skeletal muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Dystrophin-positive control (C57BL/10) and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice were treated with ASA (3000 µg.mL-1) in drinking water. Following the 8-week treatment period, metabolism, mitochondrial density, viability and superoxide (O2-) production, as well as skeletal muscle histopathology, were assessed. ASA treatment significantly improved the histopathological features of murine DMD by reducing damage area, the number of centronucleated fibres, lipid accumulation, connective tissue infiltration and Ca2+ content of mdx tibialis anterior. These effects were independent of upregulated utrophin expression in the tibialis anterior. ASA treatment also increased mitochondrial viability in mdx flexor digitorum brevis fibres and concomitantly reduced O2- production, an effect that was also observed in cultured immortalised human DMD myoblasts. Our data indicates that ASA has a protective effect on mdx skeletal muscles.
- Improved Tetanic Force and Mitochondrial Calcium Homeostasis by Astaxanthin Treatment in Mouse Skeletal Muscle. [Journal Article]Antioxidants (Basel) 2020; 9(2)A
- CONCLUSIONS: AX supplementation increases in vitro tetanic force without affecting ECC and exerts a protecting effect on the mitochondria. Retinol treatment has an inhibitory effect on ECC in skeletal muscle.
- Combined Sprint Interval, Plyometric, and Strength Training in Adolescent Soccer Players: Effects on Measures of Speed, Strength, Power, Change of Direction, and Anaerobic Capacity. [Journal Article]J Strength Cond Res 2020JS
- Ferley, DD, Scholten, S, and Vukovich, MD. Combined sprint interval, plyometric, and strength training in adolescent soccer players: effects on measures of speed, strength, power, change of direction, and anaerobic capacity. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-During winter, many soccer players train indoors to improve the aerobic and anaerobic demands of their sport. Sprint interval trainin…
Ferley, DD, Scholten, S, and Vukovich, MD. Combined sprint interval, plyometric, and strength training in adolescent soccer players: effects on measures of speed, strength, power, change of direction, and anaerobic capacity. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-During winter, many soccer players train indoors to improve the aerobic and anaerobic demands of their sport. Sprint interval training (SIT) performed on a treadmill using level and graded conditions represents a viable alternative to traditional endurance conditioning. To date, little research exists contrasting the effects of these conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included examining the effects of 2 approaches combining SIT, plyometrics, and strength training on performance measures in soccer players aged 13-18 years over 8 weeks. Forty-six subjects were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 performed SIT using predominantly inclined treadmill conditions combined with resistance and plyometric training (INC, n = 17). Group 2 performed SIT using level treadmill grades and completed the same resistance and plyometric training (LEV, n = 14). Group 3 was a control group representing various sports who continued their normal training (CON, n = 15). Pre- and posttests assessed speed, strength, change of direction, and anaerobic capacity, including sprint speed (9.1 and 18.3 m sprint), unilateral triple hop for distance (3HOP_L and 3HOP_R), pro agility change of direction (PA); treadmill running to exhaustion on a 20% grade (CFMod), and hip flexor maximum strength (HF_1RM). After training, INC and LEV improved more in all measures compared with CON. Furthermore, INC improved significantly more compared with LEV in 9.1- and 18.3-m sprint, 3HOP_L and 3HOP_R, PA, CFMod, and HF_1RM (p < 0.05). We conclude that strength and plyometric training combined with incline-based SIT is more effective than a similar training approach using level-grade SIT.
- Do Double-fan Surgical Helmet Systems Result in Less Gown-Particle Contamination Than Single-fan Designs? [Journal Article]Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020CO
- CONCLUSIONS: We found no difference in gown particle contamination between a single-fan and a double-fan helmet design. However, we note that contamination was present in all tests with both systems, so surgeons should not assume that these systems provide a contamination-free environment.When using such helmets, the surgeon should not place items close to the axillary region because the seam of the gown may have low resistance to particle contamination. Gown designs could be improved by creating better seals, especially at the arm-body seam.
- The Double Krackow Suture Technique Does Not Offer a Significant Benefit Compared to the Krackow Suture Technique in Subpectoral Biceps Tenodesis Using a Double-Loaded Suture Anchor. [Journal Article]Arthroscopy 2020A
- CONCLUSIONS: In this subpectoral biceps tenodesis model, both the KS technique and the DKS technique had similar time 0 biomechanical properties that were better than those of the double simple suture technique.A sturdy suture-tendon structure could prevent clinical failure of a subpectoral biceps tenodesis using a suture anchor.
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- StatPearls: Median Nerve Injury [BOOK]StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)BOOK
- The median nerve, also called the 'eye of the hand,' is a mixed nerve with a role of primary importance in the functionality of the hand. It innervates the group of flexor-pronator muscles in the forearm and most of the musculature present in the radial portion of the hand, controlling abduction of the thumb, flexion of the hand at the wrist, flexion of the digital phalanx of the fingers. Again t…
The median nerve, also called the 'eye of the hand,' is a mixed nerve with a role of primary importance in the functionality of the hand. It innervates the group of flexor-pronator muscles in the forearm and most of the musculature present in the radial portion of the hand, controlling abduction of the thumb, flexion of the hand at the wrist, flexion of the digital phalanx of the fingers. Again the nerve allows the sensory innervation to the flying face of the thumb, index, middle and radial side of the ring finger and the entire palmar region of the radial half of the hand. It also provides sensitivity to the dorsal skin of the last two phalanges of the index and middle fingers. The nerve forms in the cervical area of the spinal cord from the medial and lateral cord of the brachial plexus. These cords form from the ventral primary rami of cervical nerve roots five to eight, as well as, the first thoracic spinal segment. The median nerve descends medially to the brachial artery at the level of the humerus and enters the forearm between the two heads of pronator teres. The nerve is very superficial in the cubital fossa and lies deep to bicipital aponeurosis. In the forearm, the median nerve lies deep to the flexor digitorum superficialis and superficial to flexor digitorum profundus. It then enters the palm under the flexor retinaculum lateral to the tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis and posterior to the tendon of palmaris longus. Pathology and injury to the median nerve can occur anywhere along the length of the median nerve. Of note, in the arm, there are no muscles innervated by the median nerve. Although a branch to pronator teres is innervated proximal to the elbow joint, there are a few vascular branches of the median nerve that supply to the brachial artery and articular branches of the median nerve innervate the elbow joint. In the forearm, the median nerve innervates the flexor digitorum superficialis, pronator teres, the medial half of the pronator quadratus, the palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, and flexor carpi radialis. Furthermore, in the hand, the flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus are innervated by the anterior interossei branch of the median nerve. Articular branches of the median nerve feed the carpal joints, distal radioulnar, and radiocarpal joint. Multiple communicating branches of the median nerve connect to the ulnar nerve. The median nerve innervates the muscles of the thenar compartments of the palm, flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, and adductor pollicis. Also, the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve innervates the skin over the thenar eminences and lateral two and a half fingers on the palmar aspect of the hand and the skin over the two and a half fingers over the dorsum of the hand. The median nerve can be affected by acute traumatic, chronic micro traumatic, and compressive lesions. The nerve can also become damaged during multiple-cause degenerative processes and neuropathies. The different types of lesions can affect the median nerve at various levels along its long path from the brachial plexus and axilla to the hand. Neuropathies mainly concern the distal territory. Peripherally, the median nerve can become compressed under the fascial sheath of the flexor retinaculum, which often causes burning pain, numbness, and tingling (neuropathic pain). This condition is known as entrapment syndrome or carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel syndrome pain is explainable as a needle and pin sensation, along with the distribution of the median nerve. The condition is idiopathic and is also associated with hypothyroidism, pregnancy, and diabetes. Decreased sensation over a patient's thenar eminence is an indication of a medial nerve injury that is proximal to the carpal tunnel. The sensation of the thenar eminence receives its nerve supply by a branch of the median nerve, which is proximal to the carpal tunnel, the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve. Clinically, symptoms can be intermittent with flares and remissions.