- BDE-209 induces autophagy and apoptosis via IRE1α/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2019 Jul 10; 253:429-438
- Recently, the essentiality and fatalness of cardiovascular diseases is attracting much attention. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental pollutants, which could induce th…
Recently, the essentiality and fatalness of cardiovascular diseases is attracting much attention. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental pollutants, which could induce the toxic effect and have been implicated in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unclear how autophagy and apoptosis induced by BDE-209 in endothelial cells are regulated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of BDE-209 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and elucidate the mechanisms involved. HUVECs were treated with a wide range concentration of BDE-209 for 24 h. The appearance of autophagy was tested by the testing index such as outcomes of monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and lysotracker staining, observation of autophagosomes and conversion between autophagy marker light chain 3 (LC3)-I and LC3-II. Besides, the apoptotic cell rate was detected with flow cytometry. In addition, BDE-209 induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our data suggest that the exposure of BDE-209 could induce autophagy, which was confirmed by MDC staining, transmission electron microscopy observation, lysotracker staining and LC3-I/LC3-II conversion. Besides, the ER stress-related inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway could be activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) to regulate autophagy. Moreover, the apoptosis of endothelial cells was alleviated when autophagy was blocked by 3-Methyladenine (3-MA). The results demonstrated that BDE-209 could induce the production of ROS and ER stress, activate autophagy through IRE1α/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and ultimately induce apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. These findings indicate that exposure to PBDE is possible to be a potential risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.
- TOP-GAN: Stain-free cancer cell classification using deep learning with a small training set. [Journal Article]
- MIMed Image Anal 2019 Jun 26; 57:176-185
- We propose a new deep learning approach for medical imaging that copes with the problem of a small training set, the main bottleneck of deep learning, and apply it for classification of healthy and c…
We propose a new deep learning approach for medical imaging that copes with the problem of a small training set, the main bottleneck of deep learning, and apply it for classification of healthy and cancer cell lines acquired by quantitative phase imaging. The proposed method, called transferring of pre-trained generative adversarial network (TOP-GAN), is hybridization between transfer learning and generative adversarial networks (GANs). Healthy cells and cancer cells of different metastatic potential have been imaged by low-coherence off-axis holography. After the acquisition, the optical path delay maps of the cells are extracted and directly used as inputs to the networks. In order to cope with the small number of classified images, we use GANs to train a large number of unclassified images from another cell type (sperm cells). After this preliminary training, we change the last layers of the network and design automatic classifiers for the correct cell type (healthy/primary cancer/metastatic cancer) with 90-99% accuracies, although small training sets of down to several images are used. These results are better in comparison to other classic methods that aim at coping with the same problem of a small training set. We believe that our approach makes the combination of holographic microscopy and deep learning networks more accessible to the medical field by enabling a rapid, automatic and accurate classification in stain-free imaging flow cytometry. Furthermore, our approach is expected to be applicable to many other medical image classification tasks, suffering from a small training set.
- miR-125a-5p Functions as Tumor Suppressor microRNA And Is a Marker of Locoregional Recurrence And Poor prognosis in Head And Neck Cancer. [Journal Article]
- NNeoplasia 2019 Jul 17; 21(9):849-862
- MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded RNAs, measuring 21 to 23 nucleotides in length and regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through mRNA destabilization or repressing p…
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded RNAs, measuring 21 to 23 nucleotides in length and regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through mRNA destabilization or repressing protein synthesis. Dysregulation of miRNAs can lead to tumorigenesis through changes in regulation of key cellular processes such as cell proliferation, cell survival, and apoptosis. miR-125a-5p has been implicated as a tumor suppressor miRNA in malignancies such as non-small cell lung cancer and colon cancer. However, the role of miR-125a-5p has not been fully investigated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We performed microRNA microarray profiling of HNSCC tumor samples obtained from a prospective clinical trial evaluating the role of postoperative radiotherapy in head and neck cancer. We also mined through The Cancer Genome Atlas to evaluate expression and survival data. Biological experiments, including cell proliferation, flow cytometry, cell migration and invasion, clonogenic survival, and fluorescent microscopy, were conducted using HN5 and UM-SCC-22B cell lines. miR-125a-5p downregulation was associated with recurrent disease in a panel of high-risk HNSCC and then confirmed poor survival associated with low expression in HNSCC via the Cancer Genome Atlas, suggesting that miR-125a-5p acts as a tumor suppressor miRNA. We then demonstrated that miR-125a-5p regulates cell proliferation through cell cycle regulation at the G1/S transition. We also show that miR-125a-5p can alter cell migration and modulate sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Finally, we identified putative mRNA targets of miR-125a-5p, including ERBB2, EIF4EBP1, and TXNRD1, which support the tumor suppressive mechanism of miR-125a-5p. Functional validation of ERBB2 suggests that miR-125a-5p affects cell proliferation and sensitivity to ionizing radiation, in part, through ERBB2. Our data suggests that miR-125a-5p acts as a tumor suppressor miRNA, has potential as a diagnostic tool and may be a potential therapeutic target for the management and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
- Benzoquinones from Cyperus spp. trigger IRE1α-independent and PERK-dependent ER stress in human stomach cancer cells and are novel proteasome inhibitors. [Journal Article]
- PPhytomedicine 2019 Jul 04; 63:153017
- CONCLUSIONS: Hydroxycyperaquinone is a novel sub-micromolar inhibitor of the 20S catalytic core of the 26S proteasome, causing cell death via IRE1α-independent/PERK-dependent pathways in stomach cancer cells. Its presence in products consumed orally may be of relevance for gastric tumors.
- Collagen type-V is a danger signal associated with primary graft dysfunction in lung transplantation. [Journal Article]
- TITranspl Immunol 2019 Jul 17; :101224
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that col.(V) is an rapidly recognized by B cells and has specific transcriptional signature. In lung transplants recipients the rapid seroconversion to anti-col(V) Ab is linked to increased risk of grade 3 PGD.
- Wuhu Decoction Regulates Dendritic Cell Autophagy in the Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-Induced Mouse Asthma by AMPK/ULK1 Signaling Pathway. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sci Monit 2019 Jul 20; 25:5389-5400
- CONCLUSIONS: Wuhu decoction may improve the RSV-induced asthmatic symptoms by enhancing autophagy of DCs in lung tissue dependent on the AMPK/ULK1 signaling pathway.
- Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Induce Intestinal Damage and Thrombotic Tendency in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Crohns Colitis 2019 Jul 20
- CONCLUSIONS: NETs exacerbate colon tissue damage and drive thrombotic tendency during active IBD. Strategies directed against NET formation may offer a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of IBD.
- High specificity of widely used phospho-tau antibodies validated using a quantitative whole-cell based assay. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurochem 2019 Jul 20
- Antibodies raised against defined phosphorylation sites of the microtubule-associated protein tau are widely used in scientific research and being applied in clinical assays. However, recent studies …
Antibodies raised against defined phosphorylation sites of the microtubule-associated protein tau are widely used in scientific research and being applied in clinical assays. However, recent studies have revealed an alarming degree of non-specific binding found in these antibodies. In order to quantify and compare the specificity phospho-tau antibodies and other post-translational modification site-specific antibodies in general, a measure of specificity is urgently needed. Here we report a robust flow cytometry assay using human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells that enables the determination of a specificity parameter termed Φ, which measures the fraction of non-specific signal in antibody binding. We validate our assay using anti-tau antibodies with known specificity profiles, and apply it to measure the specificity of 7 widely used phospho-tau antibodies (AT270, AT8, AT100, AT180, PHF-6, TG-3, and PHF-1) among others. We successfully determined the Φ values for all antibodies except AT100, which did not show detectable binding in our assay. Our results show that antibodies AT8, AT180, PHF-6, TG-3, and PHF-1 have Φ values near 1, which indicates no detectable non-specific binding. AT270 showed Φ value around 0.8, meaning that approximately 20% of the binding signal originates from non-specific binding. Further analyses using immunocytochemistry and western blotting confirmed the presence of non-specific binding of AT270 to non-tau proteins found in HEK cells and the mouse hippocampus. We anticipate that the quantitative approach and parameter introduced here will be widely adopted as a standard for reporting the specificity for phospho-tau antibodies, and potentially for post-translational modification targeting antibodies in general. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Peri-operative monocyte count is a marker of poor prognosis in gastric cancer: increased monocytes are a characteristic of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. [Journal Article]
- CICancer Immunol Immunother 2019 Jul 19
- Gastric cancer (GC) is the most common malignant tumor in digestive organs, and the prognosis of GC patients who have undergone surgery remains poor because of frequent recurrence. Therefore, the ide…
Gastric cancer (GC) is the most common malignant tumor in digestive organs, and the prognosis of GC patients who have undergone surgery remains poor because of frequent recurrence. Therefore, the identification of new markers to predict the outcome of these patients is needed. Monocyte count is a negative prognostic factor associated with inflammation. We investigated the relationship between peripheral monocytes in the peri-operative period and prognosis in GC patients. A high pre-operative monocyte count was identified as a prognostic factor in a retrospective analysis of 278 stage II and III GC patients who underwent curative gastrectomy. In contrast, an increased post-operative monocyte count compared to the pre-operative monocyte count was a marker of poor prognosis, particularly for early relapse. In a prospective analysis of 75 GC patients, a subset of the increased post-operative monocytes was similar to CD14+ HLA-DR- CD11b+ CD33+ cells by flow cytometry, and these monocytes produced IDO and arginase and suppressed T cell functions; therefore, we classified these cells as monocytic myeloid-derived suppressive cells (M-MDSCs). Peri-operative neutrophils and C-reactive protein (CRP), which are also related to inflammation, did not affect the prognosis of GC patients, and a neutrophil immunosuppressive function was not observed. These results suggest that peripheral monocytes in the peri-operative period in GC patients are a useful marker for the prognosis of GC patients, and a subset of increased post-operative monocytes may be characterized as M-MDSCs.
New Search Next
- Label-free chemical imaging flow cytometry by high-speed multicolor stimulated Raman scattering. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Jul 19
- Combining the strength of flow cytometry with fluorescence imaging and digital image analysis, imaging flow cytometry is a powerful tool in diverse fields including cancer biology, immunology, drug d…
Combining the strength of flow cytometry with fluorescence imaging and digital image analysis, imaging flow cytometry is a powerful tool in diverse fields including cancer biology, immunology, drug discovery, microbiology, and metabolic engineering. It enables measurements and statistical analyses of chemical, structural, and morphological phenotypes of numerous living cells to provide systematic insights into biological processes. However, its utility is constrained by its requirement of fluorescent labeling for phenotyping. Here we present label-free chemical imaging flow cytometry to overcome the issue. It builds on a pulse pair-resolved wavelength-switchable Stokes laser for the fastest-to-date multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy of fast-flowing cells on a 3D acoustic focusing microfluidic chip, enabling an unprecedented throughput of up to ∼140 cells/s. To show its broad utility, we use the SRS imaging flow cytometry with the aid of deep learning to study the metabolic heterogeneity of microalgal cells and perform marker-free cancer detection in blood.