- An influent responsive control strategy with machine learning: Q-learning based optimization method for a biological phosphorus removal system. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2019 Jun 14; 234:893-901
- Biological phosphorus removal (BPR) is an economical and sustainable processes for the removal of phosphorus (P) from wastewater, achieved by recirculating activated sludge through anaerobic and aero…
Biological phosphorus removal (BPR) is an economical and sustainable processes for the removal of phosphorus (P) from wastewater, achieved by recirculating activated sludge through anaerobic and aerobic (An/Ae) processes. However, few studies have systematically analyzed the optimal hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in anaerobic and aerobic reactions, or whether these are the most appropriate control strategies. In this study, a novel optimization methodology using an improved Q-learning (QL) algorithm was developed, to optimize An/Ae HRTs in a BPR system. A framework for QL-based BPR control strategies was established and the improved Q function, Qt+1(st,st+1)=Qt(st,st+1)+k·[R(st,st+1)+γ·maxatQt(st,st+1)-Qt(st,st+1)] was derived. Based on the improved Q function and the state transition matrices obtained under different HRT step-lengths, the optimum combinations of HRTs in An/Ae processes in any BPR system could be obtained, in terms of the ordered pair combinations of the <current state-transition state>. Model verification was performed by applying six different influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations, varying from 150 to 600 mg L-1 and influent P concentrations, varying from 12 to 30 mg L-1. Superior and stable effluent qualities were observed with the optimal control strategies. This indicates that the proposed novel QL-based BPR model performed properly and the derived Q functions successfully realized real-time modelling, with stable optimal control strategies under fluctuant influent loads during wastewater treatment processes.
- Interesterified blend-based and physical blend-based special fats: Storage stability under fluctuating temperatures. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sci Food Agric 2019 Jun 28
- CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest IBSF can better maintain its quality during the fluctuating temperatures storage than PBSF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Abdominal Wall Abscess Secondary to Cholecystocutaneous Fistula via Percutaneous Cholecystostomy Tract. [Case Reports]
- CCureus 2019 Apr 12; 11(4):e4444
- Cholecystocutaneous fistulas (CCFs) are an increasingly rare consequence of chronic gallbladder inflammation and disease. Historically, they were commonly noted in the literature by Courvoisier, Naun…
Cholecystocutaneous fistulas (CCFs) are an increasingly rare consequence of chronic gallbladder inflammation and disease. Historically, they were commonly noted in the literature by Courvoisier, Naunyn, and Bonnet in the late 1800s. Due to improvements in diagnostic imaging and treatment options in the last century, there has been a marked decrease in the incidence of the CCF cases in the literature. From the late 1890s to 1949, there were only 37 cases presented in the literature; only 28 cases have been reported since 2007. This case is only the second noted CCF in the literature that followed percutaneous cholecystostomy drain placement and removal. General surgery was consulted on a 60-year-old morbidly obese female, who presented to the emergency department after one week of fever, right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain, nausea, emesis, and shortness of breath. She had a history of acute cholecystitis treated with a cholecystostomy tube the year prior, but after the removal of the tube, she was lost to follow up. She was found to have a 14cm x 5cm fluctuant abdominal wall abscess in her RUQ that was treated with incision and drainage (I&D) along with ertapenem. She continued to improve until day 7 post-I&D when yellowish-green discharge was noted draining from the wound. After a negative hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan, a follow-up abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed a contracted gallbladder with fistula formation underlying the abscess location, near the site of her prior cholecystostomy tube. A robotic-assisted cholecystectomy was performed, which improved the wound drainage, and the patient was discharged home 5 days later. This case is the only noted CCF presenting as a RUQ abscess after cholecystostomy drain placement. The patient lacks follow up after the removal of her percutaneous drain and continued inflammation in the gallbladder provided perfect nidus for the fistula formation. As seen in other CCF patients, cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice, and this case was successfully treated via robotic-assisted cholecystectomy with adhesiolysis.
- Comparative investigation on carbon-based moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for synchronous removal of phenols and ammonia in treating coal pyrolysis wastewater at pilot-scale. [Journal Article]
- BTBioresour Technol 2019; 288:121590
- By regulating the extraction solvent and alkali in pretreatment, two carbon-based MBBRs were compared in pilot-scale to synchronously remove phenols and ammonia of coal pyrolysis wastewater (CPW) und…
By regulating the extraction solvent and alkali in pretreatment, two carbon-based MBBRs were compared in pilot-scale to synchronously remove phenols and ammonia of coal pyrolysis wastewater (CPW) under fluctuant phenols-ammonia loadings. It revealed that lignite activated coke (LAC)-based MBBR performed more stable with phenols increasing (250-550 mg/L), and reached higher tolerance limit to ammonia (>320 mg/L) than activated carbon (AC)-based MBBR under fluctuant ammonia loadings. During the phenols-ammonia synchronous removal process, the LAC provided the firm basis for shock resistance due to superior resilient adsorption capacity, enhanced sludge property and microbial cooperation. Furthermore, microbial analysis revealed that the strengthened collaboration between archaea and facultative bacteria played the primary role in phenols-ammonia synchronous degradation. Specifically, the heterotrophic bacteria consumed phenols-ammonia by partial nitrification process and ammonia assimilation, following by denitrifying process to further eliminate phenols. The multifunctional Comamonas was the critical genus participating in all procedures.
- Case report: right-sided native endocarditis presenting with multiple abscess formations [care compliant]. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2019; 98(24):e15961
- CONCLUSIONS: This case arose as a sequela of staphylococcal endocarditis associated with persistent bacteremia and immunological dysregulation. The diagnosis of right-sided endocarditis is easily missing, multidisciplinary approach should be triggered as soon as possible, which might lead to a better outcome. Right-sided IE is still an important public health issue in southern Taiwan.
- [Epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China, 2017]. [Journal Article]
- ZLZhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 May 10; 40(5):526-530
- CONCLUSIONS: By 2017, the human rabies incidence in China had declined consecutively for ten years, more cases were reported in southern area than in northern area. The case number showed downward trends in provinces with high incidences and fluctuant increase in provinces with low incidence. Rabies cases mainly occurred in rural areas, and most cases were men and farmers. Low rate of post exposure prophylaxis, low rates of vaccination and passive immunization product injection were main causes for the onset of human rabies. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for human rabies, especially in rural areas, health education about treatment after rabies exposure and expend the coverage of canine immunization.
- Rosacea fulminans: two case reports and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dermatolog Treat 2019 Jul 10; :1-4
- Rosacea fulminans is a rare and severe inflammatory dermatosis which affects predominantly childbearing women. It is characterized by sudden onset and it usually localizes exclusively on the centrofa…
Rosacea fulminans is a rare and severe inflammatory dermatosis which affects predominantly childbearing women. It is characterized by sudden onset and it usually localizes exclusively on the centrofacial areas, presenting with numerous fluctuant inflammatory nodules and papules which may coalesce. Treatment with isotretinoin in combination with topical and systemic corticosteroids is successful. Clearance of lesions may be obtained under systemic treatment with no or minimal scarring outcomes. Due to rare incidence its pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnosis and management remain controversial. We report two cases of rosacea fulminans arisen in otherwise healthy people and completely healed after treatment. Our aim is to share our experience about this disease in order to increase knowledge about its diagnosis, management and its treatment. We also make a review of the literature of this peculiar dermatosis.
- The application of Compont gel in chronic obstructive jaundice rats model. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Cir Bras 2019; 34(5):e201900504
- CONCLUSIONS: Intra-biliary injection of Compont gel is different from the classic obstructive jaundice animal model caused by classic bile duct ligation, which can provide an ideal rat model of chronic obstructive jaundice with liver fibrosis.
- Primary Supraclavicular Cystic Lymphangioma in an Adult: A Rare Presentation. [Case Reports]
- JCJ Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2019; 29(6):S11-S12
- Cervicothoracic cystic lymphangiomas are found commonly in children less than 2 years of age, but the same are rare in adults. These form as a result of abberant development of embryonic lymph sac wh…
Cervicothoracic cystic lymphangiomas are found commonly in children less than 2 years of age, but the same are rare in adults. These form as a result of abberant development of embryonic lymph sac which is gradually filled with lymph fluid.1 They are commonly found in the head and neck region but can be present anywhere in the body. Preoperative diagnosis is based on careful history of a soft, painless, fluctuant, gradually enlarging mass and imaging. Surgery constitutes the basis of treatment and provides postoperative confirmation of diagnosis via histology. We, here report a case of cervicothoracic cystic lymphangioma in a 24-year male. The rationale of reporting this case is to discuss its presentation, diagnosis and surgical management. Moreover, we also want to highlight its scarcity in adults, the swelling being a diagnostic challenge and role of histology in affirmative diagnosis.
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- In situ calibration of Direct Analysis in Real Time-mass spectrometry for direct quantification: Urine excretion rate index creatinine as an example. [Journal Article]
- TTalanta 2019 Aug 15; 201:134-142
- Ambient ionization in open environment brings a capability of a coupled mass spectrometry to detect target molecules in situ. However, it is limited to qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis. By …
Ambient ionization in open environment brings a capability of a coupled mass spectrometry to detect target molecules in situ. However, it is limited to qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis. By coupling of an ambient ionization-based Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) with high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF/MS), we observe that, in one-chemical system, the target molecule displays a non-linear response in MS signal vs concentration, accompanying with large variation in MS signal, suggesting two obstacles for quantification to be overcome. Surprisingly, in a two-chemical system, we observe an apparent suppression effect. We prove that, due to this observed suppression effect, a fluctuant response in the MS signal of the stable isotope-labeled analogue can immediately reflect the change in the analyte concentration and ionization efficiency. For example, by taking advantage of this effect, even the analyte of different concentrations despairingly displayed similar signals would be accurately calibrated through the suppression of the internal stable isotope standard. This puts an important foundation on accurate and linear quantitation of analytes in complex matrix using DART-MS assay. Moreover, we for the first time demonstrate an application of in situ calibration of DART-MS for direct and accurate quantification of target molecule (creatinine) in highly complex samples (human urine) without any pre-separation. The quantification is also validated using HPLC-UV analysis (n = 38). At last, we show that stable isotope-labeled-creatinine (m/z 117.0850 amu) can be used for simultaneous in situ calibration of some other urinary metabolites with a mass/charge ratio varying from 120.069 amu to 333.125 amu.