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(focused history and physical examination)
1,209 results
  • Global consensus on nutritional rickets: Implications for Australia. [Journal Article]
    J Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Jun; 56(6):841-846.Siafarikas A, Simm P, … APEG Bone and Mineral Working Group
  • In 2016, a global consensus on the prevention, diagnosis and management of nutritional rickets was published. The bone and mineral working group of the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group provides a summary and highlights differences to previous Australian and New Zealand (ANZ) guidelines on vitamin D deficiency and their implications for clinicians. Key points are: (i) The International Cons…
  • Common data elements of breast cancer for research databases: A systematic review. [Review]
    J Family Med Prim Care. 2020 Mar; 9(3):1296-1301.Mirbagheri E, Ahmadi M, Salmanian S
  • CONCLUSIONS: The integration of biomedical and clinical data relevant to breast cancer enhances the power of research variable analysis and statistical analysis, thereby facilitating improved knowledge of effective therapeutic interventions. Also CDEs used to collect, store, and retrieve patient data in various health setting such as primary care and research databases.
  • Lateral Ligament Instability: Review of Pathology and Diagnosis. [Review]
    Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2020 Jun 03 [Online ahead of print]Hur ES, Bohl DD, Lee S
  • Ankle sprains are a common injury that can lead to chronic lateral ankle instability resulting in pain, poor function, and decreased quality of life. The purpose of this review is to present information regarding injury mechanisms to the lateral ligaments of the ankle and the necessary steps to appropriately diagnose lateral ligament instability.
  • Clinical and Genetic Overview of Paroxysmal Movement Disorders and Episodic Ataxias. [Review]
    Int J Mol Sci. 2020 May 20; 21(10)Garone G, Capuano A, … Nicita F
  • Paroxysmal movement disorders (PMDs) are rare neurological diseases typically manifesting with intermittent attacks of abnormal involuntary movements. Two main categories of PMDs are recognized based on the phenomenology: Paroxysmal dyskinesias (PxDs) are characterized by transient episodes hyperkinetic movement disorders, while attacks of cerebellar dysfunction are the hallmark of episodic ataxi…
  • Abnormal Basic Metabolic Panel Findings: Implications for Nursing. [Journal Article]
    Am J Nurs. 2020 Jun; 120(6):58-66.Bertschi LA
  • In this article, the second in a new series designed to improve acute care nurses' understanding of laboratory abnormalities, the author continues her discussion of important values in the basic metabolic panel (see Back to Basics, January, for a discussion of sodium and fluid balance). Here she addresses the electrolytes potassium and chloride as well as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, four …
  • Study of 700 Referrals to a Lymphedema Program. [Journal Article]
    Lymphat Res Biol. 2020 Apr 29 [Online ahead of print]Sudduth CL, Maclellan RA, Greene AK
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with lymphedema typically are adequately managed with conservative compression therapies and rarely require excisional operations. Diagnostic confusion is common and individuals with possible lymphedema are best managed by physicians focused on the disease.
  • When to Suspect a Diagnosis of Amyloidosis. [Review]
    Acta Haematol. 2020 Apr 27 [Online ahead of print]Vaxman I, Gertz M
  • Amyloidosis is a group of complex diseases caused by extracellular deposition of pathological insoluble fibrillary protein in organs and tissues and may result in severe organ dysfunction. Despite the etiological heterogeneity of systemic amyloidosis, the clinical manifestations of the different forms of amyloidosis largely overlap and depend upon the effected organ. The signs and symptoms that s…
  • An overview of general practitioner consultations in China: a direct observational study. [Journal Article]
    Fam Pract. 2020 Apr 20 [Online ahead of print]Zhong C, Luo Z, … Kuang L
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study described the profile of GP consultations and illustrated the complexity of care provided by GPs in China. As patient activation in GP consultations becomes increasingly important, future studies need to explore how to promote the engagement of patients in the whole consultation process other than just requesting for medicine.
  • Frequent Headaches: Evaluation and Management. [Journal Article]
    Am Fam Physician. 2020 Apr 01; 101(7):419-428.Walling A
  • Most frequent headaches are typically migraine or tension-type headaches and are often exacerbated by medication overuse. Repeated headaches can induce central sensitization and transformation to chronic headaches that are intractable, are difficult to treat, and cause significant morbidity and costs. A complete history is essential to identify the most likely headache type, indications of seriou…
  • Temporal tendinosis: A cause of chronic orofacial pain. [Review]
    Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2020 Mar 21; 24(5):18.Bressler HB, Markus M, … Friedman L
  • Diverse musculoskeletal disorders and neuropathic symptoms of the face pose significant diagnostic challenges. In particular, temporal tendinosis is generally overlooked in the medical and dental literature and is therefore a poorly understood topic and often problematic cause of chronic orofacial pain. In this article, we explore temporal tendinosis as a cause of unresolved orofacial pain by rev…
  • Physical, Laboratory, Radiographic, and Endoscopic Workup for Clostridium difficile Colitis. [Review]
    Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2020 Mar; 33(2):82-86.Baker SJ, Chu DI
  • Clostridium (reclassified as " Clostridioides ") difficile colitis is a common nosocomial infection associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Like many clinical encounters, a focused history and physical examination will help to guide initial management. Further laboratory testing will assist with diagnosis through stool studies, and blood tests, such as white blood cell counts and serum…
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Parkinson Disease: A Review. [Review]
    JAMA. 2020 02 11; 323(6):548-560.Armstrong MJ, Okun MS
  • CONCLUSIONS: Parkinson disease is a heterogeneous disease with rapidly and slowly progressive forms. Treatment involves pharmacologic approaches (typically with levodopa preparations prescribed with or without other medications) and nonpharmacologic approaches (such as exercise and physical, occupational, and speech therapies). Approaches such as deep brain stimulation and treatment with levodopa-carbidopa enteral suspension can help individuals with medication-resistant tremor, worsening symptoms when the medication wears off, and dyskinesias.
  • Chronic Lower Leg Pain in Athletes: Overview of Presentation and Management. [Review]
    HSS J. 2020 Feb; 16(1):86-100.Mohile N, Perez J, … Jose J
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multiple conditions may result in lower leg pain in athletes. A focused clinical history and physical examination supplemented with appropriate imaging studies can guide clinicians in diagnosis and management. We provide a table to aid in the differential diagnosis of chronic leg pain in the athlete.
  • Defining "Swarming" as a New Model to Optimize Efficiency and Education in an Academic Emergency Department. [Journal Article]
    AEM Educ Train. 2020 Jan; 4(1):43-53.Perniciaro JL, Schmidt AR, … Liu DR
  • CONCLUSIONS: Swarming is currently implemented with significant variability but results in high provider and family satisfaction. There is also consensus among physicians that swarming improves trainee education in the emergency setting. The benefits and barriers to swarming are underscored by the unpredictable nature of the ED and the observed variability in implementation. Our findings provide a critical foundation for our efforts to refine, standardize, and appraise our swarming model.
  • Focused cardiac ultrasound in preoperative assessment: the perioperative provider's new stethoscope? [Review]
    Perioper Med (Lond). 2019; 8:16.Lenk T, Whittle J, … Bronshteyn YS
  • Focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS)-a simplified, qualitative version of echocardiography-is a well-established tool in the armamentarium of critical care and emergency medicine. This review explores the extent to which FoCUS could also be used to enhance the preoperative physical examination to better utilise resources and identify those who would benefit most from detailed echocardiography prior…
  • Diagnosis and Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Children. [Journal Article]
    Pediatr Ann. 2019 Dec 01; 48(12):e485-e488.Brown T
  • Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common chronic diseases managed by pediatricians. It can result in a significant burden of disease for the patient and their family. This article reviews classification of this condition as well as its pathophysiology, mediated by a Th2 lymphocyte response. Methods of diagnosis via elicitation of a thorough history, focused physical examination, and testing fo…
  • Acute Kidney Injury: Diagnosis and Management. [Journal Article]
    Am Fam Physician. 2019 12 01; 100(11):687-694.Mercado MG, Smith DK, Guard EL
  • Acute kidney injury is a clinical syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate and resultant accumulation of metabolic waste products. Acute kidney injury is associated with an increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular events, and progression to chronic kidney disease. Severity of acute kidney injury is classified according to urine output and elevations in creatinine…
  • Cardio-oncological management of patients. [Review]
    Semin Oncol. 2019 12; 46(6):408-413.Cardinale DM, Barac A, … Minotti G
  • Session III of the Second International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology focused on the diagnosis, management, and prevention of cardiovascular toxicity of cancer drugs. With a large menu of biomarkers and imaging modalities available to the cardio oncologist, there continues to be no consensus regarding the best use of each modality alone and in combination and whether we can actually prevent early…
  • Emergency Medicine Orthopedic Assessment: Pearls and Pitfalls. [Review]
    Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2020 Feb; 38(1):1-13.Sayal A
  • Acute musculoskeletal injuries are commonly seen in our emergency departments, and are commonly missed. There are many reasons for more missed injures and a significant one is over-reliance on radiographs. An emergency department orthopedic assessment goes far beyond the radiographs. A focused, yet comprehensive history is vital to understand the forces and mechanism of injury. That injury must b…
  • StatPearls: Stroke Anticoagulation [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Abbas Malak M Beaumont Health Malicke David T. DT Beaumont Health Schramski Joseph T. JT Beaumont Dearborn BOOK
  • Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability worldwide.[1][2] As medical management advances, the incidence and mortality rate of stroke declines, with the majority of strokes presenting as ischemic strokes vs. hemorrhagic strokes. As such, the focus of this article will be on ischemic strokes. Various etiologies lead to ischemic stroke, including both modifiable and non-…
  • Treatment of First-time Patellar Dislocations and Evaluation of Risk Factors for Recurrent Patellar Instability. [Review]
    Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2019 Dec; 27(4):130-135.Martin RK, Leland DP, … Dahm DL
  • Approximately one-third of skeletally mature patients with primary patellar dislocation will experience recurrent patellar instability over time. Because of the multifactorial combination of features contributing to overall stability of the patellofemoral joint, first-time patella dislocation presents a challenge to the treating physician. A detailed patient history, focused physical examination,…
  • Oncologic Emergencies: The Fever With Too Few Neutrophils. [Journal Article]
    J Emerg Med. 2019 Nov; 57(5):689-700.Long B, Koyfman A
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neutropenic fever is defined by fever with oral temperature >38.3°C or temperature >38.0°C for 1 hour with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 1000 cells/microL. Patients who have received chemotherapy within 6 weeks of presentation are at high risk for neutropenia. While most patients with neutropenic fever do not have an identifiable bacterial source of fever, clinicians should treat patients for bacterial infection. Rapid assessment and management are vital to improving outcomes in patients with suspected or confirmed neutropenic fever. History and examination should focus on the most common sites of infection: the gastrointestinal tract, blood, skin, lung, and urinary tract. However, physical examination and laboratory or imaging assessment may not display classic signs of infection. Blood cultures should be obtained, and broad-spectrum antibiotics are recommended. Oncology consultation is an integral component in the care of these patients. Several risk scores can assist in stratifying patients who may be appropriate for discharge home and follow-up.Neutropenic fever is an oncologic emergency. Rapid diagnosis and care of patients with neutropenic fever can improve outcomes, along with oncology consultation.
  • Preventive Cardiology as a Subspecialty of Cardiovascular Medicine: JACC Council Perspectives. [Historical Article]
    J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 10 15; 74(15):1926-1942.Shapiro MD, Maron DJ, … Fazio S
  • Although significant progress has been made to reduce the global burden of cardiovascular disease, efforts have focused primarily on treatment of manifest disease rather than on prevention of events. An enormous opportunity exists to transition focus from intervention to providing equal attention to prevention of cardiovascular disease. The nascent specialty of "preventive cardiology" is emerging…
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