- High proportion of coxsackievirus B3 genotype A in hand, foot and mouth disease in Zhenjiang, China, 2011-2016. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Infect Dis 2019 Jul 19
- CONCLUSIONS: This high prevalence of CVB3 genotype A among HFMD children has never been reported. This phenomenon has revealed a new epidemic trend of CVB3 among HFMD in China, and it has epidemiological implications for monitoring the epidemic risk of CVB3.
- FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS). [Journal Article]
- JWJ Wildl Dis 2019 Jul 22
- The only known outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in wildlife in the US occurred in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California in 1924-25. There is little recorded information on the pathoge…
The only known outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in wildlife in the US occurred in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California in 1924-25. There is little recorded information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the disease in deer in that outbreak. In this experimental study, we compared the susceptibility of mule deer to FMD virus (FMDV) serotype O to that of cattle (Bos taurus). We also determined the potential for intra- and interspecies transmission of FMDV serotype O in mule deer and cattle, and assessed conventional laboratory tests in their ability to detect FMDV in mule deer. Two mule deer and one steer were each infected by intraepithelial tongue inoculation with 10,000 bovine tongue infective doses of FMDV, strain O1 Manisa. The inoculated steer and deer were kept in the same room with contact animals of both species. Exposed contact animals were moved to rooms with unexposed animals after becoming febrile. All mule deer (n=14) and cattle (n=6) developed clinical signs and lesions consistent with FMDV infection. Deer had a high prevalence of myocarditis and high mortality. Virus was transmitted between mule deer, from cattle to mule deer, and from mule deer to cattle. Virus and antibodies against nonstructural FMDV proteins in mule deer and cattle were detected by conventional laboratory tests. Virus shedding was detected by PCR and virus isolation up to 9 d postexposure in deer.
- The epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks and its history in Iraq. [Journal Article]
- VWVet World 2019; 12(5):706-712
- CONCLUSIONS: This study approved the reemergence and endemic nature of FMD in Iraqi livestock. Prompt procedures and a new future strategy need to be implemented to control the increasing incidences of FMD in Iraq.
- Antiviral effect of amiloride on replication of foot and mouth disease virus in cell culture. [Journal Article]
- MPMicrob Pathog 2019 Jul 18; :103638
- Recently, amiloride was shown to potently suppress Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) replication. In the current study, we investigated whether amiloride could also exhibit antiviral activity against foot-and…
Recently, amiloride was shown to potently suppress Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) replication. In the current study, we investigated whether amiloride could also exhibit antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which belongs to the same family (Picornaviridae) as CVB3. We found that amiloride exerted antiviral activity in a dose-dependent manner against two strains of FMDV in IBRS-2 cells, with slight cytotoxicity at 1000 μM. Besides, amiloride did not inhibit the attachment and entry of FMDV in IBRS-2 cells, but prevented early viral replication. These data implied that amiloride could be a promising candidate for further research as a potential antiviral drug against FMDV infection.
- Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus from children with herpangina or hand, foot, and mouth disease in Hangzhou, 2016. [Journal Article]
- AVArch Virol 2019 Jul 18
- Enteroviruses (EVs) are the major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina in children. In this study, we conducted a molecular investigation of EVs in throat swab samples from ch…
Enteroviruses (EVs) are the major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina in children. In this study, we conducted a molecular investigation of EVs in throat swab samples from children in Hangzhou, China with a diagnosis of HFMD or herpangina. EVs were detected using one-step real-time RT-PCR, and their serotypes were determined based on partial VP1 gene sequences. The molecular typing results revealed the presence of six different EV serotypes in HFMD cases, including coxsackievirus (CV) A16 (20/30, 66.7%), CVA4 (3/30, 10.0%), CVA6 (3/30, 10.0%), EVA71 (2/30, 6.7%), CVB4 (1/30, 3.3%), and CVB5 (1/30, 3.3%). Eleven different EV serotypes were detected in herpangina cases, among which CVA4 was the most frequently detected serotype (105/170, 61.8%), followed by CVA16 (30/170, 17.6%), CVB4 (9/170, 5.3%), CVA6 (6/170, 3.5%), CVB3 (5/170, 2.9%), CVA10 (3/170, 1.8%), EVA71 (4/170, 2.4%), Echo9 (3/170, 1.8%), CVA9 (2/170, 1.2%), CVB1 (3/170, 1.8%) and CVA5 (1/170, 0.6%). The nucleotide sequence identity of EV strains from the same subtype ranged from 80.7% to 100%, and most of the EVs were closely related to virus strains found in Australia and mainland China. In conclusion, CVA 16 and CVA 4 were the main serotypes causing HFMD and herpangina, respectively, in children in Hangzhou in 2016. Most of these EVs were closely related to virus strains from Australia and mainland China.
- Development of fast and sensitive protocols for the detection of viral pathogens using a small portable convection PCR platform. [Journal Article]
- MBMol Biol Rep 2019 Jul 12
- One of the most crucial steps for preventing viral pandemics is the early detection of the causative virus on site. Various molecular and immunological approaches have been developed for virus detect…
One of the most crucial steps for preventing viral pandemics is the early detection of the causative virus on site. Various molecular and immunological approaches have been developed for virus detection. In this study, we investigated the utility of the recently introduced convection polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) platform for the rapid and sensitive detection of various animal viruses in the field, including the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Primer sets were designed to simultaneously detect two highly conserved regions of the FMDV, including the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) and 3D gene, and to specifically amplify the NP and hemagglutinin (HA) genes of H5 and H9 subtypes of AIVs. The portable cPCR system was able to amplify from as low as 1 to 10 copies of viral cDNAs in the singleplex mode and 10 to 100 copies of viral cDNAs in the duplex mode within 21 min. Thus, our data suggest that the cPCR protocols developed in this study are highly sensitive and enable quick detection of animal viruses in biological samples.
- Canine babesiosis among working dogs of organised kennels in India: A comprehensive haematological, biochemical, clinicopathological and molecular epidemiological multiregional study. [Journal Article]
- PVPrev Vet Med 2019 Aug 01; 169:104696
- Canine babesiosis is a serious disease among tick-borne haemoprotozoan diseases, globally. The present study was envisaged for carrying out thorough investigation of the disease among working dogs of…
Canine babesiosis is a serious disease among tick-borne haemoprotozoan diseases, globally. The present study was envisaged for carrying out thorough investigation of the disease among working dogs of organised kennels situated in different agro-climatic zones of India as comprehensive understanding of the disease from this country was pertinently lacking. During the study period of three years (2012-2014), 330 dogs suspected for babesiosis were examined for clinicopathology by their physical examination, haematological and biochemical parameters estimation, while the detection of apicomplexan parasites was confirmed by using various diagnostic techniques i.e. by conventional microscopy, by two different Babesia specific 18S rRNA based PCR protocols (conventional/simple PCR and nested PCR assays) followed by sequencing of obtained PCR amplicons for Babsesia spp. identification. Out of 330 clinical cases screened 5.15% (17/330), 9.09% (30/330) and 15.45% (51/330) were found to be positive in microscopic examination, simple- and nested- PCR assay, respectively. Comparative statistical analyses of these diagnostic assay results revealed that significant difference exists among the three diagnostic methodologies and thus it is recommended that the nested PCR technique be relied upon as a screening molecular assay and also for epidemiological studies of the disease in this country. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA depicted the monophyletic nature and clonal expansion among all the B. gibsoni, under study. Sequencing results of PCR amplicons revealed that B. gibsoni has predominantly established itself over B. vogeli as former was incriminated in 47 cases while latter was confirmed in only four animals. Based on the clinical severity, these 51 affected animals were classified into three main groups' of 17 animals each viz., apparently healthy-, simple or uncomplicated babesiosis- and atypical or complicated babesiosis- group. Haematological and biochemical profiling of these dogs confirmed the characteristics findings of infection by both the Babesia spp. It was observed that the infection by small form of Babesia (B. gibsoni) is posing a significant therapeutic challenge and chemosterilization by commonly prescribed anti-protozoal drugs was not achieved as clinical relapses were often observed. The clinical signs, sequence based confirmation and severity of the infection suggested that there is a positive selection of B. gibsoni (smaller form) over B. vogeli (larger form) in this country and raises serious concerns as prognosis in former is considered to be poor compared to latter. Thus, these findings have opened new paradigms for planning of pragmatic control strategies against this emerging canine health problem.
- Assessing the value of PCR assays in oral fluid samples for detecting African swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease in U.S. swine. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0219532
- CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of oral fluid testing for African swine fever, classical swine fever, or foot-and-mouth disease surveillance is not yet possible due to several limitations and information gaps. The gaps include validation of PCR diagnostic protocols and kits for African swine fever, classical swine fever, or foot-and-mouth disease on swine oral fluid samples; minimal information on test performance in a field setting; detection windows with low virulence strains of some foreign animal disease viruses; and the need for confirmatory testing protocol development.
- Heparan sulfate analogues act as decoy receptors and efficiently block enterovirus 71 infection. [Journal Article]
- AIACS Infect Dis 2019 Jul 15
- Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, for which there is no antiviral therapy. We have developed densely sulfated disaccharide heparan sulfate (HS) anal…
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, for which there is no antiviral therapy. We have developed densely sulfated disaccharide heparan sulfate (HS) analogues that are potent small molecule inhibitors of EV71 infection that bind the viral capsid and act as decoy receptors to block early events of virus replication. The simplified structures, more potent than defined HS disaccharides and with no significant anticoagulant activity, offer promise as anti-EV71 agents.
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- Host microRNA miR-1307 suppresses foot-and-mouth disease virus replication by promoting VP3 degradation and enhancing innate immune response. [Journal Article]
- VVirology 2019 Jul 09; 535:162-170
- MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles during interactions between virus pathogens and host cells, but whether and how they work in the case of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is less…
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles during interactions between virus pathogens and host cells, but whether and how they work in the case of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is less understood. Based on a microarray-based miRNA profiling in the porcine kidney cell line PK-15, we identified 36 differentially expressed host miRNAs at the early stage of FMDV infection, among which miR-1307 was significantly induced. Functional characterization demonstrated that miR-1307 attenuated FMDV replication. Further experiments proved that miR-1307 specifically promoted the degradation of the viral structural protein VP3 indirectly through proteasome pathway. Moreover, innate immune signaling was activated and expression of immune responsive genes was significantly enhanced in the miR-1307-overexpressing clones. Together, our data demonstrated that miR-1307 suppresses FMDV replication by destabilizing VP3 and enhancing host immune response. Importantly, subcutaneous injection of miR-1307 agomir delayed the FMDV-induced lethality in suckling mice, exhibiting its therapeutic potential to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).