- Contributions of foveal and non-foveal retina to the human eye's focusing response. [Journal Article]J Vis 2019; 19(12):18JV
- The human eye changes focus-accommodates-to minimize blur in the retinal image. Previous work has shown that stimulation of nonfoveal retina can produce accommodative responses when no competing stimulus is presented to the fovea. In everyday situations it is very common for the fovea and other parts of the retina to be stimulated simultaneously. We examined this situation by asking how nonfoveal…
The human eye changes focus-accommodates-to minimize blur in the retinal image. Previous work has shown that stimulation of nonfoveal retina can produce accommodative responses when no competing stimulus is presented to the fovea. In everyday situations it is very common for the fovea and other parts of the retina to be stimulated simultaneously. We examined this situation by asking how nonfoveal retina contributes to accommodation when the fovea is also stimulated. There were three experimental conditions. (a) Real change in which stimuli of different sizes, centered on the fovea, were presented at different optical distances. Accommodation was, as expected, robust because there was no conflicting stimulation of other parts of the retina. (b) Simulated change, no conflict in which stimuli of different sizes, again centered on the fovea, were presented at different simulated distances using rendered chromatic blur. Accommodation was robust in this condition because there was no conflict between the central and peripheral stimuli. (c) Simulated change, conflict in which a central disk (of different diameters) was presented along with an abutting peripheral annulus. The disk and annulus underwent opposite changes in simulated distance. Here we observed a surprisingly consistent effect of the peripheral annulus. For example, when the diameter of the central stimulus was 8° (thereby stimulating the fovea and parafovea), the abutting peripheral annulus had a significant effect on accommodation. We discuss how these results may help us understand other situations in which nonfixated targets affect the ability to focus on a fixated target. We also discuss potential implications for the development of myopia and for foveated rendering.
- Compression of the Choroid by Horizontal Duction. [Journal Article]Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019; 60(13):4285-4291IO
- CONCLUSIONS: Horizontal duction compresses the temporal peripapillary choroid, more in adduction than in abduction and more in younger than older subjects. This reflects duction-related peripapillary tissue deformation probably related, at least in part, to optic nerve tethering in adduction.
- Retinal Contrast Gain Control and Temporal Modulation Sensitivity Across the Visual Field in Glaucoma at Photopic and Mesopic Light Conditions. [Journal Article]Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019; 60(13):4270-4276IO
- CONCLUSIONS: Contrast gain control is largely unaffected in glaucoma, suggesting intact amacrine cell function. Perimetry with decrements or a high-frequency stimulus on a low-luminance background seems best to differentiate between glaucoma and healthy subjects.
- Does Threat Have an Advantage After All? - Proposing a Novel Experimental Design to Investigate the Advantages of Threat-Relevant Cues in Visual Processing. [Journal Article]Front Psychol 2019; 10:2217FP
- The automatic visual attentional procession of threatening stimuli over non-threatening cues has long been a question. The so-called classical visual search task (VST) has quickly become the go-to paradigm to investigate this. However, the latest results showed that the confounding results could originate from the shortcomings of the VST. Thus, here we propose a novel approach to the behavioral t…
The automatic visual attentional procession of threatening stimuli over non-threatening cues has long been a question. The so-called classical visual search task (VST) has quickly become the go-to paradigm to investigate this. However, the latest results showed that the confounding results could originate from the shortcomings of the VST. Thus, here we propose a novel approach to the behavioral testing of the threat superiority effect. We conducted two experiments using evolutionary relevant and modern real-life scenes (e.g., forest or street, respectively) as a background to improve ecological validity. Participants had to find different targets in different spatial positions (close to fovea or periphery) using a touch-screen monitor. In Experiment 1 participants had to find the two most often used exemplar of the evolutionary and modern threatening categories (snake and gun, respectively), or neutral objects of the same category. In Experiment 2 we used more exemplars of each category. All images used were controlled for possible confounding low-level visual features such as contrast, frequency, brightness, and image complexity. In Experiment 1, threatening targets were found faster compared to neutral cues irrespective of the evolutionary relevance. However, in Experiment 2, we did not find an advantage for threatening targets over neutral ones. In contrast, the type of background, and spatial position of the target only affected the detection of neutral targets. Our results might indicate that some stimuli indeed have an advantage in visual processing, however, they are not highlighted based on evolutionary relevance of negative valence alone, but rather through different associational mechanisms.
- [Correlation of capillary plexus with visual acuity in idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography]. [Journal Article]Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2019; 55(10):757-762ZY
- CONCLUSIONS: In the IMEM eyes the BCVA was worse, FAZ area was smaller, foveal vessel density was increased and the parafoveal vessel density was decreased compared with the normal eyes. The smaller the FAZ area, the smaller foveal SCP vessel density, the poorer BCVA. There was no correlation between BCVA and DCP vessel density. Changes in VD in IMEM eyes may lead to changes in vision. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2019, 55:757-762).
- Assessing the Interocular Symmetry of Foveal Outer Nuclear Layer Thickness in Achromatopsia. [Journal Article]Transl Vis Sci Technol 2019; 8(5):21TV
- CONCLUSIONS: While foveal ONL thickness is reduced in ACHM compared to controls, the high interocular symmetry indicates that contralateral ONL measurements could be used as a negative control in early-phase monocular treatment trials.
- Comparison of Fundus-Guided Microperimetry and Multifocal Electroretinography for Evaluating Hydroxychloroquine Maculopathy. [Journal Article]Transl Vis Sci Technol 2019; 8(5):19TV
- CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of detection of HCQ toxicity with MP was greater than with mfERG. MP showed an overall good sensitivity and moderate specificity in detecting HCQ-induced functional deficits.
- [Calculating the Human Eye - The Evolution of Biometry for Cataract Surgery]. [Journal Article]Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2019KM
- CONCLUSIONS: Today, an increasing number of eyes that underwent refractive surgery previously are facing cataract surgery. Maybe even more important than adequate biometry of the human eye will be using appropriate calculation schemes in order to enhance post-cataract refractive outcomes or predictability.
- Differences in macular capillary parameters between healthy black and white subjects with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA). [Journal Article]PLoS One 2019; 14(10):e0223142Plos
- CONCLUSIONS: In our study, our black subjects had decreased macular capillary vasculature compared to matched white subjects, even in early adulthood and the absence of any systemic or ocular conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that retinal and choriocapillary vascular differences may contribute to racial disparities in vulnerability to DR.
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- Bardet-Biedl Syndrome in rhesus macaques: A nonhuman primate model of retinitis pigmentosa. [Journal Article]Exp Eye Res 2019; :107825EE
- The development of therapies for retinal disorders is hampered by a lack of appropriate animal models. Higher nonhuman primates are the only animals with retinal structure similar to humans, including the presence of a macula and fovea. However, few nonhuman primate models of genetic retinal disease are known. We identified a lineage of rhesus macaques with a frameshift mutation in exon 3 of the …
The development of therapies for retinal disorders is hampered by a lack of appropriate animal models. Higher nonhuman primates are the only animals with retinal structure similar to humans, including the presence of a macula and fovea. However, few nonhuman primate models of genetic retinal disease are known. We identified a lineage of rhesus macaques with a frameshift mutation in exon 3 of the BBS7 gene c.160delG (p.Ala54fs) that is predicted to produce a non-functional protein. In humans, mutations in this and other BBS genes cause Bardet-Biedl syndrome, a ciliopathy and a syndromic form of retinitis pigmentosa generally occurring in conjunction with kidney dysfunction, polydactyly, obesity, and/or hypogonadism. Three full- or half-sibling monkeys homozygous for the BBS7 c.160delG variant, at ages 3.5, 4 and 6 years old, displayed a combination of severe photoreceptor degeneration and progressive kidney disease. In vivo retinal imaging revealed features of severe macular degeneration, including absence of photoreceptor layers, degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium, and retinal vasculature atrophy. Electroretinography in the 3.5-year-old case demonstrated loss of scotopic and photopic a-waves and markedly reduced and delayed b-waves. Histological assessments in the 4- and 6-year-old cases confirmed profound loss of photoreceptors and inner retinal neurons across the posterior retina, with dramatic thinning and disorganization of all cell layers, abundant microglia, absent or displaced RPE cells, and significant gliosis in the subretinal space. Retinal structure, including presence of photoreceptors, was preserved only in the far periphery. Ultrasound imaging of the kidneys revealed deranged architecture, and renal histopathology identified distorted contours with depressed, fibrotic foci and firmly adhered renal capsules; renal failure occurred in the 6-year-old case. Magnetic resonance imaging obtained in one case revealed abnormally low total brain volume and unilateral ventricular enlargement. The one male had abnormally small testes at 4 years of age, but polydactyly and obesity were not observed. Thus, monkeys homozygous for the BBS7 c.160delG variant closely mirrored several key features of the human BBS syndrome. This finding represents the first identification of a naturally-occurring nonhuman primate model of BBS, and more broadly the first such model of retinitis pigmentosa and a ciliopathy with an associated genetic mutation. This important new preclinical model will provide the basis for better understanding of disease progression and for the testing of new therapeutic options, including gene and cell-based therapies, not only for BBS but also for multiple forms of photoreceptor degeneration.