- Gut Microbe to Brain Signaling: What Happens in Vagus…. [Journal Article]
- NNeuron 2019 Mar 20; 101(6):998-1002
- The gut microbiota has emerged as a key player in health and disease. Here we discuss the vagus nerve, which connects the visceral organs and the brain, as an important communication pathway for the …
The gut microbiota has emerged as a key player in health and disease. Here we discuss the vagus nerve, which connects the visceral organs and the brain, as an important communication pathway for the gut microbiota to influence brain and behavior.
- Socially skilling toil: New artisanship in papermaking in late Chosŏn Korea. [Journal Article]
- HSHist Sci 2019; 57(2):167-193
- In pre-modern Korea, paper was renowned for its white glossy surface and cloth-like strength, becoming an important item in both tributary exchanges and private trade. The unique material of the tak …
In pre-modern Korea, paper was renowned for its white glossy surface and cloth-like strength, becoming an important item in both tributary exchanges and private trade. The unique material of the tak tree and related technical innovations, including toch'im, the repeated beating of just-produced paper that provides sizing and fulling effects, were crucial to this fame. However, the scholar-officials who integrated papermaking into the state production system in order to meet administrative and tributary needs initially made toch'im corvée and then penal labor, thereby dismissing it as simple toil. They were not alone, though, in denigrating a form of manual labor. Historiographies of modern science and technology are generally silent about such work, focusing instead on how we invented the human out of drudgery. However, papermakers in late Chosŏn Korea (the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries) chose to identify their artisanship with toch'im and eventually succeeded in securing recognition for that technique as a highly paid specialty. By examining this skilling of toch'im, this paper seeks to change the historiographical silence about toil. It overcomes the archival silence that accompanies manual skills by tracing toch'im's contours through its changing locations and associations in society's changing social and material networks, revealing paper artisans' social techniques, or everyday politics that eventually dignified their laborious technique. Paper artisans' changing relationships with tak barks, tools and facilities, central and local authorities, farmers, merchants, and scholar-officials reveal how such social skilling was made in late Chosŏn Korea, where papermaking became a most successful industry. This tracing of toch'im re-situates creative toil and everyday politics of artisanal hands in the interconnected transformation of social relations, craft, and knowledge practices.
- Excitation of an Atom by a Uniformly Accelerated Mirror through Virtual Transitions. [Journal Article]
- PRPhys Rev Lett 2018 Aug 17; 121(7):071301
- We find that uniformly accelerated motion of a mirror yields excitation of a static two-level atom with simultaneous emission of a real photon. This occurs because of virtual transitions with probabi…
We find that uniformly accelerated motion of a mirror yields excitation of a static two-level atom with simultaneous emission of a real photon. This occurs because of virtual transitions with probability governed by the Planck factor involving the photon frequency ν and the Unruh temperature. The result is different from the Unruh radiation of an accelerated atom, which is governed by the frequency of the atom, ω, rather than frequency of the emitted photon. We also find that the excitation probability oscillates as a function of the atomic position because of interference between contributions from the waves incident on and reflected from the mirror.
- Quantum optics approach to radiation from atoms falling into a black hole. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 08 07; 115(32):8131-8136
- We show that atoms falling into a black hole (BH) emit acceleration radiation which, under appropriate initial conditions, looks to a distant observer much like (but is different from) Hawking BH rad…
We show that atoms falling into a black hole (BH) emit acceleration radiation which, under appropriate initial conditions, looks to a distant observer much like (but is different from) Hawking BH radiation. In particular, we find the entropy of the acceleration radiation via a simple laser-like analysis. We call this entropy horizon brightened acceleration radiation (HBAR) entropy to distinguish it from the BH entropy of Bekenstein and Hawking. This analysis also provides insight into the Einstein principle of equivalence between acceleration and gravity.
- 48 h cessation of mechanical ventilation during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in severe trauma: a case report. [Case Reports]
- JAJ Artif Organs 2017; 20(3):280-284
- A 32-year-old motorcyclist who was hit by a tram subsequently presented with blunt force thoracic trauma, a pelvic fracture and a penetrating injury to the left lower extremity. Coagulopathy persiste…
A 32-year-old motorcyclist who was hit by a tram subsequently presented with blunt force thoracic trauma, a pelvic fracture and a penetrating injury to the left lower extremity. Coagulopathy persisted following surgery of the leg and pelvic vascular intervention. Bedside thoracotomy was performed to treat pneumothorax and pneumopericardium. Severe hypoxemia secondary to lung failure ensued, which required venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) support. On the third day after the trauma, ultra-protective mechanical ventilation was not possible due to non-existent lung compliance; thus, the ventilator was disconnected, and the T-piece was connected to the blocked tracheal tube left in the airway. Gas exchange occurred via VV ECMO separately. After 48 h of cessation of ventilator support, the patient was weaned from sedation. At this time, respiratory effort was observed, and assisted ventilation was initiated. The patient ultimately recovered and experienced an excellent outcome. The clinical significance of zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) and the complete cessation of open lung strategy during ECMO remains controversial. In cases of reduced lung compliance, if VV ECMO can facilitate adequate gas exchange, the discontinuation of ventilation is an option that can be used to prevent ventilator-induced lung damage and to allow the lungs to rest. VV ECMO is feasible as lung support with no mechanical ventilation in case of severe lung failure after major trauma.
- Synaptic Adhesion Molecules Regulate the Integration of New Granule Neurons in the Postnatal Mouse Hippocampus and their Impact on Spatial Memory. [Journal Article]
- CCCereb Cortex 2017 08 01; 27(8):4048-4059
- Postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis induces network remodeling and may participate to mechanisms of learning. In turn, the maturation and survival of newborn neurons is regulated by their activity. He…
Postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis induces network remodeling and may participate to mechanisms of learning. In turn, the maturation and survival of newborn neurons is regulated by their activity. Here, we tested the effect of a cell-autonomous overexpression of synaptic adhesion molecules on the maturation and survival of neurons born postnatally and on hippocampal-dependent memory performances. Families of adhesion molecules are known to induce pre- and post-synaptic assembly. Using viral targeting, we overexpressed three different synaptic adhesion molecules, SynCAM1, Neuroligin-1B and Neuroligin-2A in newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus of 7- to 9-week-old mice. We found that SynCAM1 increased the morphological maturation of dendritic spines and mossy fiber terminals while Neuroligin-1B increased spine density. In contrast, Neuroligin-2A increased both spine density and size as well as GABAergic innervation and resulted in a drastic increase of neuronal survival. Surprisingly, despite increased neurogenesis, mice overexpressing Neuroligin-2A in new neurons showed decreased memory performances in a Morris water maze task. These results indicate that the cell-autonomous overexpression of synaptic adhesion molecules can enhance different aspects of synapse formation on new neurons and increase their survival. Furthermore, they suggest that the mechanisms by which new neurons integrate in the postnatal hippocampus conditions their functional implication in learning and memory.
- Biliary Adenofibroma with Invasive Carcinoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Pathol 2016; 2016:8068513
- We report a case of biliary adenofibroma with an invasive carcinoma in a 71-year-old female who presented with bilateral upper abdominal pain. Imaging revealed a 6.3 cm heterogeneously enhancing mass…
We report a case of biliary adenofibroma with an invasive carcinoma in a 71-year-old female who presented with bilateral upper abdominal pain. Imaging revealed a 6.3 cm heterogeneously enhancing mass in the left lateral segment of the liver. Histologically, the adenofibroma showed the characteristic components as previously described of biliary adenofibromata, namely, cystic and tubular structures lined by cuboidal to low columnar biliary type epithelium and a dense fibrous stroma composed of spindled cells. Intimately admixed with the adenofibroma was a distinct tumor composed of malignant clear cells which demonstrated stromal and vascular invasion. Although mitotic figures were inconspicuous, Ki67 was brisk and p53 demonstrated 25-50% positivity. Sections also showed a von Meyenberg complex located adjacent to the tumor. This case expands the understanding of this rare tumor and proves two important assertions from previous case reports. First, the presence of an associated von Meyenberg complex with similar morphology and immunohistochemical staining pattern suggests that biliary adenofibromata and von Meyenberg complexes may share related histogenesis. Second, biliary adenofibromata harbor malignant potential and may show malignant transformation. Furthermore, this case highlights the need for these rare tumors to be followed aggressively, as their biological behavior is poorly understood.
- Understanding Group and Leader (UGL) trainers' personality characteristics and affective profiles. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Psychol 2014; 5:1191
- CONCLUSIONS: The probability of self-fulfillment rather than low affectivity was higher among UGL-trainers. Self-fulfillment was associated to markers of self-awareness and adaptive coping skills. However, the most common profile was the low affective, which is associated to low performance during stress, low degree of personal development, low degree of purpose in life, and low resilience. Hence, it might be important for UGL-trainers to have a continuous training in awareness after certification.
- Neumann nodal domains. [Journal Article]
- PTPhilos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2014 Jan 28; 372(2007):20120505
- As an alternative to nodal domains in the usual sense, we propose a partition of the domain of a real-valued eigenfunction in R2 by trajectories of the gradient, linking saddle points to extrema. Its…
As an alternative to nodal domains in the usual sense, we propose a partition of the domain of a real-valued eigenfunction in R2 by trajectories of the gradient, linking saddle points to extrema. Its most elementary properties are listed and exemplified. The main point is that the problem of avoided crossings is largely eliminated.
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- [Primary obstructive megaureters: long-term follow-up]. [Journal Article]
- PUProg Urol 2013; 23(7):470-3
- CONCLUSIONS: We recommend a careful watch-fulling of primary megaureters; mainly for those with recurrent infections and whenever the retrovesical ureter diameter exceeds 14 mm at first ultrasound.