- Chemical profiling of Centaurea bornmuelleri Hausskn. aerial parts by HPLC-MS/MS and their pharmaceutical effects: From nature to novel perspectives. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Biomed Anal 2019 Jun 06; 174:406-413
- Ethnobotanical evidences substantiate the use of several Centaurea species to treat and/or manage several human ailments. In the present study, the phytochemical profile of the ethyl acetate, methano…
Ethnobotanical evidences substantiate the use of several Centaurea species to treat and/or manage several human ailments. In the present study, the phytochemical profile of the ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts (prepared by infusion and decoction) of Centaurea bornmuelleri Hausskn. aerial parts was established. The enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant properties were also determined by in vitro bioassays. Methanol extract (38.58 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and ethyl acetate extract (38.83 mg rutin equivalent/g extract) possessed the highest concentration of phenolics and flavonoids, respectively. Aqueous extract prepared following traditional infusion method showed potent DPPH (38.54 mg TE/g extract) and ABTS (57.75 mg TE/g extract) scavenging abilities. The methanol extract (101.46 mg TE/g extract) of C. bornmuelleri exhibited potent reducing activity in the CUPRAC assay while the aqueous extract obtained by infusion was more active in the FRAP assay (69.81 mg TE/g extract). Ethyl acetate extract of C. bornmuelleri inhibited both acetylcholinesterase (1.14 mg galantamine equivalent [GALAE]/g extract), butyrylcholinesterase (0.63 mg GALAE/g extract), tyrosinase (69.84 mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract), amylase (19.90 mg acarbose equivalent [ACAE]/g extract), and glucosidase (33.12 mg ACAE/g extract). The phytochemical profile of C. bornmuelleri has been characterized and the main components quantified in order to provide scientific base to design innovative products including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics or nutraceuticals although further investigation concerning the isolation of the main bioactive compounds would be required.
- Experimental evidence for use of Acorus calamus (asarone) for cancer chemoprevention. [Review]
- HHeliyon 2019; 5(5):e01585
- Cancer is one of the major non-communicable diseases posing substantial challenges in both developing and developed countries. The options available for treatment of different cancer are associated w…
Cancer is one of the major non-communicable diseases posing substantial challenges in both developing and developed countries. The options available for treatment of different cancer are associated with various limitations, including severe toxicity, drug resistance, poor outcomes and a high risk of relapse. Hence, an increased attention and necessity for screening of various phytochemicals from natural sources for superior and safer alternative has been ongoing for several decades. In recent years, phytochemicals like galantamine, erwinaze, rivastigmine, resveratrol from natural sources have been found to be important therapeutic targets for the treatment of various diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, diabetes, and cardiovascular effects. Acorus calamus (Sweet flag), and/or its bioactive phytochemical alpha (α)-and beta (β)-asarone, is a well-known drug in the traditional system of medicine which possesses anti-tumor and chemo-preventive activities as evident from numerous pre-clinical studies both in-vitro and in-vivo. In this article, we critically review the current available scientific evidences of A. calamus and/or asarone for cancer chemoprevention based on preclinical in-vitro and in-vivo models. In addition, we also have compiled and discussed the molecular targets of mechanism(s) involved in the anti-cancer activity of A. calamus/asarone. Still, extensive in-vivo studies are necessary using various animal models to understand the molecular mechanism behind the pharmacological activity of the bioactive phytochemicals derived from A. calamus. It is strongly believed that the comprehensive evidence presented in this article could deliver a possible source for researchers to conduct future studies pertaining to A. calamus and/or its bioactive phytochemicals asarone for cancer chemoprevention.
- Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Galantamine for Methadone-Maintained Individuals With Cocaine Use Disorder: Secondary Analysis of Effects on Illicit Opioid Use. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Addict 2019 Jun 04
- CONCLUSIONS: If these results are supported in future trials, galantamine may hold promise across multiple drugs of abuse, including opioids. (Am J Addict 2019:1-8).
- Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials on the Efficacy and Safety of Donepezil, Galantamine, Rivastigmine, and Memantine for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neurosci 2019; 13:472
- To study the impact of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine on cognitive, functional, behavioral, global changes and adverse effects in patients with mild, moderate and severe Alzheime…
To study the impact of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine on cognitive, functional, behavioral, global changes and adverse effects in patients with mild, moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD), we screened the literature published before September 2017 in the Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane library and Web of Science Electronic databases according to the inclusion criteria. Thirty-six studies were finally determined from 1560 preliminary screened articles. The AD Assessment Scale-cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), AD Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change Plus Caregiver Input scale (CIBIC+) were used as valid endpoints. Of the 36 trials included, meta-analyses of these placebo-control trials showed that there were significant differences between the donepezil, rivastigmine and placebo groups using ADAS-cog, ADCS-ADL, and CIBIC+. Meta-analyses of these placebo-controlled trials showed that there were significant differences between the galantamine and placebo groups using ADAS-cog, ADCS-ADL, NPI, and CIBIC+. These observations suggest that memantine is beneficial for stabilizing or slowing the decline in ADAS-cog and ADCS-ADL19 changes in AD patients. However, there was no significant effect according to the ADCS-ADL23, NPI, and CIBIC+ tests, which indicated that memantine treatment has no significant effect on these cognitive aspects of AD patients. Different effects of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, or memantine on AD were found in this study. According to the results, we conclude that galantamine is effective in treating all aspects of AD and is the first choice for the treatment of AD. However, due to limited data, we should consider additional data to obtain more stable results.
- A novel on-flow mass spectrometry-based dual enzyme assay. [Journal Article]
- ACAnal Chim Acta 2019 Sep 23; 1072:81-86
- This work describes a new simultaneous on-flow dual parallel enzyme assay based on immobilized enzyme reactors (ICERs) with mass spectrometry detection. The novelty of this work relies on the fact th…
This work describes a new simultaneous on-flow dual parallel enzyme assay based on immobilized enzyme reactors (ICERs) with mass spectrometry detection. The novelty of this work relies on the fact that two different enzymes can be screened at the same time with only one single sample injection and in less than 6 min. The system consisted of two immobilized capillary enzyme reactors (ICERs). More specifically, the ICERs comprised two different enzymes that were accommodated in parallel and were placed between a liquid chromatography (LC) system and a mass spectrometer (MS). The resulting system could be adapted to other types of enzyme reactors with different supports. All the elements in the system were interfaced by means of two 10-port/two-position switching valves. Different tubing dimensions allowed us to monitor the activity of each enzyme independently during the same analysis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) bioreactors were chosen as proof of concept. Acetylcholine (ACh) was used as substrate; the area of its protonated enzymatic hydrolysis product ion, choline, [M+H]+m/z 104.0, was monitored in the presence and absence of the standard cholinesterase inhibitor galantamine. This method proved to be an interesting tool for fast, simultaneous, and independent label-free dual enzyme inhibitor assay.
- Alignment of European Regulatory and Health Technology Assessments: A Review of Licensed Products for Alzheimer's Disease. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Med (Lausanne) 2019; 6:73
- CONCLUSIONS: There was a large overlap in inclusion of trials in regulatory and HTA assessments, although the focus on specific outcomes slightly differed. Understanding the methods and perceptions of both authorities can stimulate regulatory and HTA cross-talk and further alignment, and therefore more rapid patient access to new treatments.
- The pharmacogenetics of natural products: A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic perspective. [Review]
- PRPharmacol Res 2019 May 23; 146:104283
- Natural products have represented attractive alternatives for disease prevention and treatment over the course of human history and have contributed to the development of modern drugs. These natural …
Natural products have represented attractive alternatives for disease prevention and treatment over the course of human history and have contributed to the development of modern drugs. These natural products possess beneficial efficacies as well as adverse efffects, which vary largely among individuals because of genetic variations in their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. As with other synthetic chemical drugs, the dosing of natural products can be optimized to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity according to the pharmacogenetic properties. With the emergence and development of pharmacogenomics, it is possible to discover and identify the targets/mechanisms of pharmacological effects and therapeutic responses of natural products effectively and efficiently on the whole genome level. This review covers the effects of genetic variations in drug metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters, and direct and indirect interactions with the pharmacological targets/pathways on the individual response to natural products, and provides suggestions on dosing regimen adjustments of natural products based on their pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic paratmeters. Finally, we provide our viewpoints on the importance and necessity of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic research of natural products in natural medicine's rational development and clinical application of precision medicine.
- Synthesis of 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)acetamides as potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and molecular insights into binding interactions. [Journal Article]
- APArch Pharm (Weinheim) 2019 May 24; :e1800310
- Sixteen novel coumarin-based compounds are reported as potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. The most active compound in this series, 5a (IC50 0.04 ± 0.01 µM), noncompetitively inhibited ACh…
Sixteen novel coumarin-based compounds are reported as potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. The most active compound in this series, 5a (IC50 0.04 ± 0.01 µM), noncompetitively inhibited AChE with a higher potency than tacrine and galantamine. Compounds 5d, 5j, and 5 m showed a moderate antilipid peroxidation activity. The compounds showed cytotoxicity in the same range as the standard drugs in HEK-293 cells. Molecular docking demonstrated that 5a acted as a dual binding site inhibitor. The coumarin moiety occupied the peripheral anionic site and showed π-π interaction with Trp278. The tertiary amino group displayed significant cation-π interaction with Phe329. The aromatic group showed π-π interaction with Trp83 at the catalytic anionic site. The long chain of methylene lay along the gorge interacting with Phe330 via hydrophobic interaction. Molecular docking was applied to postulate the selectivity toward AChE of 5a in comparison with donepezil and tacrine. Structural insights into the selectivity of the coumarin derivatives toward huAChE were explored by molecular docking and 3D QSAR and molecular dynamics simulation for 20 ns. ADMET analysis suggested that the 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)acetamides showed a good pharmacokinetic profile and no hepatotoxicity. These coumarin derivatives showed high potential for further development as anti-Alzheimer agents.
- Experimental and Computational Studies to Characterize and Evaluate the Therapeutic Effect of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Seeds in Alzheimer's Disease. [Journal Article]
- MMedicina (Kaunas) 2019 May 21; 55(5)
- CONCLUSIONS: The data suggested that ALE has neuroprotective potential that can be exploited for beneficial effects to treat AD.
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- Cholinergic and serotonergic modulation of resting state functional brain connectivity in Alzheimer's disease. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroimage 2019 May 18; 199:143-152
- Disruption of cholinergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems is associated with cognitive, emotional and behavioural symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the responsiveness of …
Disruption of cholinergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems is associated with cognitive, emotional and behavioural symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the responsiveness of these systems in AD we measured the effects of a single-dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine in 12 patients with AD and 12 age-matched controls on functional brain connectivity with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, functional magnetic resonance images were repeatedly obtained before and after dosing, resulting in a dataset of 432 scans. Connectivity maps of ten functional networks were extracted using a dual regression method and drug vs. placebo effects were compared between groups with a multivariate analysis with signals coming from cerebrospinal fluid and white matter as covariates at the subject level, and baseline and heart rate measurements as confound regressors in the higher-level analysis (at p < 0.05, corrected). A galantamine induced difference between groups was observed for the cerebellar network. Connectivity within the cerebellar network and between this network and the thalamus decreased after galantamine vs. placebo in AD patients, but not in controls. For citalopram, voxelwise network connectivity did not show significant group × treatment interaction effects. However, we found default mode network connectivity with the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex to be increased in AD patients, which could not be detected within the control group. Further, in contrast to the AD patients, control subjects showed a consistent reduction in mean connectivity with all networks after administration of citalopram. Since AD has previously been characterized by reduced connectivity between the default mode network and the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, the effects of citalopram on the default mode network suggest a restoring potential of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in AD. The results of this study also confirm a change in cerebellar connections in AD, which is possibly related to cholinergic decline.