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(gamma motor neuron)
3,310 results
  • Dopamine as a growth differentiation factor in the mammalian brain. [Review]
    Neural Regen Res 2020; 15(3):390-393Ohira K
  • The catecholamine, dopamine, plays an important role in the central nervous system of mammals, including executive functions, motor control, motivation, arousal, reinforcement, and reward. Dysfunctions of the dopaminergic system lead to diseases of the brains, such as Parkinson's disease, Tourette's syndrome, and schizophrenia. In addition to its fundamental role as a neurotransmitter, there is e…
  • State-Dependent Effects of Transcranial Oscillatory Currents on the Motor System during Action Observation. [Journal Article]
    Sci Rep 2019; 9(1):12858Feurra M, Blagoveshchensky E, … Rossi S
  • We applied transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to the primary motor cortex (M1) at different frequencies during an index-thumb pinch-grip observation task. To estimate changes in the corticospinal output, we used the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) obtained by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of M1 using an online MRI-guided simultaneous TMS-tACS approach. The result…
  • Bilateral synchronous gamma range firing of bulbar motor units during tonic seizures. [Journal Article]
    Epileptic Disord 2019; 21(4):385-388Zwarts M, van Erp G, van Dijk H
  • We present a patient with tonic seizures of the bulbar muscles. Video-EEG recording during the multiple attacks showed no ictal EEG abnormalities. The tonic seizures were clearly visible as EMG artefacts on the EEG recording and consisted of 3-6 symmetric tonic bursts of EMG activity of 2-4 seconds and an interval of 2-6 seconds. Spectral analysis showed a very distinct, bilateral synchronous, do…
  • Mechanisms of exercise-induced survival motor neuron expression in the skeletal muscle of spinal muscular atrophy-like mice. [Journal Article]
    J Physiol 2019; 597(18):4757-4778Ng SY, Mikhail A, Ljubicic V
  • CONCLUSIONS: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a health- and life-limiting neuromuscular disorder caused by a deficiency in survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. While historically considered a motor neuron disease, current understanding of SMA emphasizes its systemic nature, which requires addressing affected peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle in particular. Chronic physical activity is beneficial for SMA patients, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms of exercise biology are largely undefined in SMA. After a single bout of exercise, canonical responses such as skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) activation were preserved in SMA-like Smn2B/- animals. Furthermore, molecules involved in SMN transcription were also altered following physical activity. Collectively, these changes were coincident with an increase in full-length SMN transcription and corrective SMN pre-mRNA splicing. This study advances understanding of the exercise biology of SMA and highlights the AMPK-p38-PGC-1α axis as a potential regulator of SMN expression in muscle.
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