- Fermented Garlic Extract Increases Oxygen Consumption and UCP-1 mRNA Expression in Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells. [Journal Article]
- CJCell J 2019; 21(3):357-362
- Fermented garlic, often called black garlic, is a traditional food ingredient used in Asian cuisine and possesses various health benefits including anti-obesity activity. The anti-obesity effects of …
Fermented garlic, often called black garlic, is a traditional food ingredient used in Asian cuisine and possesses various health benefits including anti-obesity activity. The anti-obesity effects of fermented garlic might, in part, might be mediated through direct actions of its components on adipocytes. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether fermented garlic extract might stimulate the metabolic activity of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in culture. Cell viability measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay exhibited a complex doseresponse relationship. The lowest concentration (0.4 mg/ml) reduced cell viability (P<0.05 compared to no extract, Bonferroni's multiple comparison), whereas higher concentrations (0.8 and 1.0 mg/ml) resulted in higher cell viability (P<0.05 as compared to 0.4 mg/ml). However, the extract at concentrations >2 mg/ml markedly decreased cell viability. Higher cell viability observed following treatment with 0.8~1.0 mg/ml might be associated with raised oxygen consumption. Fluorescent dye-based measurement revealed that the garlic extract at 1.0 mg/ml significantly increased oxygen consumption. We also detected a significant increase in mRNA expression levels of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP- 1). These findings suggest that fermented garlic stimulates the basal metabolic activity of human ADSCs.
- Expression pattern of ABCDE model genes in floral organs of bolting garlic clone. [Journal Article]
- GEGene Expr Patterns 2019 Jun 12; :119059
- A correct understanding of the ABCDE model genes expression, especially genes involved in the development of the reproductive floral organs, in bolting and fertile garlic clones improves the process …
A correct understanding of the ABCDE model genes expression, especially genes involved in the development of the reproductive floral organs, in bolting and fertile garlic clones improves the process of its fertilization and breeding programs. Therefore, Real-Time PCR was employed to evaluate the temporal and spatial expression patterns of some floral organ identity genes in the inflorescence and different floret organs in the two stages of green and purple florets of bolting garlic clone. Relative expression of the studied genes, except AsSTK, in the mature inflorescence increased significantly during the early stages of initiation and differentiation of floral organs. Relative expression of the AsAP1 in the tepal and carpel, and AsAP2 in the tepal, stamen and carpel increased significantly. The highest relative expression levels of the AsAP1 and AsAP2 were found in the tepal of green florets and in the carpel of purple florets, respectively. AsAP3 and AsPI expression increased significantly in the stamen and carpel, and the highest relative expression of these two genes were observed in the green floret tepal. Relative expression of the AsAG increased significantly only in the reproductive floral organs and decreased significantly both in the carpel and stamen at floret maturity. The AsSEP1, 3 were expressed in all floral organs, but the AsSTK was only expressed in the carpel and its relative expression increased significantly at floret maturity. Finally, since considerable expression levels of the above genes were observed in the floral organs, these genes seem to be influential in the formation of floral organs in bolting garlic.
- The antioxidant activity of polysulfides: it's radical! [Journal Article]
- CSChem Sci 2019 May 21; 10(19):4999-5010
- Olefin sulfurization, wherein alkenes and sulfur are heated together at high temperatures, produces branched polysulfides. Due to their anti-wear properties, they are indispensible additives to lubri…
Olefin sulfurization, wherein alkenes and sulfur are heated together at high temperatures, produces branched polysulfides. Due to their anti-wear properties, they are indispensible additives to lubricants, but are also added to other petroleum-derived products as oxidation inhibitors. Polysulfides also figure prominently in the chemistry and biology of garlic and other plants of the Allium species. We previously reported that trisulfides, upon oxidation to their corresponding 1-oxides, are surprisingly effective radical-trapping antioxidants (RTAs) at ambient temperatures. Herein, we show that the homolytic substitution mechanism responsible also operates for tetrasulfides, but not trisulfides, disulfides or sulfides. Moreover, we show that this reactivity persists at elevated temperature (160 °C), enabling tetrasulfides to not only eclipse their 1-oxides as RTAs, but also hindered phenols and alkylated diphenylamines - the most common industrial antioxidant additives. The reactivity is unique to higher polysulfides (n ≥ 4), since homolytic substitution upon them at S2 yields stabilized perthiyl radicals. The persistence of perthiyl radicals also underlies the greater reactivity of polysulfides at elevated temperatures relative to their 1-oxides, since homolytic S-S bond cleavage is reversible in the former, but not in the latter. These results suggest that olefin sulfurization processes optimized for tetrasulfide production will afford materials that impart significantly better oxidation stability to hydrocarbon-based products to which polysulfides are added. Moreover, it suggests that RTA activity may contribute to the biological activity of plant-derived polysulfides.
- TTYH1 and TTYH2 Serve as LRRC8A-Independent Volume-Regulated Anion Channels in Cancer Cells. [Journal Article]
- CCells 2019 Jun 09; 8(6)
- Volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) are involved in cellular functions such as regulation of cell volume, proliferation, migration, and cell death. Although leucine-rich repeat-containing 8A (LRR…
Volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) are involved in cellular functions such as regulation of cell volume, proliferation, migration, and cell death. Although leucine-rich repeat-containing 8A (LRRC8A) has been characterized as a molecular component of VRACs, here we show that Drosophila melanogaster tweety homologue 1 and 2 (TTYH1 and TTYH2) are critical for VRAC currents in cancer cells. LRRC8A-independent VRAC currents were present in the gastric cancer cell line SNU-601, but almost completely absent in its cisplatin-resistant derivative SNU-601-R10 (R10). The VRAC current in R10 was partially restored by treatment with trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Based on microarray expression profiling of these cells, we selected two chloride channels, TTYH1 and TTYH2, as VRAC candidates. VRAC currents were completely absent from TTYH1- and TTYH2-deficient SNU-601 cells, and were clearly restored by expression of TTYH1 or TTYH2. In addition, we examined the expression of TTYH1 or TTYH2 in several cancer cell lines and found that VRAC currents of these cells were abolished by gene silencing of TTYH1 or TTYH2. Taken together, our data clearly show that TTYH1 and TTYH2 can act as LRRC8A-independent VRACs, suggesting novel therapeutic approaches for VRACs in cancer cells.
- The first complete genome sequence of garlic common latent virus occurring in India. [Journal Article]
- VVirusdisease 2019; 30(2):311-314
- The complete genome sequence of a garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) isolate collected from NHRDF, Karnal, India was determined. The whole genome of this GarCLV isolate consists of 8573 nucleotides,…
The complete genome sequence of a garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) isolate collected from NHRDF, Karnal, India was determined. The whole genome of this GarCLV isolate consists of 8573 nucleotides, excluding the 3'-end poly-A tail. The sequence is 91-93% similar to rest of the five whole genome sequences available till date. It contains six open reading frames (ORFs) which encode polypeptide of 219 kDa, 25 kDa, 11 kDa, 7 kDa, 32.74 kDa and 15 kDa from ORF1, ORF2, ORF3, ORF4, ORF5 and ORF6 respectively. The phylogenetic study based on coat protein sequence demonstrated high diversity present among Indian population of GarCLV.
- Allicin alleviated learning and memory deficits caused by lead exposure at developmental stage. [Journal Article]
- LSLife Sci 2019 Jun 03
- CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that allicin is a potent agent able to ameliorate lead acetate-induced learning and memory deficits during early development, and may thus be useful for defeating lead acetate toxicity.
- Euphorbia honey and garlic: Biological activity and burn wound recovery. [Journal Article]
- BBurns 2019 Jun 02
- Currently, chronic wounds and microbial resistance to antibiotics have led to search new healing agents. Combinations of natural products are widely practiced in traditional medicine and exhibited sy…
Currently, chronic wounds and microbial resistance to antibiotics have led to search new healing agents. Combinations of natural products are widely practiced in traditional medicine and exhibited synergistic activity with increased efficacy in treating several pathologies. This study assays the antioxidant, synergistic antimicrobial and burn wound healing activities of Euphorbia honey and Allium sativum (garlic). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each natural product was determined against microorganisms commonly found in wound infections. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was assessed by mixing different concentrations of honey and garlic extract below their relative MICs. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents of both natural products and a selected mixture of them were evaluated. Efficacy of that mixture was also evaluated as topical application on male and female Wistar rats skin burn wound, compared to Euphorbia honey and two conventional treatments. Results showed that the mixture honey-A. sativum has synergistic antimicrobial effect against all tested strains. Besides, A. sativum presented higher antioxidant activity along with higher TPC and TFC compared to honey and their mixture. However, the mixture showed higher wound healing activity reflected by shorter epithelialization and wound contraction time, as well as, better histological recovery of the treated tissues. Our results also showed that burn wound healing is not affected by gender. Our findings support the idea of combining natural products as an effective therapy.
- Effects of sex ratio on adult fecundity, longevity and egg hatchability of Bradysia difformis Frey at different temperatures. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(6):e0217867
- The fungus gnat Bradysia difformis Frey not only attacks edible and medicinal fungi, it also causes the damages to leek, green onion, garlic and other vegetable crops. To confirm the effects of tempe…
The fungus gnat Bradysia difformis Frey not only attacks edible and medicinal fungi, it also causes the damages to leek, green onion, garlic and other vegetable crops. To confirm the effects of temperature and sex ratio on adult fecundity, longevity and egg hatchability of B. difformis, we assayed the adults survival longevity and numbers of oviposition, as well as egg hatching rate under female-male ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C. Female fecundity and egg hatchability were increased with temperature and peaked at 25°C, which, however, were adverse to adult longevity. Furthermore, female-male ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 seemed suitable for female fecundity, of which the sex ratio of 1:1 was the most suitable ratio for its oviposition behavior. These results provide an insight for predicting the population density of B. difformis and offer a literature reference in the effective treatment of harmful insects by controlling and changing the sex ratio artificially.
- Relationship between consumption of raw garlic and handgrip strength in a large-scale adult population. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Nutr 2019 May 23
- CONCLUSIONS: The study firstly revealed a positive correlation between raw garlic consumption and handgrip strength in both males and females. Further studies are needed to explore the casual relationship.
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- Effects of maternal source and progeny microhabitat on natural selection and population dynamics in Alliaria petiolata. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Bot 2019 Jun 04
- CONCLUSIONS: Alliaria petiolata appears to be viable, or nearly so, in all three microhabitat types, with edge populations likely providing seed to the other microhabitats. The intermediate microhabitat may filter propagules at the seed stage, but discrepancies between in situ observations and experimental transplants preclude clear conclusions about the role of each microhabitat in niche expansion. However, edge microhabitats show the highest seed output in both analyses, suggesting that managing edge habitats might reduce spread to the forest understory.