- Total ginsenosides extract induce autophagic cell death in NSCLC cells through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2019 Jul 17; :112093
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that TGS could induce autophagic cell death in NSCLC cells through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress, disclosing another characteristic of TGS-induced cell death and a novel mechanism of TGS and its derived preparations in clinical treatment of cancer patients.
- Detection of 13 Ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg3, Rh2, F1, Compound K, 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol, and 20(S)-Protopanaxatriol) in Human Plasma and Application of the Analytical Method to Human Pharmacokinetic Studies Following Two Week-Repeated Administration of Red Ginseng Extract. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2019 Jul 18; 24(14)
- We aimed to develop a sensitive method for detecting 13 ginsenosides using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and to apply this method to pharmacokinetic studies in human following repeat…
We aimed to develop a sensitive method for detecting 13 ginsenosides using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and to apply this method to pharmacokinetic studies in human following repeated oral administration of red ginseng extract. The chromatograms of Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg3, Rh2, F1, compound K (CK), protopanaxadiol (PPD), and protopanaxatriol (PPT) in human plasma were well separated. The calibration curve range for 13 ginsenosides was 0.5-200 ng/mL and the lower limit of quantitation was 0.5 ng/mL for all ginsenosides. The inter- and intra-day accuracy, precision, and stability were less than 15%. Among the 13 ginsenosides tested, nine ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg3, CK, Rh2, PPD, and PPT) were detected in the human plasma samples. The plasma concentrations of Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, and Rg3 were correlated with the content in red ginseng extract; however, CK, Rh2, PPD, and PPT were detected although they are not present in red ginseng extract, suggesting the formation of these ginsenosides through the human metabolism. In conclusion, our analytical method could be effectively used to evaluate pharmacokinetic properties of ginsenosides, which would be useful for establishing the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodymic relationship of ginsenosides as well as ginsenoside metabolism in humans.
- Ginseng Berry Prevents Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage by Improving the Anti-Inflammatory System Damage in Mice and Quality Control of Active Compounds. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 Jul 18; 20(14)
- The ginseng berry contains a variety of biologically active compounds and has a higher ginsenoside content than its roots. This study focused on the hepatoprotective activity of ginseng berry extract…
The ginseng berry contains a variety of biologically active compounds and has a higher ginsenoside content than its roots. This study focused on the hepatoprotective activity of ginseng berry extract prepared by enzyme treatment (EGB) compared to the non-enzyme-treated ginseng berry extract (GB) and quality control of EGB. The feeding effect of EGB on alcohol-induced liver damage (AILD) was investigated by measuring the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) compared with those of EtOH-fed mice. Furthermore, cytokine levels in the culture supernatants of EGB- or GB-treated RAW 264.7 cells were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The developed method was applied to the simultaneous quantification of four major ginsenosides in EGB using UPLC-QTOF/MS. Treatment with EGB at a dose of 0.5 or 1 mg/mouse significantly suppressed the AST and ALT levels in mice with AILD. Enzyme-treated ginseng berry was also found to suppress the production of inflammatory mediators like nitric oxide (NO), tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, showing higher activity than that of GB. The amount of ginsenoside Re, F5, F3, and Rd in the EGB obtained using UPLC-QTOF/MS was 45.9, 3.3, 4.0, and 6.2 mg/g, respectively. These results suggest that EGB has a potential effect on AILD, and its hepatoprotective effect provides beneficial insights into developing new candidates for the prevention and cure of AILD. Also, this study demonstrated the utility of UPLC-QTOF/MS-based major compounds for quality control (QC) of EGB.
- Efficient production of polysaccharide by Chaetomium globosum CGMCC 6882 through co-culture with host plant Gynostemma pentaphyllum. [Journal Article]
- BBBioprocess Biosyst Eng 2019 Jul 18
- Endophytic fungus, as a new kind of microbial resources and separated from plants, has attracted increasing attention due to its ability to synthesize the same or similar bioactive secondary metaboli…
Endophytic fungus, as a new kind of microbial resources and separated from plants, has attracted increasing attention due to its ability to synthesize the same or similar bioactive secondary metabolites as the host plants. Nevertheless, the effects of the symbiotic relationship between microorganisms and elicitors existed in host plant on metabolite production are not adequately understood. In the present work, the impacts of elicitors (ginseng saponin and puerarin) and symbiotic microorganisms on endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum CGMCC 6882 synthesizing polysaccharide were evaluated. Results show that the polysaccharide titers increased from 2.36 to 3.88 g/L and 3.67 g/L with the addition of 16 μg/L ginseng saponin and puerarin, respectively. Moreover, the maximum polysaccharide titer reached 4.55 g/L when C. globosum CGMCC 6882 was co-cultured with UV-irradiated G. pentaphyllum. This work brings a significant contribution to the research and interpretation of the relationship between endophytic fungus and its host plant.
- Ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits vascular calcification as a selective androgen receptor modulator. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2019 Jul 15; :172546
- Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), a major component of ginseng, has a steroidal chemical structure, implying that it exerts sex hormone-like actions. Recent studies have been suggested cardioprotective actions …
Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), a major component of ginseng, has a steroidal chemical structure, implying that it exerts sex hormone-like actions. Recent studies have been suggested cardioprotective actions of Rb1. However, the actions of Rb1 in vascular calcification, one of the significant pathological features associated with aging and atherosclerosis, have not been examined. In the present study, we examined the effects of Rb1 on vascular calcification, focusing on its androgen-like actions. Using inorganic phosphate (Pi)-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), we found that Rb1, like testosterone, significantly inhibited calcium deposition in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, this inhibition of Rb1 was abolished by bicalutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, but not by MPP or PHTPP, estrogen receptor α or β antagonists. Rb1 significantly inhibited apoptosis, one of the regulatory mechanisms of calcification, and restored growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) expression that was suppressed by Pi. Moreover, Rb1 transactivated Gas6, and proximal androgen-responsive element (ARE) of the promoter region was found to be crucial for Gas6 transactivation. In contrast, in a human prostate cancer cell line, testosterone-induced ARE activity was abrogated by Rb1. This antagonistic effect was also confirmed by the transrepression and downregulation of prostate-specific antigen in the presence of testosterone and Rb1 together. Thus, these findings provide a novel mechanistic insight into the vasculoprotective actions of Rb1 as a selective androgen receptor modulator, i.e., inhibitory effects on VSMC calcification through androgen receptor-mediated Gas6 transactivation and antagonistic effects in prostate cancer cells.
- Efficacy of Panax ginseng supplementation on blood lipid profile. A meta-analysis and systematic review of clinical randomized trials. [Review]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2019 Jul 14; :112090
- CONCLUSIONS: PG extract may induce an improvement in blood lipid profile mainly by a reduction in total and LDL-cholesterol levels.
- Ginsenoside Rb1 regulates prefrontal cortical GABAergic transmission in MPTP-treated mice. [Journal Article]
- AAging (Albany NY) 2019 Jul 17; 11
- Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, featured by motor deficits and non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, and malfunction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) media…
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, featured by motor deficits and non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, and malfunction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediated inhibitory transmission plays an important role in PD pathogenesis. The ginsenoside Rb1 molecule, a major constituent of the extract from the Ginseng root, has been demonstrated to ameliorate motor deficits and prevent dopaminergic neuron death in PD. However, whether Rb1 can regulate GABAergic transmission in PD-associated deficits and its underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of Rb1 on the GABAergic synaptic transmission in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. We demonstrated that Rb1 can bind with GABAARα1 and increase its expression in the SH-SY5Y cells and in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of MPTP model in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Rb1 can promote prefrontal cortical GABA level and GABAergic transmission in MPTP-treated mice. We also revealed that Rb1 may suppress presynaptic GABABR1 to enhance GABA release and GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory transmission. In addition, Rb1 attenuated MPTP-induced dysfunctional gait dynamic and cognitive impairment, and this neuroprotective mechanism possibly involved regulating prefrontal cortical GABAergic transmission. Thus, Rb1 may serve as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of PD.
- Anti-Oxidant in China: A Thirty-Year Journey. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Chin Med 2019 Jul 17; :1-20
- Anti-oxidant refers to such a kind of endogenous or exogenous compound that is able to retard or even prohibit in vivo or in vitro oxidation with only small amount being used. The study of anti-oxida…
Anti-oxidant refers to such a kind of endogenous or exogenous compound that is able to retard or even prohibit in vivo or in vitro oxidation with only small amount being used. The study of anti-oxidants starts nearly 30 years ago, and the research on this topic in China almost begins simultaneously with that in the world. Gratifyingly, contributions on anti-oxidants from China researchers have rapidly increased in the recent decade as anti-oxidants have become a hot topic in biochemistry, pharmacology, food science, chemistry as well as other related disciplines. Anti-oxidants provide a specific viewpoint for clarifying pharmacological effects of Chinese medicinal herbs. For example, as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is found to be a natural anti-oxidant resource. Meanwhile, some signaling pathways such as nuclear factor- κ B (NF- κ B), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), and Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) are regarded to play an important role in anti-oxidant responses. These findings provide a substantial basis for understanding the pharmacological behaviors of Chinese medicinal herbs in view of regulating the aforementioned signaling pathways. Moreover, inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by supplementation of anti-oxidant becomes a popularly accepted idea in keeping health and treating diseases. Isolations of antio-xidative ingredients from medicinal herbs and foods lead to set up a large range of anti-oxidative compound libraries, and intake of anti-oxidants from foods may be the most efficient way for supplementing exogenous anti-oxidants. On the other hand, designing anti-oxidants with novel structures motivates organic and medicinal chemists to explore the structure-activity relationship, and then, to find novel structural features with anti-oxidative properties. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that China researchers will donate more endeavors to obtain more achievements on anti-oxidants in the future.
- Production of Rare Ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 by Endophytic Bacteria from Panax Ginseng. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Agric Food Chem 2019 Jul 16
- The ginsenosides Rh2 and Rg3 induce tumor cell apoptosis, inhibit tumor cell proliferation and restrain tumor invasion and metastasis. Despite the Rh2 and Rg3 has versatile pharmacological activities…
The ginsenosides Rh2 and Rg3 induce tumor cell apoptosis, inhibit tumor cell proliferation and restrain tumor invasion and metastasis. Despite the Rh2 and Rg3 has versatile pharmacological activities, contents of them in natural ginseng are extremely low. In order to produce ginsenosides Rh2 and Rg3, the saponin-producing capacity of endophytic bacteria isolated from Panax ginseng was investigated. In this work, eighty-one endophytic bacteria isolates were taken from ginseng roots by tissue separation methods. Among them, strain PDA-2 showed the highest capacity to produce the rare ginsenosides, the concentrations of rare ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 reached 62.20 mg/L and 18.60 mg/L, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis, it was found to the strain PDA-2 belongs to genus Agrobacterium and was very closed to Agrobacterium rhizogenes.
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