- Histological and cognitive alterations in adult diabetic rats following an episode of juvenile diabetic ketoacidosis: Evidence of permanent cerebral injury. [Journal Article]
- NLNeurosci Lett 2017 Apr 20
- Evidence suggests that diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) may cause subtle cognitive alterations in children but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Acute DKA is associated with reactive astrogliosis and ...
Evidence suggests that diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) may cause subtle cognitive alterations in children but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Acute DKA is associated with reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation in a rat model. Whether these inflammatory changes permanently alter brain histology is unknown. We aimed to determine whether DKA results in permanent alterations in brain histology and whether these changes are associated with cognitive deficits in a rat model. We induced diabetes in juvenile rats with streptozotocin at 4 weeks of age. We induced DKA in one group (n=21) at 5 weeks of age and compared this group to rats with diabetes without DKA episodes (n=13). Beginning at 7 weeks, rats underwent a series of cognitive tests to evaluate memory. At 15 weeks, rat brains were harvested and examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). In tests of novel object recognition and social recognition, both groups performed similarly, however, the DKA group performed more poorly in object-place recognition tests, suggesting alterations in hippocampal function. IHC studies demonstrated increased glial fibrillary acidic protein staining intensity in the hippocampus of DKA rats suggesting astrogliosis, and decreased NeuN positive cell counts in the cortex suggesting neuron loss. These studies demonstrate that DKA results in permanent alterations in brain microstructure in a rat diabetes model. These structural changes are associated with deficits in hippocampal function.
- Cholesterol as a modifying agent of the neurovascular unit structure and function under physiological and pathological conditions. [Review]
- MBMetab Brain Dis 2017 Apr 21
- The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functi...
The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only a part of cholesterol pool can be exchanged with the blood circulation in the form of the oxysterol metabolites such, as 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). Not only neurons but also blood vessels and neuroglia, constituting neurovascular unit (NVU), are crucial for the brain cholesterol metabolism and undergo precise regulation by numerous modulators, metabolites and signal molecules. In physiological conditions maintaining the optimal cholesterol concentration is important for the energetic metabolism, composition of cell membranes and myelination. However, a growing body of evidence indicates the consequences of the cholesterol homeostasis dysregulation in several pathophysiological processes. There is a causal relationship between hypercholesterolemia and 1) development of type 2 diabetes due to long-term high-fat diet consumption, 2) significance of the oxidative stress consequences for cerebral amyloid angiopathy and neurodegenerative diseases, 3) insulin resistance on progression of the neurodegenerative brain diseases. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the cholesterol influence upon functioning of the NVU under physiological and pathological conditions.
- Autophagy protects against neural cell death induced by piperidine alkaloids present in Prosopis juliflora (Mesquite). [Journal Article]
- AAAn Acad Bras Cienc 2017 Jan-Mar; 89(1):247-261
- Prosopis juliflora is a shrub that has been used to feed animals and humans. However, a synergistic action of piperidine alkaloids has been suggested to be responsible for neurotoxic damage observed ...
Prosopis juliflora is a shrub that has been used to feed animals and humans. However, a synergistic action of piperidine alkaloids has been suggested to be responsible for neurotoxic damage observed in animals. We investigated the involvement of programmed cell death (PCD) and autophagy on the mechanism of cell death induced by a total extract (TAE) of alkaloids and fraction (F32) from P. juliflora leaves composed majoritary of juliprosopine in a model of neuron/glial cell co-culture. We saw that TAE (30 µg/mL) and F32 (7.5 µg/mL) induced reduction in ATP levels and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential at 12 h exposure. Moreover, TAE and F32 induced caspase-9 activation, nuclear condensation and neuronal death at 16 h exposure. After 4 h, they induced autophagy characterized by decreases of P62 protein level, increase of LC3II expression and increase in number of GFP-LC3 cells. Interestingly, we demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy by bafilomycin and vinblastine increased the cell death induced by TAE and autophagy induced by serum deprivation and rapamycin reduced cell death induced by F32 at 24 h. These results indicate that the mechanism neural cell death induced by these alkaloids involves PCD via caspase-9 activation and autophagy, which seems to be an important protective mechanism.
- Genomic mapping of chromatin proteins by using Dam(inv) modification of an FLP-dependent DamID approach. [Journal Article]
- DBDokl Biochem Biophys 2017; 472(1):15-18
- To identify interactions of chromatin proteins with the genome of the cell type of interest that is a part of heterologous tissues and organs of Drosophila, an FLP-dependent DamID approach was recent...
To identify interactions of chromatin proteins with the genome of the cell type of interest that is a part of heterologous tissues and organs of Drosophila, an FLP-dependent DamID approach was recently developed , which does not require sorting of cells or nuclei. Here, a modification of this approach, Dam(inv), is described. The modified approach was validated by generating the binding pattern of the LAM protein, a component of the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope, with the genome of glial cells of the Drosophila larval central brains.
- Posttranslational modification impact on the mechanism by which amyloid-β induces synaptic dysfunction. [Journal Article]
- EREMBO Rep 2017 Apr 18
- Oligomeric amyloid-β (Aβ) 1-42 disrupts synaptic function at an early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Multiple posttranslational modifications of Aβ have been identified, among which N-terminally ...
Oligomeric amyloid-β (Aβ) 1-42 disrupts synaptic function at an early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Multiple posttranslational modifications of Aβ have been identified, among which N-terminally truncated forms are the most abundant. It is not clear, however, whether modified species can induce synaptic dysfunction on their own and how altered biochemical properties can contribute to the synaptotoxic mechanisms. Here, we show that a prominent isoform, pyroglutamated Aβ3(pE)-42, induces synaptic dysfunction to a similar extent like Aβ1-42 but by clearly different mechanisms. In contrast to Aβ1-42, Aβ3(pE)-42 does not directly associate with synaptic membranes or the prion protein but is instead taken up by astrocytes and potently induces glial release of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. Moreover, Aβ3(pE)-42-induced synaptic dysfunction is not related to NMDAR signalling and Aβ3(pE)-42-induced impairment of synaptic plasticity cannot be rescued by D1-agonists. Collectively, the data point to a scenario where neuroinflammatory processes together with direct synaptotoxic effects are caused by posttranslational modification of soluble oligomeric Aβ and contribute synergistically to the onset of synaptic dysfunction in AD.
- A simple strategy for culturing morphologically-conserved rat hypothalamic tanycytes. [Journal Article]
- CTCell Tissue Res 2017 Apr 17
- Hypothalamic tanycytes are specialized bipolar ependymal cells that line the floor of the third ventricle. Given their strategic location, tanycytes are believed to play several key functions includi...
Hypothalamic tanycytes are specialized bipolar ependymal cells that line the floor of the third ventricle. Given their strategic location, tanycytes are believed to play several key functions including being a selective barrier and controlling the amount of hypothalamic-derived factors reaching the anterior pituitary. The in vitro culture of these cells has proved to be difficult. Here, we report an improved method for the generation of primary cultures of rat hypothalamic tanycytes. Ependymal cultures were derived from tissue dissected out of the median eminence region of 10-day-old rats and cultured in a chemically defined medium containing DMEM:F12, serum albumin, insulin, transferrin and the antibiotic gentamycin. After 7 days in vitro, ∼30% of the cultured cells exhibited morphological features of tanycytes as observed by phase contrast or scanning electron microscopy. Tanycyte-like cells were strongly immuno-reactive for vimentin and dopamine-cAMP-regulated phospho-protein (DARPP-32) and weakly immune-reactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein. Tanycyte-like cells displayed a stable negative resting plasma membrane potential and failed to show spiking properties in response to current injections. When exposed to fluorescent beads in the culture medium, tanycyte-like cells exhibited a robust endocytosis. Thus, the present method effectively yields cultures containing tanycyte-like cells that resemble in vivo tanycytes in terms of morphologic features and molecular markers as well as electrical and endocytic activity. To our knowledge, this is the first protocol that allows the culturing of tanycyte-like cells that can be individually identified and that conserve the morphology of tanycytes in their natural physiological environment.
- Expression of Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 in diabetic epiretinal membranes. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2017 Mar 29
- CONCLUSIONS: These data support the notion that Wip1 contributes to the formation of the ERMs in PDR membranes via NF-κB signaling.
- Botulinum neurotoxin type A-cleaved SNAP25 is confined to primary motor neurons and localized on the plasma membrane following intramuscular toxin injection. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroscience 2017 Apr 05; 352:155-169
- The mechanism of action of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is well characterized, but some published evidence suggests the potential for neuronal retrograde transport and cell-to-cell transfer (...
The mechanism of action of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is well characterized, but some published evidence suggests the potential for neuronal retrograde transport and cell-to-cell transfer (transcytosis) under certain experimental conditions. The present study evaluated the potential for these processes using a highly selective antibody for the BoNT/A-cleaved substrate (SNAP25197) combined with 3-dimensional imaging. SNAP25197 was characterized in a rat motor neuron (MN) pathway following toxin intramuscular injections at various doses to determine whether SNAP25197 is confined to MNs or also found in neighboring cells or nerve fibers within spinal cord (SC). Results demonstrated that SNAP25197 immuno-reactive staining was colocalized with biomarkers for MNs, but not with markers for neighboring neurons, nerve fibers or glial cells. Additionally, a high dose of BoNT/A, but not a lower dose, resulted in sporadic SNAP25197 signal in distal muscles and associated SC regions without evidence for transcytosis, suggesting that the staining was due to systemic spread of the toxin. Despite this spread, functional effects were not detected in the distal muscles. Therefore, under the present experimental conditions, our results suggest that BoNT/A is confined to MNs and any evidence of distal activity is due to limited systemic spread of the toxin at higher doses and not through transcytosis within SC. Lastly, at higher doses of BoNT/A, SNAP25197 was expressed throughout MNs and colocalized with synaptic markers on the plasma membrane at 6 days post-treatment. These data support previous studies suggesting that SNAP25197 may be incorporated into SNARE-protein complexes within the affected MNs.
- Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (DLGNT) mimicking Whipple's disease: a case report and literature review. [Journal Article]
- CNChilds Nerv Syst 2017 Apr 05
- CONCLUSIONS: DLGNT should be included as a differential diagnosis of patients with leptomeningeal-enhanced and high CSF protein level with normal white blood cell count.
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- HLA-E inhibitor enhances the killing of neuroblastoma stem cells by co-cultured dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells loaded with membrane-based microparticles. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cancer Res 2017; 7(2):334-345
- Neuroblastoma stem cells (NSCs) can cause drug resistance and tumor recurrence. This study aimed to enhance the lytic effect of dendritic cells (DCs) co-cultured with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) ce...
Neuroblastoma stem cells (NSCs) can cause drug resistance and tumor recurrence. This study aimed to enhance the lytic effect of dendritic cells (DCs) co-cultured with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells. NSCs were obtained by suspension culture, and DC-CIK cells were loaded with extracted NSC membrane-based microparticles (MMPs) before evaluating the lytic effect of DC-CIK cells on NSCs. After inhibiting the function or expression of human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) in NSCs by anti-HLA-E monoclonal antibody or siRNA, the DC-CIK cell lytic effect on NSCs was re-assessed. NSC nestin expression was high, but glial fibrillary acid protein expression and class IIIβ-tubulin-1 expression were low. Moreover, NSCs exhibited strong tumorigenic ability in nude mice. Loading DCs with NSC-derived MMPs induced the differentiation of DCs and CIK cells and enhanced the killing of NSCs by DC-CIK cells. Inhibiting the function or expression of HLA-E in NSCs further enhanced the cytolytic capability of DC-CIK cells loaded with NSC-derived MMPs. HLA-E inhibitor can enhance the killing of NSC by DC-CIK cells loaded with NSC-derived MMPs.