- Real-Time and Online Monitoring of Glucose Contents by Using Molecular Imprinted Polymer-Based IDEs Sensor. [Journal Article]
- ABAppl Biochem Biotechnol 2019 Jun 14
- A highly sensitive, selective, reversible, and reusable glucose sensor is developed by using molecularly imprinted polymer-based artificial receptors onto interdigital transducer. Sensor receptors we…
A highly sensitive, selective, reversible, and reusable glucose sensor is developed by using molecularly imprinted polymer-based artificial receptors onto interdigital transducer. Sensor receptors were synthesized through bulk imprinting technology by using styrene as monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker, and AIBN as free radical initiator. Topography of the synthesized receptors was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fabricated sensor showed concentration-dependent linear and reversible response with lower limit of detection of 30 ppb and upper limit of detection ~ 500 ppm. Furthermore, newly fabricated sensor is highly selective towards its analyte of interest in the presence of other competing agents, and the regeneration of sensor response has been assessed with the percentage error of less than 2% under the period of 1 year at room temperature and pressure conditions. The reported sensor may have potential technological applications in the field of medical diagnostics, food, and pharmaceutical industry.
- Growth performance and immune status in common carp Cyprinus carpio as affected by plant oil-based diets complemented with β-glucan. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jun 10
- Omnivorous fish species such as the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are able to biosynthesise long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) from plant oil PUFA precursors, but the influence of the …
Omnivorous fish species such as the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are able to biosynthesise long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) from plant oil PUFA precursors, but the influence of the amount and quality of the LC-PUFAs biosynthesised from these oils on the immunocompetence status of the fish has received little attention. This study aims to evaluate whether the conversion of PUFA by carp induces a sufficient biosynthesis of LC-PUFA to maintain a good immunocompetence status in this species. Six iso-nitrogenous (crude protein = 39.1%) and iso-lipidic (crude lipids = 10%) diets containing three different lipid sources (cod liver oil (CLO) as fish oil; linseed oil (LO) and sunflower oil (SFO) as plant oils) were formulated with or without β-glucan supplementation at 0.25 g/kg diet. Juvenile carp (16.3 ± 0.6 g initial body weight) were fed a daily ration of 4% body weight for 9 weeks and then infected at day 64 with the bacteria Aeromonas hydrophyla. No significant differences in survival rate, final body weight, specific growth rate and feed conversion rate were observed between diets. After bacterial infection, mortality rate did not differ between fish fed CLO and plant oil-based diets, indicating that the latter oils did not affect the overall immunocompetence status of common carp. Plant oil-based diets did not alter lysozyme activity in healthy and infected fish. No negative effects of plant oils on complement activity (ACH50) were observed in healthy fish, even if both plant oil-based diets induced a decrease in stimulated fish two days after infection. Furthermore, the levels of various immune genes (nk, lys, il-8, pla, pge, alox) were not affected by plant oil-based diets. The expression of pla and pge genes were higher in SFO-fed fish than in CLO ones, indicating that this plant oil rich in linoleic acid (LA) better stimulated the eicosanoid metabolism process than fish oil. In response to β-glucan supplementation, some innate immune functions seemed differentially affected by plant oil-based diets. LO and SFO induced substantial LC-PUFA production, even if fish fed CLO displayed the highest EPA and DHA levels in tissues. SFO rich in LA induced the highest ARA levels in fish muscle while LO rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) sustained higher EPA production than SFO. A significantly higher fads-6a expression level was observed in SFO fish than in LO ones, but this was not observed for elovl5 expression. In conclusion, the results show that common carp fed plant oil-based diets are able to produce substantial amounts of LC-PUFA for sustaining growth rate, immune status and disease resistance similar to fish fed a fish oil-based diet. The differences in the production capacity of LC-PUFAs by the two plant oil-based diets were associated to a differential activation of some immune pathways, explaining how the use of these oils did not affect the overall immunocompetence of fish challenged with bacterial infection. Moreover, plant oil-based diets did not induce substantial negative effects on the immunomodulatory action of β-glucans, confirming that these oils are suitable for sustaining a good immunocompetence status in common carp.
- DNA Ultrasensitive Detection via SI-eRAFT and In Situ Metallization Dual-Signal Amplification. [Journal Article]
- ACAnal Chem 2019 Jun 13
- In this work, we report a new amplification strategy based on electrochemically mediated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (eRAFT) and in situ metallization for DNA electrochemical det…
In this work, we report a new amplification strategy based on electrochemically mediated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (eRAFT) and in situ metallization for DNA electrochemical detection. First, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes were immobilized on the surface of the gold electrode, and when they hybridized with the target DNA, the chain transfer agent (CTA), 4-cyano-4-(phenylcarbonothioylthio)pentanoic acid (CPAD), of RAFT were connected to the PNA/DNA heteroduplex formed by the coordination bonding of Zr4+. Then glycosyloxyethyl methacrylates (GEMA) were assembled on the surface of electrode by electrochemically mediated surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (SI-eRAFT) to form a polymer containing sugar glucose. Next, the ortho-hydroxyl groups on polysaccharide molecular skeleton were oxidized to aldehyde groups by sodium periodate (NaIO4). The aldehyde groups generated then reduce silver ions to silver particles deposited on the electrode surface in situ, and it was subjected to differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under optimal conditions, the intensity of the stripping current and the logarithm of the target DNA (tDNA) concentration has a good linear relationship in the range of 10 aM ~ 1 pM (R2=0.996), and the detection limit can go down to 5.4 aM (S/N = 3). Moreover, the method is suitable for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analysis and has strong anti-interference ability for the analysis of target ssDNA in serum samples.
- Antioxidant properties and potential mechanisms of hydrolyzed proteins and peptides from cereals. [Review]
- HHeliyon 2019; 5(4):e01538
- Cereals like wheat, rice, corn, barley, rye, oat, and millet are staple foods in many regions around the world and contribute to more than half of human energy requirements. Scientific publications c…
Cereals like wheat, rice, corn, barley, rye, oat, and millet are staple foods in many regions around the world and contribute to more than half of human energy requirements. Scientific publications contain evidence showing that apart from energy, the regular consumption of whole grains is useful for the prevention of many chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress. Biological activities have mostly been attributed to the presence of glucans and polyphenols. In recent years however, food proteins have been investigated as sources of peptides that can exert biological functions, promote health and prevent oxidative stress. This review focuses on the role of hydrolyzed proteins and peptides with antioxidant properties in various models and their mechanisms which include hydrogen or electron transfer, metal chelating, and regulation of enzymes involved in the oxidation-reduction process.
- Synthesis of a one-handed helical polythiophene: a new approach using an axially chiral bithiophene with a fixed syn-conformation. [Journal Article]
- CSChem Sci 2019 May 14; 10(18):4890-4895
- We report an optically active polythiophene capable of forming a one-handed helically folded conformation without needing aggregate formation, poor solvent conditions, hydrogen-bonded ion-pair format…
We report an optically active polythiophene capable of forming a one-handed helically folded conformation without needing aggregate formation, poor solvent conditions, hydrogen-bonded ion-pair formation or guest addition. The target polythiophene (poly-TR) with a static axial chirality in the main chain was synthesized via Stille coupling copolymerization of a glucose-linked chiral 5,5'-dibromobithiophene with 2,5-bis(stannyl)thiophene. Poly-TR showed a characteristic circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence, which were completely different to those observed for an analogous polymer (poly-PhR) and the corresponding unimer/dimer model compounds. This chiroptical study, combined with the results of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, revealed that poly-TR can fold into a left-handed helical conformation under good solvent conditions. Partial conformational regulation derived from the fixed syn-conformation of the chiral bithiophene unit was considered a key factor in producing the one-handed helical polythiophene.
- Adaptable Xerogel-Layered Amperometric Biosensor Platforms on Wire Electrodes for Clinically Relevant Measurements. [Journal Article]
- SSensors (Basel) 2019 Jun 06; 19(11)
- Biosensing strategies that employ readily adaptable materials for different analytes, can be miniaturized into needle electrode form, and function in bodily fluids represent a significant step toward…
Biosensing strategies that employ readily adaptable materials for different analytes, can be miniaturized into needle electrode form, and function in bodily fluids represent a significant step toward the development of clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo sensors. In this work, a general scheme for 1st generation amperometric biosensors involving layer-by-layer electrode modification with enzyme-doped xerogels, electrochemically-deposited polymer, and polyurethane semi-permeable membranes is shown to achieve these goals. With minor modifications to these materials, sensors representing potential point-of-care medical tools are demonstrated to be sensitive and selective for a number of conditions. The potential for bedside measurements or continuous monitoring of analytes may offer faster and more accurate clinical diagnoses for diseases such as diabetes (glucose), preeclampsia (uric acid), galactosemia (galactose), xanthinuria (xanthine), and sepsis (lactate). For the specific diagnostic application, the sensing schemes have been miniaturized to wire electrodes and/or demonstrated as functional in synthetic urine or blood serum. Signal enhancement through the incorporation of platinum nanoparticle film in the scheme offers additional design control within the sensing scheme. The presented sensing strategy has the potential to be applied to any disease that has a related biomolecule and corresponding oxidase enzyme and represents rare, adaptable, sensing capabilities.
- Yeast (1 → 3)-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucan alleviates immunosuppression in gemcitabine-treated mice. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2019 Jun 03
- Gemcitabine (2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluorocytidine, dFdC) is one of the most effective chemotherapy drugs commonly used for treatment of various tumors. Despite its significant anticancer effects, some adv…
Gemcitabine (2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluorocytidine, dFdC) is one of the most effective chemotherapy drugs commonly used for treatment of various tumors. Despite its significant anticancer effects, some adverse effects create obstacles to treatment. The main toxicity of gemcitabine is myelosuppression, which not only reduces patient quality of life, but also hinders further anticancer treatment. In this respect, immunotherapy can address these drawbacks because of its ability to enhance the patient's immune system. To improve immune system function, yeast-derived β-glucans, which are well-known biologic response modifiers, were administered to gemcitabine-treated mice. The in vivo experiment revealed that orally administered yeast (1 → 3)-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucan effectively alleviated myelosuppression associated with gemcitabine-induced pancytopenia. Moreover, analysis of myelopoiesis-related cytokine expression through real-time PCR demonstrated that β-glucan treatment significantly upregulated hematopoietic responses in gemcitabine-treated mice. Furthermore, orally administered β-glucan significantly induced the expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 in splenocytes of gemcitabine-treated mice. It also restored the cytotoxicity of splenocytes against YAC-1 in gemcitabine-treated mice and displayed a positive effect on gemcitabine-damaged bone marrow tissue. In conclusion, yeast β-glucans have the potential to be used as adjuvants for alleviating chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression in patients.
- Comparison of enzymatic activities and proteomic profiles of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens grown on different carbon sources. [Journal Article]
- PSProteome Sci 2019; 17:2
- CONCLUSIONS: The comparison of four carbon sources resulted in the main significant changes in B. fibrisolvens proteome occurring outside the fibrolytic cluster of proteins. The affected proteins mainly belonged to the glycolysis and protein synthesis cluster.
- Physicochemical and pharmacodynamic evaluation of pioglitazone binary systems with hydrophilic carriers. [Journal Article]
- PDPharm Dev Technol 2019 Jun 04; :1-8
- Pioglitazone (PGZ) is an antidiabetic agent belongs to thiazolidinediones. Binary systems of PGZ in the matrices of kollicoat IR (KL) and gelucire (GL) at different weight ratios were prepared by kne…
Pioglitazone (PGZ) is an antidiabetic agent belongs to thiazolidinediones. Binary systems of PGZ in the matrices of kollicoat IR (KL) and gelucire (GL) at different weight ratios were prepared by kneading and co-evaporation methods, respectively. The drug solid dispersions were characterized in terms of in vitro dissolution studies, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The effects of PGZ-KL (1:4) solid dispersion on the body weight, blood glucose, renal and hepatic functions of the diabetic rats were evaluated. Enhanced drug dissolution was observed in the case of PGZ-KL binary systems depending on the drug to polymer weight ratio. A reduction of 39.7, 32.7 and 26.6% for diabetic control, PGZ untreated and PGZ-KL (1:4), respectively, was recorded after 2 weeks. PGZ-KL (1:4) solid dispersion also showed significantly lower glucose blood level (p < 0.05) compared to the diabetic control group along the period of experiment. The level of ALT was highly significantly decreased in the animal group treated with PGZ-KL solid dispersion (p < 0.001). However, treatment of diabetic rats with either PGZ-KL or PGZ untreated significantly reduced the level of creatinine compared to the diabetic control and the difference between them was non-significant.
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- Encapsulated Microparticles of (1→6)-β-d-Glucan Containing Extract of Baccharis dracunculifolia: Production and Characterization. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2019 Jun 03; 24(11)
- β-Glucans are biomacromolecules well known, among other biological activities, for their immunomodulatory potential. Similarly, extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia also possess biological propertie…
β-Glucans are biomacromolecules well known, among other biological activities, for their immunomodulatory potential. Similarly, extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia also possess biological properties and are used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, ulcers, and hepatic diseases. Microparticles containing (1→6)-β-d-glucan (lasiodiplodan) and B. dracunculifolia extract were produced and characterized. A 23 factorial design was employed to define the conditions of production of microparticles by atomization. Lasiodiplodan associated with maltodextrin and gum arabic was studied as a matrix material. Microparticles of 0.4 μm mean size and high phenolics content (3157.9 μg GAE/g) were obtained under the optimized conditions. The microparticle size ranged from 0.23 to 1.21 µm, and the mathematical model that best represented the release kinetics of the extract was the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Diffusional exponent (n) values of 0.64 at pH 7.7 and 1.15 at pH 2.61 were found, indicating particles with a non-Fickian or anomalous transport system, and Super Case II transport, respectively. Thermal analysis indicated that the microparticles demonstrated high thermal stability. The X-ray diffraction analyses revealed an amorphous structure, and HPLC-DAD analysis showed microparticles rich in phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and catechin. The microparticles obtained comprise a new biomaterial with biological potential for applications in different fields.