- An ImmunoPEGliposome for Targeted Antimalarial Combination Therapy at the Nanoscale. [Journal Article]
- PPharmaceutics 2019 Jul 16; 11(7)
- Combination therapies, where two drugs acting through different mechanisms are administered simultaneously, are one of the most efficient approaches currently used to treat malaria infections. Howeve…
Combination therapies, where two drugs acting through different mechanisms are administered simultaneously, are one of the most efficient approaches currently used to treat malaria infections. However, the different pharmacokinetic profiles often exhibited by the combined drugs tend to decrease treatment efficacy as the compounds are usually eliminated from the circulation at different rates. To circumvent this obstacle, we have engineered an immunoliposomal nanovector encapsulating hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds in its lumen and lipid bilayer, respectively. The antimalarial domiphen bromide has been encapsulated in the liposome membrane with good efficiency, although its high IC50 of ca. 1 µM for living parasites complicates its use as immunoliposomal therapy due to erythrocyte agglutination. The conjugation of antibodies against glycophorin A targeted the nanocarriers to Plasmodium-infected red blood cells and to gametocytes, the sole malaria parasite stage responsible for the transmission from the human to the mosquito vector. The antimalarials pyronaridine and atovaquone, which block the development of gametocytes, have been co-encapsulated in glycophorin A-targeted immunoliposomes. The co-immunoliposomized drugs have activities significantly higher than their free forms when tested in in vitro Plasmodium falciparum cultures: Pyronaridine and atovaquone concentrations that, when encapsulated in immunoliposomes, resulted in a 50% inhibition of parasite growth had no effect on the viability of the pathogen when used as free drugs.
- Clearance and phenotype of extracellular vesicles after red blood cell transfusion in a human endotoxemia model. [Journal Article]
- TATransfus Apher Sci 2019 Jun 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Besides a minor fraction of PS-exposing EVs, RBC-EVs produced during storage do not expose detectable levels of RBC membrane markers that are associated with clearance, which is in contrast to the EVs produced by the circulating RBCs.
- An update on the MNS blood group system. [Journal Article]
- IImmunohematology 2019; 35(2):61-62
- CONCLUSIONS: This update of the MNS blood group system (Reid ME. MNS blood group system: a review. Immunohematology 2009;25:95-101) reports three new antigens of the MNS system numbered MNS47, MNS48, and MNS49; new glycophorin (GP) variants associated with silent and weak expression of MNS antigens; and the results of new studies on associations of MNS antigens with band 3, Rh proteins, and malaria. The addition of these three antigens brings the total number of antigens in the MNS system (International Society of Blood Transfusion system 2) to 49.
- Erythrocyte glycophorins as receptors for Plasmodium merozoites. [Review]
- PVParasit Vectors 2019 Jun 24; 12(1):317
- Glycophorins are heavily glycosylated sialoglycoproteins of human and animal erythrocytes. In humans, there are four glycophorins: A, B, C and D. Glycophorins play an important role in the invasion o…
Glycophorins are heavily glycosylated sialoglycoproteins of human and animal erythrocytes. In humans, there are four glycophorins: A, B, C and D. Glycophorins play an important role in the invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by malaria parasites, which involves several ligands binding to RBC receptors. Four Plasmodium falciparum merozoite EBL ligands have been identified: erythrocyte-binding antigen-175 (EBA-175), erythrocyte-binding antigen-181 (EBA-181), erythrocyte-binding ligand-1 (EBL-1) and erythrocyte-binding antigen-140 (EBA-140). It is generally accepted that glycophorin A (GPA) is the receptor for P. falciparum EBA-175 ligand. It has been shown that α(2,3) sialic acid residues of GPA O-glycans form conformation-dependent clusters on GPA polypeptide chain which facilitate binding. P. falciparum can also invade erythrocytes using glycophorin B (GPB), which is structurally similar to GPA. It has been shown that P. falciparum EBL-1 ligand binds to GPB. Interestingly, a hybrid GPB-GPA molecule called Dantu is associated with a reduced risk of severe malaria and ameliorates malaria-related morbidity. Glycophorin C (GPC) is a receptor for P. falciparum EBA-140 ligand. Likewise, successful binding of EBA-140 depends on sialic acid residues of N- and O-linked oligosaccharides of GPC, which form a cluster or a conformational structure depending on the presence of peptide fragment encompassing amino acids (aa) 36-63. Evaluation of the homologous P. reichenowi EBA-140 unexpectedly revealed that the chimpanzee homolog of human glycophorin D (GPD) is probably the receptor for this ligand. In this review, we concentrate on the role of glycophorins as erythrocyte receptors for Plasmodium parasites. The presented data support the long-lasting idea of high evolutionary pressure exerted by Plasmodium on the human glycophorins, which emerge as important receptors for these parasites.
- Bone marrow characterization in sickle cell disease: inflammation and stress erythropoiesis lead to suboptimal CD34 recovery. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Haematol 2019; 186(2):286-299
- Stress erythropoiesis and chronic inflammation in subjects with sickle cell disease (SCD) may have an impact on the bone marrow (BM) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) quality and yield n…
Stress erythropoiesis and chronic inflammation in subjects with sickle cell disease (SCD) may have an impact on the bone marrow (BM) haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) quality and yield necessary for effective autologous, ex vivo HSPC gene therapy. BM from 19 subjects with SCD and five volunteers without SCD (non-SCD) was collected in different anticoagulants and processed immediately (day 0) or the following day (day 1). Inflammatory, contamination and aggregation markers within the mononuclear layer, and CD34, CD45 and Glycophorin-A (GPA) expression on HSPCs after CD34+ selection were analysed by conventional and imaging flow cytometry. Compared to non-SCD BM, multiple markers of inflammation, contamination (red cells, P < 0·01; platelets, P < 0·01) and aggregates (platelet/granulocytes, P < 0·01; mononuclear/red cells, P < 0·01) were higher in SCD BM. Total CD34+ cell count was lower in SCD BM (P < 0·05), however CD34+ count was higher in SCD BM when collected in acid citrate dextrose-A (ACDA) versus heparin (P < 0·05). Greater than 50% of CD34+ HSPCs from SCD BM are CD34dim due to higher erythroid lineage expression (P < 0·01) as single cell CD34+ CD45+ GPA+ (P < 0·01) and CD34+ CD45- GPA+ (P < 0·01) HSPCs. SCD BM is characterized by increased inflammation, aggregation and contamination contributing to significant differences in HSPC quality and yield compared to non-SCD BM.
- Molecular Detection of Glycophorins A and B Variant Phenotypes and their Clinical Relevance. [Review]
- TMTransfus Med Rev 2019; 33(2):118-124
- Crossover or conversion between the homologous regions of glycophorin A (GYPA) and glycophorin B (GYPB) gives rise to several different hybrid glycophorin genes encoding a number of different glycoph…
Crossover or conversion between the homologous regions of glycophorin A (GYPA) and glycophorin B (GYPB) gives rise to several different hybrid glycophorin genes encoding a number of different glycophorin variant phenotypes which bear low prevalence antigens in the MNS blood group system. GP.Mur is the main glycophorin variant phenotype which causes hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) in East and Southeast Asians. The detection of glycophorin variant phenotypes using serological methods is limited to phenotyping reagents that are not commercially available. Moreover, the red blood cells used for antibody identification are usually of the GP.Mur phenotype. The current Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) are available alternatives to phenotyping that allow for the specific detection of glycophorin variant phenotypes. This review highlights the molecular detection method for glycophorins A and B variant phenotypes and their clinical relevance.
- Myeloid Sarcoma. [Review]
- OROncol Res Treat 2019; 42(4):224-229
- Hematological malignancies can manifest as extramedullary soft tissue masses in relatively rare cases. The rarity of it causes a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. One of the rarest manifestations…
Hematological malignancies can manifest as extramedullary soft tissue masses in relatively rare cases. The rarity of it causes a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. One of the rarest manifestations is myeloid sarcoma (MS). MS develops as part of acute myeloid leukemia, myeloproliferative neoplasm, or myelodysplastic syndrome or at relapse, especially following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The tumor displays high myeloperoxidase expression, hence the color green, and is called chloroma. It most commonly appears in lymph nodes, skin and soft tissues, bone, testes, gastrointestinal tract, and peritoneum. Immunohistochemistry shows CD68-KP1 as the most commonly expressed marker, then myeloperoxidase, CD117, CD99, CD68/PG-M1, lysozyme, CD34, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, CD56, CD61, CD30, glycophorin A, and CD4. Different chromosomal abnormalities including MLL rearrangement, t(8; 21), monosomy 7, trisomy 8, trisomy 11, trisomy 4, inversion (16), monosomy 16,16q deletion, 5q deletion, and 20q deletion were reported. Most of the literature about MS are case reports and small retrospective studies, thus there is limited clinical knowledge of the cases and their presentation and management plans. Here, we provide a review of what has been reported in the literature about MS in the light of our experiences.
- Coronary high-signal-intensity plaques on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reflect intraplaque hemorrhage. [Journal Article]
- CPCardiovasc Pathol 2019 May - Jun; 40:24-31
- Coronary high-signal-intensity plaques (HIPs) detected by T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with future cardiovascular events. This study aimed to identify pathological findings r…
Coronary high-signal-intensity plaques (HIPs) detected by T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with future cardiovascular events. This study aimed to identify pathological findings reflecting HIPs in coronary arteries obtained from autopsy cases. Formalin-fixed hearts were imaged with noncontrast T1-weighted imaging with a 1.5-T magnetic resonance system. We defined HIPs or non-HIPs as a coronary plaque to myocardial signal intensity ratio (PMR) of ≥1.4 or <1.4, respectively. We found HIPs in 4 of 37 (10.8%) hearts and analyzed 7 hearts in detail. The corresponding sections to HIPs (n=11) or non-HIPs (n=25) were histologically and immunohistochemically analyzed. We calculated the T1 relaxation time of human venous blood in vitro. Plaque and necrotic core areas, and the frequency of intraplaque hemorrhage in HIPs were significantly larger/higher than those in non-HIPs. HIPs were immunopositive for CD68 (11/11), glycophorin A (10/11), and fibrin (11/11). Glycophorin-A-, matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9)-, and tissue factor-immunopositive areas were larger in HIPs than in non-HIPs. The PMR was positively correlated with glycophorin-A-, fibrin-, MMP9-, and tissue factor-immunopositive areas. Blood coagulation shortened the T1 relaxation time of the blood and plasma, and the T1 relaxation times in coagulated whole blood and erythrocyte-rich blood were significantly shorter than those in plasma. Coronary HIPs may reflect intraplaque hemorrhage and may be a novel marker for plaque instability and thrombogenic potential.
- "Molecular analysis of the rare S-s- red blood cell phenotype in blood donors and patients in south-east Brazil". [Journal Article]
- VSVox Sang 2019; 114(3):262-267
- CONCLUSIONS: GYPB deletion is the main mechanism responsible for the S-s- phenotype in our donors and patients. It is essential to evaluate the main GYPB variant alleles when genotyping in order to obtain the correct prediction of the phenotype. Hybrid genes lead to discrepancies between genotype and phenotype and may not be detected by conventional molecular assays.
New Search Next
- Few Plasmodium falciparum merozoite ligand and erythrocyte receptor pairs show evidence of balancing selection. [Journal Article]
- IGInfect Genet Evol 2019; 69:235-245
- Erythrocyte surface proteins have been identified as receptors of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite proteins. The ligand-receptor interactions enable the parasite to invade human erythrocytes, initiati…
Erythrocyte surface proteins have been identified as receptors of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite proteins. The ligand-receptor interactions enable the parasite to invade human erythrocytes, initiating the clinical symptoms of malaria. These interactions are likely to have had an evolutionary impact on the genes that encode the ligand and receptor proteins. We used sequence data from Kilifi, Kenya to detect departures from neutrality in a paired analysis of P. falciparum merozoite ligands and their erythrocyte receptor genes from the same population. We genotyped parasite and human DNA obtained from 93 individuals with severe malaria. We examined six merozoite ligands EBA175, EBL1, EBA140, MSP1, Rh4 and Rh5, and their corresponding erythrocyte receptors, glycophorin (Gyp) A, GypB, GypC, band 3, complement receptor (CR) 1 and basigin, focusing on the regions involved in the ligand-receptor interactions. Positive Tajima's D values (>1) were observed only in the MSP1 C-terminal region and EBA175 region II, while negative values (<-1) were observed in EBL-1 region II, Rh4, basigin exons 3 and 5, CR1 exon 5, Gyp B exons 2, 3 and 4 and Gyp C exon 2. Additionally, ebl-1 region II and basigin exon 3 showed extreme negative values in all three tests, Tajima's D, Fu & Li D* and F*, ≤ - 2. A large majority of the erythrocyte receptor and merozoite genes have a negative Tajima's D even when compared with previously published whole genome data. Thus, highlighting EBA175 region II and MSP1-33, as outlier genes with a positive Tajima's D (>1). Both these genes contain multiple polymorphisms, which in the case of EBA175 may counteract receptor polymorphisms and/or evade host immune responses and in MSP1 the polymorphisms may primarily evade host immune responses.