- Metabolite profiling and quantification of phytochemicals of Tianma-Gouteng granule in human and rat urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sep Sci 2019 Jun 17
- Tianma-Gouteng granule has been used for the treatment of hypertension, headache and stroke in China. However, the metabolism of Tianma-Gouteng granule has not been clear. In the present study, an ul…
Tianma-Gouteng granule has been used for the treatment of hypertension, headache and stroke in China. However, the metabolism of Tianma-Gouteng granule has not been clear. In the present study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method has developed for rapid identification of 35 prototypes and 43 metabolites in human and rat urines after single oral administration of Tianma-Gouteng granule. The results showed that glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways for flavonoids, alkaloids, iridoidic glycosides, anthraquinones, phenols and stilbenes that were found in Tianma-Gouteng granule. Moreover, a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method was applied for the quantification of 14 compounds in rat urine after an oral administration of Tianma-Gouteng granule (2.5g/kg). During 0-48 h after dosing, the cumulative excretion rates of nine prototype components were 53% for gastrodin, 0.07∼1.6% for geniposide, baicalin and baicalein, wogonoside, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline, leonurine, and emodin, respectively, indicating that urinary excretion is the major way for gastrodin to eliminate from the body. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of metabolism and excretive kinetics of Tianma-Gouteng granule in human and/or rat, and helpful information for screening of its active components in vivo and clinical application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Analysis of Young Shoots of 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis) at Three Developmental Stages Using Nontargeted LC-MS-Based Metabolomics. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Sci 2019 Jun 17
- 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis) is a low-temperature-sensitive tea variety. During the development of young shoots, the leaves of 'Anji Baicha' exhibit periodic albinism. The quality of 'Anji Baich…
'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis) is a low-temperature-sensitive tea variety. During the development of young shoots, the leaves of 'Anji Baicha' exhibit periodic albinism. The quality of 'Anji Baicha' is closely related to the color of the fresh leaves, with whiter leaves affording a higher amino acid content and superior sensory quality after processing. However, the metabolic mechanism of its quality formation is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the metabolomic changes of young shoots of 'Anji Baicha' and screened for metabolic markers that may be involved in the periodic albinism. Positive- and negative-mode UPLC-QTOF-MS was applied to the metabolomic analysis of young leaves of 'Anji Baicha' during three developmental stages (i.e., the pre-albescent, albescent, and regreening stages). The results revealed significant differences in the metabolic profiles of the young leaves at the three stages. The differential metabolites were mainly related to the pathways of flavonoid, phenylpropanoid, and amino acid biosynthesis. The concentrations of several amino acids (primarily l-theanine, l-glutamate, N2 -acetyl-l-ornithine, l-aspartic acid, d-proline, l-glutamine, l-leucine, and pyroglutamic acid) and 12-OPDA were significantly higher in the albescent stage. In contrast, during the albescent stages, the concentrations of several carbohydrates (d-fructose, β-d-galactopyranose, 3-O-fucopyranosyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucopyranose, galactose-β-1, 4-xylose acetyl-maltose, and 2-fucosyllactose) were significantly lower. Moreover, catechins (mainly epigallocatechin and catechin derivatives), dimeric catechins (primarily proanthocyanidins), and flavonol and flavonol/flavone glycosides (mainly kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, cyanidin, and delphinidin glycosides) were detected at the highest levels in the regreening or pre-albescent stages. The obtained results enhance the current understanding of the metabolic mechanisms of periodic albinism and quality development formation in 'Anji Baicha'. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The obtained results not only provide information regarding differential metabolites but also advance the understanding of the mechanism of periodic albinism in 'Anji Baicha' at the metabolite level and open up new possibilities for the genetic improvement of tea cultivars.
- Drying Kinetics and Quality of Dehydrated Cranberries Pretreated by Traditional and Innovative Techniques. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Sci 2019 Jun 17
- The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of traditional and combined pretreatment on dehydration kinetics and quality of dried swamp cranberries. Fruits were blanched, cut, or treated by combi…
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of traditional and combined pretreatment on dehydration kinetics and quality of dried swamp cranberries. Fruits were blanched, cut, or treated by combined technique consisting of blanching and application of pulsed electric field. Afterwards, fruits were subjected for osmotic dehydration (OD; 72 hr) in 61.5% sucrose solution or in ternary solution consisting of 30% sucrose with 0.1% addition of steviol glycosides to ensure similar sweetness of both mixtures. In the case of samples treated by combined method, OD was enhanced during first 30 min by sonication. Partially dehydrated cranberries were air dried at 70 °C. The quality of dehydrated fruits was assessed by the means of phenolics content, anthocyanin content, flavonoid content, vitamin C content, water activity, and color. Blanching decreased drying time by 48% to 50% in comparison to cutting. Utilization of combined method reduced drying time of cranberries up to 55% in comparison to cut samples. Water activity of all samples was below 0.6. Blanched samples or blanched and then treated with pulsed electric field and ultrasound contained more anthocyanins and flavonoids and less sucrose than cut samples. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: According to current trends in food and beverage industry, consumers seek for products which does not contain excessive amounts of sugars, salt, or fats. Dried cranberry fruits are rich in bioactive compounds and need to be osmotically dehydrated in sugar solutions to make the taste of the final product acceptable. Osmotic dehydration is also carried out to decrease time of drying, which is one of the most energy intensive processes. Therefore, there is a need to develop a technology with potential to maintain the bioactive compounds, reduce sugar content in comparison to traditionally process fruits, and enhance the kinetics of drying.
- Crystal structure determination of Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 endoglucanase Cel5A: the search for a molecular basis for glycosynthesis in GH5_5 enzymes. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Crystallogr D Struct Biol 2019 Jun 01; 75(Pt 6):605-615
- The discovery of new glycoside hydrolases that can be utilized in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates has emerged as a promising approach for various biotechnological processes. In this stu…
The discovery of new glycoside hydrolases that can be utilized in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates has emerged as a promising approach for various biotechnological processes. In this study, recombinant Ps_Cel5A from Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501, a novel member of the GH5_5 subfamily, was expressed, purified and crystallized. Preliminary experiments confirmed the ability of Ps_Cel5A to catalyze transglycosylation with cellotriose as a substrate. The crystal structure revealed several structural determinants in and around the positive subsites, providing a molecular basis for a better understanding of the mechanisms that promote and favour synthesis rather than hydrolysis. In the positive subsites, two nonconserved positively charged residues (Arg178 and Lys216) were found to interact with cellobiose. This adaptation has also been reported for transglycosylating β-mannanases of the GH5_7 subfamily.
- Structure of Aspergillus aculeatus β-1,4-galactanase in complex with galactobiose. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 2019 Jun 01; 75(Pt 6):399-404
- β-1,4-Galactanases are glycoside hydrolases that are involved in the degradation of pectin and belong to family 53 in the classification of glycoside hydrolases. Previous studies have elucidated the …
β-1,4-Galactanases are glycoside hydrolases that are involved in the degradation of pectin and belong to family 53 in the classification of glycoside hydrolases. Previous studies have elucidated the structures of several fungal and two bacterial galactanases, while biochemical studies have indicated differences in the product profiles of different members of the family. Structural studies of ligand complexes have to date been limited to the bacterial members of the family. Here, the first structure of a fungal galactanase in complex with a disaccharide is presented. Galactobiose binds to subsites -1 and -2, thus improving our understanding of ligand binding to galactanases.
- Antimicrobial and potential antidiabetic activities of flavone C-glycosides isolated from Beta vulgaris subspecies cicla L. var. flavescens (Amaranthaceae) cultivated in Egypt. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Pharm Biotechnol 2019 Jun 13
- CONCLUSIONS: B. vulgaris is a potential candidate for the treatment of several health disorders associated with infectious diseases and diabetes.
- Efficient bioconversion of epimedin C to icariin by a glycosidase from Aspergillus nidulans. [Journal Article]
- BTBioresour Technol 2019 Jun 06; 289:121612
- Herba Epimedii is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that contains a mixture of bioactive flavonoid glycosides. Among them, icariin has the most outstanding bioactive functions, while epimedin C e…
Herba Epimedii is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that contains a mixture of bioactive flavonoid glycosides. Among them, icariin has the most outstanding bioactive functions, while epimedin C exhibits substantial toxicity. A recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase (synAnRhaE) from Aspergillus nidulans was expressed in Escherichia coli to promote the efficient bioconversion of epimedin C to icariin. A hydrolase activity of 574.5 U L-1 was acquired via optimized fed-batch fermentation in a 5-L bioreactor. The enzyme proved to be stable in an acidulous pH range below 55 °C with an optimal pH of 4.5 and optimal temperature of 55 °C. Epimedin C (1 g L-1) was 100% converted to icariin within 90 min using recombinant cells. The resting cells proved to be selective for epimedin C and 2″-O-rhamnosylicariside II in crude extracts of the epimedium plant. This work provides an original and efficient biocatalyst system that can be applied in industrialized production of icariin.
- Systemic exposure to Ginkgo biloba extract in male F344/NCrl rats: Relevance to humans. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2019 Jun 13; :110586
- Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a popular botanical dietary supplement used worldwide and the safety of use is a public health concern. While GBE is a complex mixture, the terpene trilactones and flav…
Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a popular botanical dietary supplement used worldwide and the safety of use is a public health concern. While GBE is a complex mixture, the terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides are believed to elicit the pharmacological and/or toxicological effects of GBE. In a National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2-year rodent bioassay with GBE, hepatotoxicity was observed in rodents (≥100 mg/kg in rats, ≥ 200 mg/kg in mice). Subsequently, questions arose about whether or not the GBE used in NTP studies was representative of other GBE products and how rodent doses are related to human doses. To address these, we generated systemic exposure data for terpene trilactones in male rats following oral administration of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg GBE test article from the 2-year bioassay. Dose-normalized Cmax and AUC∞ for terpene trilactones from the current study were within 5-fold of published rodent studies using a standardized GBE preparation. Comparison of our rat systemic exposure data at 100 mg/kg GBE to published human data following ingestion of 240 mg GBE-containing product showed that the rat/human exposure multiple was 3-22, for terpene trilactones. These data demonstrate the relevance of NTP rodent toxicity data to humans.
- Cytotoxic glycosides from the roots of Weigela x "Bristol Ruby". [Journal Article]
- FFitoterapia 2019 Jun 13; :104242
- Seven oleanane-type glycosides were extracted and isolated by various chromatographic methods from the roots of Weigela x "Bristol Ruby" (1-7), six previously undescribed (1-6) and a known one (7). T…
Seven oleanane-type glycosides were extracted and isolated by various chromatographic methods from the roots of Weigela x "Bristol Ruby" (1-7), six previously undescribed (1-6) and a known one (7). Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis mainly 2D NMR and mass spectrometry (ESIMS). Selected triterpenoid glycosides (1-3, 6, 7) displayed a good cytotoxic activity against a mouse colon cancer cell line CT26.
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- Impact of air-drying on polyphenol extractability from apple pomace. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2019 Oct 30; 296:142-149
- Little data are available on the impact of pomace pre-treatment, notably drying, on the nature and yield of polyphenols. Pomace from two apple varieties ('Avrolles' and 'Kermerrien'), pressed with an…
Little data are available on the impact of pomace pre-treatment, notably drying, on the nature and yield of polyphenols. Pomace from two apple varieties ('Avrolles' and 'Kermerrien'), pressed with and without oxidation, were air-dried to different degrees. Drying led to the loss of native molecules, notably 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and flavan-3-ols. Total polyphenol yields, after sequential pressurized liquid extraction (water 10 MPa, 70 °C, then ethanol 48%, 10 MPa, 70 °C), varied between 5 and 15 g/kg dry weight but showed no marked trend with drying. Extracts from dried pomace contained few native polyphenols. Water extracts from 'Kermerrien' contained flavonols, flavanols and phloridzin and those from 'Avrolles' contained phloridzin. Water:ethanol extracts were rich in procyanidins, especially from 'Avrolles', where they represented >80% of analysable polyphenols. Presence of polyphenol molecules with modified structures in the extracts of dried pomaces might lead to different biological properties than those with native molecules.