- New species and new records of the genus Deinopteroloma Jansson, 1946 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Omaliinae) from China. [Journal Article]
- ZZookeys 2019; 846:55-64
- New morphological, taxonomic and faunistic data of the genus Deinopteroloma Jansson, 1946 from China are provided. Two species are described and illustrated: D.songi Peng & L.-Z. Li, sp. n. (Xizang: …
New morphological, taxonomic and faunistic data of the genus Deinopteroloma Jansson, 1946 from China are provided. Two species are described and illustrated: D.songi Peng & L.-Z. Li, sp. n. (Xizang: Pailong) and D.spinigerum Peng & L.-Z. Li, sp. n. (Hunan: Mangshan). New provincial records are provided for D.hamatum Smetana, 1996 from Anhui, Zhejiang and Jiangxi, D.obtortum Assing, 2015 from Sichuan, and D.tricuspidatum Smetana, 1996 from Zhejiang.
- Trichoderma Species Differ in Their Volatile Profiles and in Antagonism Toward Ectomycorrhiza Laccaria bicolor. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2019; 10:891
- Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are economically important due to their plant growth- and performance-promoting effects, such as improved nutrient supply, mycoparasitism of plant-pathogens and priming…
Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are economically important due to their plant growth- and performance-promoting effects, such as improved nutrient supply, mycoparasitism of plant-pathogens and priming of plant defense. Due to their mycotrophic lifestyle, however, they might also be antagonistic to other plant-beneficial fungi, such as mycorrhiza-forming species. Trichoderma spp. release a high diversity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which likely play a decisive role in the inter-species communication. It has been shown that Trichoderma VOCs can inhibit growth of some plant pathogens, but their inhibition potentials during early interactions with mutualistic fungi remain unknown. Laccaria bicolor is a common ectomycorrhizal fungus which in symbiotic relationship is well known to facilitate plant performance. Here, we investigated the VOC profiles of three strains of Trichoderma species, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma Hamatum, and Trichoderma velutinum, as well as L. bicolor by stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). We further examined the fungal performance and the VOC emission profiles during confrontation of the Trichoderma species with L. bicolor in different co-cultivation scenarios. The VOC profiles of the three Trichoderma species were highly species-dependent. T. harzianum was the strongest VOC emitter with the most diverse compound pattern, followed by T. hamatum and T. velutinum. Co-cultivation of Trichoderma spp. and L. bicolor altered the VOC emission patterns dramatically in some scenarios. The co-cultivations also revealed contact degree-dependent inhibition of one of the fungal partners. Trichoderma growth was at least partially inhibited when sharing the same headspace with L. bicolor. In direct contact between both mycelia, however, L. bicolor growth was impaired, indicating that Trichoderma and L. bicolor apply different effectors when defending their territory. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that all examined individual fungal species in axenic cultures, as well as their co-cultivations were characterized by a distinct VOC emission pattern. The results underline the importance of VOCs in fungal interactions and reveal unexpected adjustability of the VOC emissions according to the specific biotic environments.
- Extracellular mycosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Trichoderma hamatum: optimization, characterization and antimicrobial activity. [Journal Article]
- LALett Appl Microbiol 2018; 67(5):465-475
- CONCLUSIONS: Mycosynthesis of AuNPs by Trichoderma hamatum would provide some useful data for oriented biosynthesis of AuNPs. In addition, the applications of mycosynthesized AuNPs were studied against some pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, the gained results detect that these antimicrobial nanoparticles could be explored as hopeful candidates for a variety of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. This study should provide a further prudence for the fungal-mediated synthesis of AuNPs.
- The diversity of Trichoderma species from soil in South Africa, with five new additions. [Journal Article]
- MMycologia 2018 May-Jun; 110(3):559-583
- Fourteen Trichoderma (Hypocreales) species were identified during a survey of the genus in South Africa. These include T. afroharzianum, T. asperelloides, T. asperellum, T. atrobrunneum, T. atrovirid…
Fourteen Trichoderma (Hypocreales) species were identified during a survey of the genus in South Africa. These include T. afroharzianum, T. asperelloides, T. asperellum, T. atrobrunneum, T. atroviride, T. camerunense, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. koningii, T. koningiopsis, T. saturnisporum, T. spirale, T. virens, and T. viride. Ten of these species were not known to occur in South Africa prior to this investigation. Five additional species were novel and are described here as T. beinartii, T. caeruleimontis, T. chetii, T. restrictum, and T. undulatum. These novel Trichoderma species display morphological traits that are typical of the genus. Based on molecular identification using calmodulin, endochitinase, nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), RNA polymerase II subunit B, and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequence data, T. beinartii, T. caeruleimontis, and T. chetii were found to belong to the Longibrachiatum clade, whereas T. restrictum is a member of the Hamatum clade. Trichoderma undulatum occupies a distinct lineage distantly related to other Trichoderma species. Strains of T. beinartii and T. chetii were isolated previously in Hawaii and Israel; however, T. caeruleimontis, T. restrictum, and T. undulatum are so far known only from South Africa.
- Suppressive Effect of Trichoderma spp. on toxigenic Fusarium species. [Journal Article]
- PJPol J Microbiol 2017 Mar 30; 66(1):85-100
- The aim of the present study was to examine the abilities of twenty-four isolates belonging to ten different Trichoderma species (i.e., Trichoderma atroviride, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Trichoderma …
The aim of the present study was to examine the abilities of twenty-four isolates belonging to ten different Trichoderma species (i.e., Trichoderma atroviride, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Trichoderma cremeum, Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningiopsis, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma longipile, Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma viridescens) to inhibit the mycelial growth and mycotoxin production by five Fusarium strains (i.e., Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium cerealis, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium temperatum). Dual-culture bioassay on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium clearly documented that all of the Trichoderma strains used in the study were capable of influencing the mycelial growth of at least four of all five Fusarium species on the fourth day after co-inoculation, when there was the first apparent physical contact between antagonist and pathogen. The qualitative evaluation of the interaction between the colonies after 14 days of co-culturing on PDA medium showed that ten Trichoderma strains completely overgrew and sporulated on the colony at least one of the tested Fusarium species. Whereas, the microscopic assay provided evidence that only T. atroviride AN240 and T. viride AN255 formed dense coils around the hyphae of the pathogen from where penetration took place. Of all screened Trichoderma strains, T. atroviride AN240 was also found to be the most efficient (69-100% toxin reduction) suppressors of mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, beauvericin, moniliformin) production by all five Fusarium species on solid substrates. This research suggests that T. atroviride AN240 can be a promising candidate for the biological control of toxigenic Fusarium species.
- Inhibition coefficient and molecular diversity of multi stress tolerant Trichoderma as potential biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. [Journal Article]
- IGInfect Genet Evol 2017; 55:75-92
- Trichoderma is one of the most exploited biocontrol agent for the management of plant diseases. Twenty strains of Trichoderma (six of T. harzianum, four of T. viride, three of T. virens, three of T. …
Trichoderma is one of the most exploited biocontrol agent for the management of plant diseases. Twenty strains of Trichoderma (six of T. harzianum, four of T. viride, three of T. virens, three of T. koningii, each one of T. hamatum, T. reesei, T. parceramosum and Trichoderma spp.) subjected to in vitro antagonism up to 12days after inoculation against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. causing stem rot in groundnut. A new concept was developed to determine inhibition coefficient representing pathogen biology and biocontrol related biophysical variables. Results explained differential inhibition coefficient of test pathogen by Trichoderma antagonists. The inhibition coefficient of test pathogen was examined highest (91.13%) by T. virens NBAII Tvs12 followed by T. virens MTCC 794 (89.33%) and T. koningii MTCC 796 (62.39%). Microscopic study confirmed biocontrol mechanism as mycoparasitism for Tvs12 and antibiosis for T. koningii MTCC 796. The sclerotial biogenesis of test pathogen was elevated during weak antagonism and diminished in interactions with strong antagonists. The inhibition coefficient of S. rolfsii was significantly negatively correlated with sclerotia formation and lipid peroxidation during the antagonism. Trichoderma strains were screened for fungicides (carbendazim and tebuconazole, thiram and mancozeb) and abiotic stress (drought and salt) tolerance. Results indicated that T. koningii MTCC 796 efficiently grew better than the other strains with maximum radial growth under adverse conditions. The genetic variability among the Trichoderma was determined using 34 gene specific markers which amplified 146 alleles. The SSR similarities explained substantial diversity (15 to 87%) across Trichoderma strains and pathogen S. rolfsii. Principal coordinates analysis (PCA) were comparable to the cluster analysis and first three most informative PC components explained 64.45% of the total variation. In PCA, potent antagonists appear to be distinct from other strains. Five SSR markers T1F/T1R(311), TvCTT56f/TvCTT56r(387), TvGAT18f/TvGAT18r(364), TvCA39f/TvCA39r(196) and TvAG29f/TvAG29r(418) found to be unique to distinguish best antagonist strain Tvs12. However, MTCC 796 was examined most stress tolerant strain with better inhibition coefficient which might be useful to control the disease under adverse conditions or as a part of integrated pest management.
- Genomics insights into different cellobiose hydrolysis activities in two Trichoderma hamatum strains. [Journal Article]
- MCMicrob Cell Fact 2017 Apr 19; 16(1):63
- CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the YYH13 strain of T. hamatum has the potential to serve as a model organism for producing cellulase because of its strong ability to efficiently degrade cellulosic biomass. The genome sequences of YYH13 and YYH16 represents a valuable resource for studying efficient production of biofuels.
- Chaunopyran A: Co-Cultivation of Marine Mollusk-Derived Fungi Activates a Rare Class of 2-Alkenyl-Tetrahydropyran. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nat Prod 2017 04 28; 80(4):1167-1172
- Co-cultivation of Chaunopycnis sp. (CMB-MF028) and Trichoderma hamatum (CMB-MF030), fungal strains co-isolated from the inner tissue of an intertidal rock platform mollusc (Siphonaria sp), resulted i…
Co-cultivation of Chaunopycnis sp. (CMB-MF028) and Trichoderma hamatum (CMB-MF030), fungal strains co-isolated from the inner tissue of an intertidal rock platform mollusc (Siphonaria sp), resulted in transcriptional activation of a rare class of 2-alkenyl-tetrahydropyran, chaunopyran A (7), and biotransformation and deactivation of the antifungal pyridoxatin (1), to methyl-pyridoxatin (8). This study illustrates the complexity of offensive and counter-offensive molecular defenses encountered during fungal co-cultivation, and the opportunities for activating new, otherwise transcriptionally silent secondary metabolites.
- Elicitation of resistance and associated defense responses in Trichoderma hamatum induced protection against pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 03 21; 7:43991
- Endophytic Trichoderma hamatum UoM 13 isolated from pearl millet roots was evaluated for its efficiency to suppress downy mildew disease. Under laboratory conditions, T. hamatum seed treatment signif…
Endophytic Trichoderma hamatum UoM 13 isolated from pearl millet roots was evaluated for its efficiency to suppress downy mildew disease. Under laboratory conditions, T. hamatum seed treatment significantly enhanced pearl millet seed germination and seedling vigor. T. hamatum seed treatment resulted in systemic and durable immunity against pearl millet downy mildew disease under greenhouse and field conditions. T. hamatum treated seedlings responded to downy mildew infection with high lignification and callose deposition. Analysis of defense enzymes showed that T. hamatum treatment significantly enhanced the activities of glucanase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase in comparison to untreated control. RT-PCR analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts of the defense enzymes and PR-proteins in treated, untreated, and checks, wherein PR-1, PR-5, and cell wall defense HRGPs were significantly over expressed in treated seedlings as against their lower expression in controls. T. hamatum treatment significantly stimulated endogenous salicylic acid (SA) levels and significantly upregulated important SA biosynthesis gene isochorismate synthase. The results indicated that T. hamatum UoM13 treatment induces resistance corresponding to significant over expression of endogenous SA, important defense enzymes, PR-proteins, and HRGPs, suggesting that SA biosynthetic pathway is involved in pearl millet for mounting systemic immunity against downy mildew pathogen.
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- Yield and cold storage of Trichoderma conidia is influenced by substrate pH and storage temperature. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Basic Microbiol 2017; 57(5):419-427
- In this study we examined the influence of the ambient pH during morphogenesis on conidial yield of Trichoderma sp. "atroviride B" LU132 and T. hamatum LU593 and storage at low temperatures. The ambi…
In this study we examined the influence of the ambient pH during morphogenesis on conidial yield of Trichoderma sp. "atroviride B" LU132 and T. hamatum LU593 and storage at low temperatures. The ambient pH of the growth media had a dramatic influence on the level of Trichoderma conidiation and this was dependent on the strain and growth media. On malt-extract agar, LU593 yield decreased with increasing pH (3-6), whereas yield increased with increasing pH for LU132. During solid substrate production the reverse was true for LU132 whereby yield decreased with increasing pH. The germination potential of the conidia decreased significantly over time in cold storage and the rate of decline was a factor of the strain, pH during morphogenesis, growth media, and storage temperature.