- Perception of clinical educational environment by student of physiotherapy based on the Educational Environment Measurement Questionnaire of the Postgraduate Hospital in Chile. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Educ Eval Health Prof 2019; 16:16
- CONCLUSIONS: There is relative homogeneity of the clinical educational environment for different headquarters, types of establishment or type of area; but there are significant differences in the number of the internship. The promotion of a good clinical educational environment can have an important impact on the development and performance of the future professional, being the detection of negative aspects an opportunity to improve the hidden curriculum.
- ILC3 cells promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells through IL-22/AKT signaling. [Journal Article]
- CTClin Transl Oncol 2019 Jun 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that ILC3s may promote PC pathogenesis through IL-22/IL-22R-AKT signaling, suggesting a potential intervention target for PC treatment in the future.
- Acute effect of photobiomodulation using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on baroreflex sensitivity during and after constant loading exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- LMLasers Med Sci 2019 Jun 15
- To evaluate the photobiomodulation (PBM) effect on the cardiovascular autonomic control, analyzed by baroreflex sensitivity (sequence method), during constant load exercise and recovery in diabetic m…
To evaluate the photobiomodulation (PBM) effect on the cardiovascular autonomic control, analyzed by baroreflex sensitivity (sequence method), during constant load exercise and recovery in diabetic men, we evaluated 11 men with type 2 diabetes (DM2) (40-64 years). The constant workload exercise protocol (TECC) was performed on two different days, 14 days apart from each other, to guarantee PBM washout period. After PBM by light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation (150 J or 300 J or placebo), 10 min of rest (REST) was performed. After this period, the volunteer was positioned on a cycloergometer to start the test (1-min rest, 3-min free-load heating, 6-min constant workload-EXERCISE, 6-min free-load cool-down, 1-min rest) followed by a sitting period of 10 min (RECOVERY). The constant workload corresponded to 80%VO2GET (gas exchange threshold) identified by a previous cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). PBM was applied in continuous mode, contact technique, bilaterally, on both femoral quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle groups. The electrocardiogram R-R intervals (BioAmp FE132) and the peripheral pulse pressure signals (Finometer PRO) were collected continuously throughout the protocol. Stable sequences of 256 points were chosen at REST, EXERCISE, and RECOVERY. The baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was computed in time domain according to the sequence method (αseq). The comparison between therapies (150 J/300 J/placebo) and condition (REST, EXERCISE, and RECOVERY) was performed using the ANOVA two-way repeated measures test. There was no interaction between therapy and conditions during the TECC. There was only the condition effect (p < 0.001), showing that the behavior of αseq was similar regardless of the therapy. Photobiomodulation with 150 J or 300 J applied previously to a moderate-intensity TECC in DM2 was not able to promote cardiovascular autonomic control changes leading to an improvement in BRS.
- Metabolomic Insights into the Effects of Breast Milk Versus Formula Milk Feeding in Infants. [Review]
- CNCurr Nutr Rep 2019 Jun 15
- This review summarizes the latest scientific evidence for the presence of metabolomic differences between infants fed breast milk (I-BM) and infants fed formula milk (I-FM).
This review summarizes the latest scientific evidence for the presence of metabolomic differences between infants fed breast milk (I-BM) and infants fed formula milk (I-FM).
- Impaired Collateral Flow in Pial Arterioles of Aged Rats During Ischemic Stroke. [Journal Article]
- TSTransl Stroke Res 2019 Jun 15
- Cerebral collateral circulation and age are critical factors in determining outcome from acute ischemic stroke. Aging may lead to rarefaction of cerebral collaterals, and thereby accelerate ischemic …
Cerebral collateral circulation and age are critical factors in determining outcome from acute ischemic stroke. Aging may lead to rarefaction of cerebral collaterals, and thereby accelerate ischemic injury by reducing penumbral blood flow. Dynamic changes in pial collaterals after onset of cerebral ischemia may vary with age but have not been extensively studied. Here, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) were combined to monitor cerebral pial collaterals between the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in young adult and aged male Sprague Dawley rats during distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAo). Histological analysis showed that aged rats had significantly greater volumes of ischemic damage than young rats. LSCI showed that cerebral collateral perfusion declined over time after stroke in aged and young rats, and that this decline was significantly greater in aged rats. TPLSM demonstrated that pial arterioles narrowed faster after dMCAo in aged rats compared to young adult rats. Notably, while arteriole vessel narrowing was comparable 4.5 h after ischemic onset in aged and young adult rats, red blood cell velocity was stable in young adults but declined over time in aged rats. Overall, red blood cell flux through pial arterioles was significantly reduced at all time-points after 90 min post-dMCAo in aged rats relative to young adult rats. Thus, collateral failure is more severe in aged rats with significantly impaired pial collateral dynamics (reduced diameter, red blood cell velocity, and red blood cell flux) relative to young adult rats.
- Regenerative medicine: the red planet for clinicians. [Review]
- IEIntern Emerg Med 2019 Jun 15
- Regenerative medicine represents the forefront of health sciences and holds promises for the treatment and, possibly, the cure of a number of challenging conditions. It relies on the use of stem cell…
Regenerative medicine represents the forefront of health sciences and holds promises for the treatment and, possibly, the cure of a number of challenging conditions. It relies on the use of stem cells, tissue engineering, and gene therapy alone or in different combinations. The goal is to deliver cells, tissues, or organs to repair, regenerate, or replace the damaged ones. Among stem-cell populations, both haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells have been employed in the treatment of refractory chronic inflammatory diseases with promising results. However, only mesenchymal stem cells seem advantageous as both systemic and local injections may be performed without the need for immune ablation. Recently, also induced pluripotent stem cells have been exploited for therapeutic purposes given their tremendous potential to be an unlimited source of any tissue-specific cells. Moreover, through the development of technologies that make organ fabrication possible using cells and supporting scaffolding materials, regenerative medicine promises to enable organ-on-demand, whereby patients will receive organs in a timely fashion without the risk of rejection. Finally, gene therapy is emerging as a successful strategy not only in monogenic diseases, but also in multifactorial conditions. Several of these approaches have recently received approval for commercialization, thus opening a new therapeutic era. This is why both General Practitioners and Internists should be aware of these great advancements.
- Socioeconomic inequalities in oral health-related quality of life in adolescents: a cohort study. [Journal Article]
- QLQual Life Res 2019 Jun 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents from low socioeconomic background reported worse OHRQoL at 2-year follow-up compared to those from high socioeconomic background. Actions toward health inequalities need to address socioeconomic factors in adolescence.
- It is not just the drugs that matter: the nocebo effect. [Review]
- CMCancer Metastasis Rev 2019 Jun 16
- The role of psychological mechanisms in the treatment process cannot be underestimated, the well-known placebo effect unquestionably being a factor in treatment. However, there is also a dark side to…
The role of psychological mechanisms in the treatment process cannot be underestimated, the well-known placebo effect unquestionably being a factor in treatment. However, there is also a dark side to the impact of mental processes on health/illness as exemplified by the nocebo effect. This phenomenon includes the emergence or exacerbation of negative symptoms associated with the therapy, but arising as a result of the patient's expectations, rather than being an actual complication of treatment. The exact biological mechanisms of this process are not known, but cholecystokinergic and dopaminergic systems, changes in the HPA axis, and the endogenous secretion of opioids are thought to be involved. The nocebo effect can affect a significant proportion of people undergoing treatment, including cancer patients, leading in some cases to the cessation of potentially effective therapy, because of adverse effects that are not actually part of the biological effect of treatment. In extreme cases, as a result of suggestions and expectations, a paradoxical effect, biologically opposite to the mechanism of the action of the drug, may occur. In addition, the nocebo effect may significantly interfere with the results of clinical trials, being the cause of a significant proportion of complications reported. Knowledge of the phenomenon is thus necessary in order to facilitate its minimalization and thus improve the quality of life of patients and the effectiveness of treatment.
- Shortening of telomere length by metabolic factors in diabetes: protective effects of fenofibrate. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Commun Signal 2019 Jun 15
- People with diabetes mellitus have shorter telomeres compared with non-diabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate an in-vitro model of telomere shortening under diabetes metabolic co…
People with diabetes mellitus have shorter telomeres compared with non-diabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate an in-vitro model of telomere shortening under diabetes metabolic conditions. The mechanisms of the accelerated telomere length attrition and the potential telomere protective action of fenofibrate with related cellular mechanisms were also examined. Human dermal fibroblasts were passaged and cultured in normal (5.5 mM) or high (25 mM) D-glucose, across 7 days with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glucosamine (GA), or glycated albumin (AGEs-BSA). Relative telomere length (RTL) was determined by qPCR. The expression of shelterin complex members which regulate telomere stability were measured by qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot. Culture in high glucose decreased RTL compared with normal glucose: H2O2 and GA lowered the RTL after 7 days (each P < 0.05 vs untreated control), whereas AGEs-BSA had no effect compared with control-BSA. At day 7 the mRNA levels of most shelterin complex members, were induced by H2O2 and to a lesser extent by GA. Trf1 and Trf2 protein were induced by H2O2. Co-treatment with fenofibrate (100 μM) significantly attenuated the reduction in RTL caused by H2O2 and GA and prevented Trf induction by H2O2. However knockdown of Trf1 and Trf2 expression using specific siRNA did not prevent H2O2 effects to lower RTL, thus implicating factors other than these Trfs alone in the fenofibrate protection against the H2O2 induction of RTL lowering. These in vitro findings demonstrate that diabetic conditions can induce telomere shortening and that fenofibrate has protective effects on telomere attrition, through as yet undefined mechanisms.
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- Soil burden by persistent organochlorine compounds in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant in Croatia: a comparison study with an urban-industrialized area. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jun 16
- The impact of a coal-fired Plomin Power Plant (PPP) in Croatia on PCB soil burden was examined by comparing the occurrence, levels, and profile of PCBs in soil from the PPP with the values determined…
The impact of a coal-fired Plomin Power Plant (PPP) in Croatia on PCB soil burden was examined by comparing the occurrence, levels, and profile of PCBs in soil from the PPP with the values determined in urban-industrialized soil (Varaždin, Croatia). Soil burden by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were also investigated at both locations. Topsoil samples were collected at five distances (100-800 m) along a downwind pollution gradient from the PPP and across the city. The total content of PCBs in 100-m soil was nearly 20-fold the levels found in 800-m soil, which pointed to the PPP as a local source of soil contamination. The PPP soils were dominated by indicator PCB congeners, particularly hexa-homologs. A different profile and mass fraction range of PCBs in soils from PPP and Varaždin area indicated the different sources of contamination. Levels of total PCBs in PPP soils (0.25-19.07 μg kg-1) were higher than PCB levels determined in soils from Varaždin (0.29-5.52 μg kg-1), partially as a result of higher OC content in PPP soils. PPP soil burden by PCBs corresponded to a lower end of PCB level ranges reported for cities with high population and heavy industry. OCPs were detected at significantly higher levels in Varaždin soils than in PPP soils, with the highest contribution of the DDT-like compounds (DDX) detected in soils affected by river deposits. The p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in Varaždin soils indicated a fresh atmospheric input of p,p'-DDT. The PPP soil analysis detected a presence of only p,p'-DDE and HCB at levels corresponding to their global environmental presence.