- Fabry disease caused by the GLA p.Phe113Leu (p.F113L) variant: Natural history in males. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Genet 2019 Jun 11; :103703
- CONCLUSIONS: Hemizygosity for the GLA Leu113 variant allele is associated with a late-onset form of FD, invariably presenting with severe cardiac involvement. Clinically relevant cerebrovascular and kidney involvement may also occur in some patients but the pathogenic relationship between the incomplete α-galactosidase deficiency and the risks of stroke and of chronic kidney disease is not straightforward. The observation that the Leu113 allele segregated within the same GLA microsatellite haplotype in both the Portuguese and Italian families suggests its inheritance from a common ancestor.
- De novo loss-of-function variants in NSD2 (WHSC1) associate with a subset of Wolf- Hirschhorn syndrome. [Journal Article]
- CSCold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2019 Jun 06
- Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare but recurrent microdeletion syndrome associated with hemizygosity of an interstitial segment of chromosome 4 (4p16.3). Consistent with historical reports wher…
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare but recurrent microdeletion syndrome associated with hemizygosity of an interstitial segment of chromosome 4 (4p16.3). Consistent with historical reports where overlapping deletions defined a minimal critical region in WHS patients, recent reports from exome sequence analysis have provided further evidence that haploinsufficiency of a specific gene within this critical region, NSD2 (WHSC1), is causal for many features of the syndrome. In this report, we describe three unrelated patients with loss of function alterations in NSD2 who presented clinically with WHS features including intrauterine growth retardation and global developmental delay. Two of the three patients also had overlapping features of: failure to thrive, short stature, constipation and hypotonia. This series adds additional cases to expand the phenotypic spectrum of Wolf- Hirschhorn syndrome and reports novel NSD2 variants.
- The long and short of the S-locus in Turnera (Passifloraceae). [Journal Article]
- NPNew Phytol 2019 May 30
- Distyly is an intriguing floral adaptation that increases pollen transfer precision and restricts inbreeding. It has been a model system in evolutionary biology since Darwin. Although the S-locus det…
Distyly is an intriguing floral adaptation that increases pollen transfer precision and restricts inbreeding. It has been a model system in evolutionary biology since Darwin. Although the S-locus determines the long- and short-styled morphs, the genes were unknown in Turnera. We have now identified these genes. We used deletion mapping to identify, and then sequence, BAC clones and genome scaffolds to construct S/s haplotypes. We investigated candidate gene expression, hemizygosity, and used mutants, to explore gene function. The s-haplotype possessed 21 genes collinear with a region of chromosome 7 of grape. The S-haplotype possessed three additional genes and two inversions. TsSPH1 was expressed in filaments and anthers, TsYUC6 in anthers and TsBAHD in pistils. Long-homostyle mutants did not possess TsBAHD and a short-homostyle mutant did not express TsSPH1. Three hemizygous genes appear to determine S-morph characteristics in T. subulata. Hemizygosity is common to all distylous species investigated, yet the genes differ. The pistil candidate gene, TsBAHD, differs from that of Primula, but both may inactivate brassinosteroids causing short styles. TsYUC6 is involved in auxin synthesis and likely determines pollen characteristics. TsSPH1 is likely involved in filament elongation. We propose an incompatibility mechanism involving TsYUC6 and TsBAHD.
- QTL analysis reveals genomic variants linked to high-temperature fermentation performance in the industrial yeast. [Journal Article]
- BBBiotechnol Biofuels 2019; 12:59
- CONCLUSIONS: This work revealed eight novel causative genes and SNP variants closely associated with high-temperature fermentation performance. Among these genes, VPS34 and DAP1 would be good targets for improving high-temperature fermentation of the industrial yeast. It also showed that loss of heterozygosity of causative genes could contribute to the improvement of high-temperature fermentation capacities. Our findings would provide guides to develop more robust and thermotolerant strains for the industrial production of ethanol.
- Electrophysiological Phenotype in Angelman Syndrome Differs Between Genotypes. [Journal Article]
- BPBiol Psychiatry 2019 May 01; 85(9):752-759
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide strong evidence for the contribution of non-UBE3A neuronal pathophysiology in deletion AS and suggest that hemizygosity of the GABRB3-GABRA5-GABRG3 gene cluster causes abnormal theta and beta EEG oscillations that may underlie the more severe clinical phenotype. Our work improves the understanding of AS pathophysiology and has direct implications for the development of AS treatments and biomarkers.
- Hemizygosity Enables a Mutational Transition Governing Fungal Virulence and Commensalism. [Journal Article]
- CHCell Host Microbe 2019 03 13; 25(3):418-431.e6
- Candida albicans is a commensal fungus of human gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts, but also causes life-threatening systemic infections. The balance between colonization and pathogenesis is as…
Candida albicans is a commensal fungus of human gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts, but also causes life-threatening systemic infections. The balance between colonization and pathogenesis is associated with phenotypic plasticity, with alternative cell states producing different outcomes in a mammalian host. Here, we reveal that gene dosage of a master transcription factor regulates cell differentiation in diploid C. albicans cells, as EFG1 hemizygous cells undergo a phenotypic transition inaccessible to "wild-type" cells with two functional EFG1 alleles. Notably, clinical isolates are often EFG1 hemizygous and thus licensed to undergo this transition. Phenotypic change corresponds to high-frequency loss of the functional EFG1 allele via de novo mutation or gene conversion events. This phenomenon also occurs during passaging in the gastrointestinal tract with the resulting cell type being hypercompetitive for commensal and systemic infections. A "two-hit" genetic model therefore underlies a key phenotypic transition in C. albicans that enables adaptation to host niches.
- The genetic basis of Turner syndrome aortopathy. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2019; 181(1):117-125
- Our goal is to identify the genetic underpinnings of bicuspid aortic valve and aortopathy in Turner syndrome. We performed whole exome sequencing on 188 Turner syndrome study subjects from the GenTAC…
Our goal is to identify the genetic underpinnings of bicuspid aortic valve and aortopathy in Turner syndrome. We performed whole exome sequencing on 188 Turner syndrome study subjects from the GenTAC registry. A gene-based burden test, SKAT-O, was used to evaluate the data using bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and aortic dimension z-scores as covariates. This revealed that TIMP3 was associated with BAV and increased aortic dimensions at exome-wide significance. It had been previously shown that genes on chromosome Xp contribute to aortopathy when hemizygous. Our analysis of Xp genes revealed that hemizygosity for TIMP1, a functionally redundant paralogue of TIMP3, increased the odds of having BAV aortopathy compared to individuals with more than one TIMP1 copy. The combinatorial effect of a single copy of TIMP1 and TIMP3 risk alleles synergistically increased the risk for BAV aortopathy to nearly 13-fold. TIMP1 and TIMP3 are tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) which are involved in development of the aortic valve and protection from thoracic aneurysms. We propose that the combination of TIMP1 haploinsufficiency and deleterious variants in TIMP3 significantly increases the risk of BAV aortopathy in Turner syndrome, and suggest that TIMP1 hemizygosity may play a role in euploid male aortic disease.
- Analysis of a Sardinian Multiplex Family with Autism Spectrum Disorder Points to Post-Synaptic Density Gene Variants and Identifies CAPG as a Functionally Relevant Candidate Gene. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Med 2019 02 07; 8(2)
- Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with high heritability, although their underlying genetic factors are still largely unknown. Here we present a comprehensi…
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with high heritability, although their underlying genetic factors are still largely unknown. Here we present a comprehensive genetic characterization of two ASD siblings from Sardinia by genome-wide copy number variation analysis and whole exome sequencing (WES), to identify novel genetic alterations associated with this disorder. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data revealed a rare microdeletion involving CAPG, ELMOD3, and SH2D6 genes, in both siblings. CAPG encodes for a postsynaptic density (PSD) protein known to regulate spine morphogenesis and synaptic formation. The reduced CAPG mRNA and protein expression levels in ASD patients, in the presence of hemizygosity or a particular genetic and/or epigenetic background, highlighted the functional relevance of CAPG as a candidate gene for ASD. WES analysis led to the identification in both affected siblings of a rare frameshift mutation in VDAC3, a gene intolerant to loss of function mutation, encoding for a voltage-dependent anion channel localized on PSD. Moreover, four missense damaging variants were identified in genes intolerant to loss of function variation encoding for PSD proteins: PLXNA2, KCTD16, ARHGAP21, and SLC4A1. This study identifies CAPG and VDAC3 as candidate genes and provides additional support for genes encoding PSD proteins in ASD susceptibility.
- Hemizygosity for the gene encoding glycoprotein Ibβ is not responsible for macrothrombocytopenia and bleeding in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Thromb Haemost 2019; 17(2):295-305
- Essentials How thrombocytopenia relates to bleeding in 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is not clear. Bleeding severity, platelet count and volume, and GPIBB were examined in patients with 22q11DS. …
Essentials How thrombocytopenia relates to bleeding in 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is not clear. Bleeding severity, platelet count and volume, and GPIBB were examined in patients with 22q11DS. Macrothrombocytopenia and bleeding typified imperfectly overlapping subsets of 22q11DS patients. GPIBB hemizygosity does not cause macrothrombocytopenia or bleeding in patients with 22q11DS. SUMMARY: Background and objectives Macrothrombocytopenia and bleeding are frequently associated with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). GPIBB, which encodes the glycoprotein (GP) Ibβ subunit of GPIb-IX-V, is commonly deleted in patients with 22q11DS. Absence of functional GPIb-IX-V causes Bernard-Soulier syndrome, which is a severe bleeding disorder characterized by macrothrombocytopenia. Patients with 22q11DS are often obligate hemizygotes for GPIBB, and those with only a pathogenically disrupted copy of GPIBB present with Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The objective of this study was to determine how GPIBB hemizygosity and sequence variation relate to macrothrombocytopenia and bleeding in patients with 22q11DS who do not have Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Patients/methods We thoroughly characterized bleeding severity, mean platelet volume, platelet count and GPIBB copy number and sequence in patients with 22q11DS. Results and conclusions Macrothrombocytopenia and mild bleeding were observed in incompletely overlapping subsets of patients, and GPIBB copy number and sequence variation did not correlate with either macrothrombocytopenia or bleeding in patients with 22q11DS. These findings indicate that GPIBB hemizygosity does not result in either macrothrombocytopenia or bleeding in these patients. Alternative genetic causes of macrothrombocytopenia, potential causes of acquired thrombocytopenia and bleeding and ways in which platelet size, platelet count and GPIBB sequence information can be used to aid in the diagnosis and management of patients with 22q11DS are discussed.
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- Sexually dimorphic gene expression and transcriptome evolution provide mixed evidence for a fast-Z effect in Heliconius. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Evol Biol 2019; 32(3):194-204
- Sex chromosomes have different evolutionary properties compared to autosomes due to their hemizygous nature. In particular, recessive mutations are more readily exposed to selection, which can lead t…
Sex chromosomes have different evolutionary properties compared to autosomes due to their hemizygous nature. In particular, recessive mutations are more readily exposed to selection, which can lead to faster rates of molecular evolution. Here, we report patterns of gene expression and molecular evolution for a group of butterflies. First, we improve the completeness of the Heliconius melpomene reference annotation, a neotropical butterfly with a ZW sex determination system. Then, we analyse RNA from male and female whole abdomens and sequence female ovary and gut tissue to identify sex- and tissue-specific gene expression profiles in H. melpomene. Using these expression profiles, we compare (a) sequence divergence and polymorphism; (b) the strength of positive and negative selection; and (c) rates of adaptive evolution, for Z and autosomal genes between two species of Heliconius butterflies, H. melpomene and H. erato. We show that the rate of adaptive substitutions is higher for Z than autosomal genes, but contrary to expectation, it is also higher for male-biased than female-biased genes. Additionally, we find no significant increase in the rate of adaptive evolution or purifying selection on genes expressed in ovary tissue, a heterogametic-specific tissue. Our results contribute to a growing body of literature from other ZW systems that also provide mixed evidence for a fast-Z effect where hemizygosity influences the rate of adaptive substitutions.