- Genetic diversity and hematological and biochemical alterations in Alouatta primates naturally infected with hemoplasmas in Brazil. [Journal Article]
- CIComp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2019; 63:104-111
- Mycoplasma spp. and Bartonella spp. are Gram-negative bacteria transmitted by arthropod vectors that infect red blood cells of several mammal species. This study investigated the occurrence and genet…
Mycoplasma spp. and Bartonella spp. are Gram-negative bacteria transmitted by arthropod vectors that infect red blood cells of several mammal species. This study investigated the occurrence and genetic diversity of hemoplasmas and Bartonella spp. in 68 howler monkeys kept in captivity in São Paulo, a southeastern state in Brazil. In addition, possible hematological, biochemical and electrophoretic changes of serum proteins associated with the occurrence of hemoplasmas and Bartonella spp. in captive primates were also investigated. The cPCR results showed that all sampled howler monkeys were negative for Bartonella spp. based on the gltA gene. The cPCR results indicated that 18 (26.47%) non-human primates (NHP) were positive for hemoplasmas based on the 16S rRNA gene. Monocyte and lymphocyte counts were higher in hemoplasma-positive howlers (P < 0.05). Platelet counts decreased in nonhuman primates (NHP) positive for hemoplasmas (P < 0.05). The results from the blood serum proteinogram and biochemistry analyses were not significantly different between NHPs positive and negative for hemotrophic mycoplasmas. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian Inference (BI) based on the 16S rRNA gene positioned the obtained sequences close to 'Candidatus Mycoplasma kahanei'. The analysis of sequence diversity of the 16S rRNA gene showed that 5 different genotypes are circulating in NHP in Brazil and in the world; besides, a clear separation between the sequences of hemoplasmas that infect NHP of the Sapajus and Alouatta genus in Brazil was found, probably corresponding to two different species. The pathogenic potential of this hemoplasma species in NHP should be further investigated.
- High frequency and molecular characterization of porcine hemotrophic mycoplasmas in Brazil. [Journal Article]
- VMVet Microbiol 2019; 231:33-39
- Mycoplasma suis and Mycoplasma parvum are the two hemotrophic mycoplasmas species described in pigs. M. suis is involved in infectious anemia, while M parvum infection is commonly subclinical. The ob…
Mycoplasma suis and Mycoplasma parvum are the two hemotrophic mycoplasmas species described in pigs. M. suis is involved in infectious anemia, while M parvum infection is commonly subclinical. The objectives of this study were twofold: (i) to investigate the prevalence of porcine hemotrophic mycoplasmas in sows from the southern region of Brazil by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and (ii) to genetically characterize a subset of the samples based on the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 429 blood samples were evaluated from 53 different farm sites. Porcine hemoplasmas was detected at all the 53 tested sites and in 79.72% of the samples (342/429). Two sequences were obtained for Mycoplasma spp. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene (900 bp) showed that the Mycoplasma sequences were closely related to the M. suis cluster and that one sequence was positioned in the M. parvum cluster. In conclusion, porcine hemoplasmas have a high rate of prevalence in sows from commercial farms in the southern region of Brazil. This study demonstrated the first molecular detection and characterization of partial 16S rRNA gene of M. parvum in Brazil.
- Role of distinct type-IV-secretion systems and secreted effector sets in host adaptation by pathogenic Bartonella species. [Review]
- CMCell Microbiol 2019; 21(3):e13004
- The α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises a large number of facultative intracellular pathogens that share a common lifestyle hallmarked by hemotrophic infection and arthropod transmission. Sp…
The α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises a large number of facultative intracellular pathogens that share a common lifestyle hallmarked by hemotrophic infection and arthropod transmission. Speciation in the four deep-branching lineages (L1-L4) occurred by host adaptation facilitating the establishment of long lasting bacteraemia in specific mammalian reservoir host(s). Two distinct type-IV-secretion systems (T4SSs) acquired horizontally by different Bartonella lineages mediate essential host interactions during infection and represent key innovations for host adaptation. The Trw-T4SS confined to the species-rich L4 mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection and likely has functionally replaced flagella as ancestral virulence factors implicated in erythrocyte colonisation by bartonellae of the other lineages. The VirB/VirD4-T4SS translocates Bartonella effector proteins (Bep) into various host cell types to modulate diverse cellular and innate immune functions involved in systemic spreading of bacteria following intradermal inoculation. Independent acquisition of the virB/virD4/bep locus by L1, L3, and L4 was likely driven by arthropod vectors associated with intradermal inoculation of bacteria rather than facilitating direct access to blood. Subsequently, adaptation to colonise specific niches in the new host has shaped the evolution of complex species-specific Bep repertoires. This diversification of the virulence factor repertoire of Bartonella spp. represents a remarkable example for parallel evolution of host adaptation.
- Novel placental structure in the Mexican gerrhonotine lizard, Mesaspis viridiflava (Lacertilia; Anguidae). [Journal Article]
- JMJ Morphol 2019; 280(1):35-49
- The evolution of viviparity alters the physical relationship between mothers and offspring and the prevalence of viviparity among squamate reptiles presents an opportunity to uncover patterns in the …
The evolution of viviparity alters the physical relationship between mothers and offspring and the prevalence of viviparity among squamate reptiles presents an opportunity to uncover patterns in the evolution of placental structure. Understanding the breadth of this diversity is limited because studies of placental structure and function have emphasized a limited number of lineages. We studied placental ontogeny using light microscopy for an embryological series of the Mexican gerrhonotine lizard, Mesaspis viridiflava. This species develops an elaborate yolk sac placenta, an omphaloplacenta, which receives vascular support arising in a structure known only from other gerrhonotine lizards. A prominent feature of the omphaloplacenta is a zone of uterine and embryonic epithelial cell hyperplasia located at the upper shoulder of the yolk mass, often extending above the yolk mass. The omphaloplacenta covers more than one-half of the surface area of maternal-embryonic contact. The chorioallantoic placenta has a more restricted distribution because the allantois remains in the embryonic hemisphere of the egg throughout development and lies internal to the vascular support for the omphaloplacenta in areas where they overlap. The structural profile of the chorioallantoic placenta indicates a potential for respiratory exchange and/or hemotrophic nutritive transport, while that of the omphaloplacenta suggests that nutritive transfer is primarily via histotrophy. An eggshell is present in the earliest embryonic stages examined but regresses relatively early in development. Placental specializations of this species are consistent with a pattern of matrotrophic embryonic nutrition and have evolved in a unique lineage specific developmental pattern.
- Hemotrophic mycoplasma in Simmental cattle in Bavaria: prevalence, blood parameters, and transplacental transmission of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' and Mycoplasma wenyonii. [Journal Article]
- AVActa Vet Scand 2018 Nov 16; 60(1):74
- CONCLUSIONS: 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' was more prevalent than M. wenyonii in Bavarian Simmental cattle, but infection had little impact on evaluated blood parameters. Vertical transmission of the infection was rare. Real-time PCR is the preferred diagnostic method compared to the acridine-orange-method.
- Human trophoblast invasion: new and unexpected routes and functions. [Review]
- HCHistochem Cell Biol 2018; 150(4):361-370
- Until recently, trophoblast invasion during human placentation was characterized by and restricted to invasion into uterine connective tissues and the uterine spiral arteries. The latter was explaine…
Until recently, trophoblast invasion during human placentation was characterized by and restricted to invasion into uterine connective tissues and the uterine spiral arteries. The latter was explained to connect the arteries to the intervillous space of the placenta and to guarantee the blood supply of the mother to the placenta. Today, this picture has dramatically changed. Invasion of endoglandular trophoblast into uterine glands, already starting at the time of implantation, enables histiotrophic nutrition of the embryo prior to perfusion of the placenta with maternal blood. This is followed by invasion of endovenous trophoblasts into uterine veins to guarantee the drainage of fluids from the placenta back into the maternal circulation throughout pregnancy. In addition, invasion of endolymphatic trophoblasts into the lymph vessels of the uterus has been described. Only then, invasion of endoarterial trophoblasts into spiral arteries takes place, enabling hemotrophic nutrition of the fetus starting with the second trimester of pregnancy. This new knowledge paves the way to identify changes that may occur in pathological pregnancies, from tubal pregnancies to recurrent spontaneous abortions.
- Quantitative analysis of Mycoplasma wenyonii and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" infections in cattle using novel gapN-based realtime PCR assays. [Journal Article]
- VMVet Microbiol 2018; 220:1-6
- Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HMs) are associated with anemia and other disease complexes in a wide range of livestock and wild animals. Two bovine HM species have been identified to date, i.e. Mycoplasma…
Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HMs) are associated with anemia and other disease complexes in a wide range of livestock and wild animals. Two bovine HM species have been identified to date, i.e. Mycoplasma wenyonii and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos'. The study aim was to develop quantitative real-time PCR assays (qPCRs) to detect and quantify M. wenyonii and 'C. M. haemobos' and to apply these assays to DNA samples extracted from bovine blood collected in Germany (n = 220) from 22 herds. The qPCR assays specific for M. wenyonii and 'C. M. haemobos' were designed using the gapN of the respective hemoplasma species as gene target which encodes the NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPN). The sensitivity of both assays was 10 genome equivalents per reaction, corresponding to 2500 genome equivalents per ml blood. No cross-reactivity with non-target bovine HMs. and other bovine pathogens was observed. Bovine HM DNA was detected in 137 samples (62.27%) with 118 samples (53.64%) being positive for 'C.M. haemobos' and 19 samples (8.64%) being positive for M. wenyonii. Thereof, 11 animals (5.00%) were co-infected with both bovine HM species. The found herd prevalence for `C. M. haemobos` was 100.00%, and for M. wenyonii 36.36% with mean bacterial loads of 3.7 × 107 `C. M. haemobos`/mL blood and of 4.29 × 105M. wenyonii/mL blood respectively. Clinical and economic relevance of bovine HM species should be goal of future studies for which the novel gapN qPCR assays can serve as a valuable diagnostic tool.
- The role of the placenta in drug transport and fetal drug exposure. [Review]
- ERExpert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2018; 11(4):373-385
- It was assumed for decades that the human placenta serves as a barrier, protecting the fetus from exposure to xenobiotics circulating in the mother. The thalidomide disaster completely reversed this …
It was assumed for decades that the human placenta serves as a barrier, protecting the fetus from exposure to xenobiotics circulating in the mother. The thalidomide disaster completely reversed this concept. The study of the human placenta is therefore critical to understanding the mechanisms by which xenobiotics reach the fetus and exert their effects. Areas covered: This review describes mechanisms by which drugs interact with the human placenta, and experimental methods to study these interactions in humans. We have selected three areas of current clinical interest, where the placenta exhibits critical role in drug transport: The ABC transporters, the placental handling of cancer therapeutic drugs and the interaction between the placenta and immunoglobulins. Expert commentary: The optimal model to predict drug transfer and transport from the mother to the fetus is the isolated human placental lobule perfused in vitro. Unlike subcellular preparations or tissue homogenates, data obtained from a perfused intact tissue, where structural integrity and cell-cell organization are maintained, more closely reflect the in vivo situation. Moreover, confounding metabolic and physiologic influences are minimized and the experimental conditions can be controlled. It is important to remember that due to significant differences in the function of the placenta in the first two months (histiotrophic nutrition) and later in pregnancy (hemotrophic nutrition) there might be differences in the transplacental transfer of drugs. While most of our knowledge comes from studies on term placentae, we are in need of studies on young placenta that functions during the period of organogenesis.
- Evidence and molecular characterization of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas in neotropical bats in Brazil. [Journal Article]
- EIEpidemiol Infect 2017; 145(10):2038-2052
- The order Chiroptera is considered the second largest group of mammals in the world, hosting important zoonotic virus and bacteria. Bartonella and hemotropic mycoplasmas are bacteria that parasite di…
The order Chiroptera is considered the second largest group of mammals in the world, hosting important zoonotic virus and bacteria. Bartonella and hemotropic mycoplasmas are bacteria that parasite different mammals' species, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations. The present work aimed investigating the occurrence and assessing the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. in neotropical bats sampled from Brazil. Between December 2015 and April 2016, 325 blood and/or tissues samples were collected from 162 bats comprising 19 different species sampled in five states of Brazil. Out of 322 bat samples collected, while 17 (5·28%) were positive to quantitative PCR for Bartonella spp. based on nuoG gene, 45 samples (13·97%) were positive to cPCR assays for hemoplasmas based on 16S rRNA gene. While seven sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG) (n = 3), gltA (n = 2), rpoB (n = 1), ftsZ (n = 1), five 16S rRNA sequences were obtained for hemoplasmas. In the phylogenetic analysis, the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats sampled in Latin America countries. All five hemoplasmas sequences clustered together as a monophyletic group by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses. The present work showed the first evidence of circulation of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas among bats in Brazil.
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- Extravillous trophoblasts invade more than uterine arteries: evidence for the invasion of uterine veins. [Journal Article]
- HCHistochem Cell Biol 2017; 147(3):353-366
- During the first trimester of pregnancy, extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invade into the decidual interstitium to the first third of the myometrium, thereby anchoring the placenta to the uterus. The…
During the first trimester of pregnancy, extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invade into the decidual interstitium to the first third of the myometrium, thereby anchoring the placenta to the uterus. They also follow the endovascular and endoglandular route of invasion; plug, line and remodel spiral arteries, thus being responsible for the establishment of hemotrophic nutrition with the beginning of the second trimester and invade and open uterine glands toward the intervillous space for a histiotrophic nutrition during the first trimester. The aim of this study was to provide proof that uterine veins are invaded by EVTs similar to uterine arteries and glands in first trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, serial sections from in situ first trimester placenta were immuno-single- and immuno-double-stained to distinguish in a first step between arteries and veins and secondly between invaded and non-invaded vessels. Subsequently, invasion of EVTs into uterine vessels was quantified. Our data show that uterine veins are significantly more invaded by EVTs than uterine arteries (29.2 ± 15.7 %) during early pregnancy. Counted vessel cross sections revealed significantly higher EVT invasion into veins (59.5 ± 7.9 %) compared to arteries (29.2 ± 15.7 %). In the lumen of veins, single EVTs were repeatedly found, beside detached glandular epithelial cells or syncytial fragments. This study allows the expansion of our hitherto postulated concept of EVT invasion during first trimester of pregnancy. We suggest that invasion of EVTs into uterine veins is responsible the draining of waste and blood plasma from the intervillous space during the first trimester of pregnancy.