- Three novel mutations in a group of Chinese patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Neurol Neurosurg 2019 Jul 10; 184:105430
- The X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type1 (CMTX1) is the second most common hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy caused by mutations in the gap junction beta 1 (GJB1) gene. Here, we r…
The X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type1 (CMTX1) is the second most common hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy caused by mutations in the gap junction beta 1 (GJB1) gene. Here, we report the clinical and genetic features of six unrelated Chinese patients with CMTX1, which were identified by genetic analysis. Among the 6 identified mutations, 3 were previously unknown (c.31A > T, c.42 C > G and c.423 del C). The six patients showed typical signs of CMT with a median age of onset of 16.5 years (range: 13-30). Sensorineural hearing loss was confirmed in the patient with the c.423 del C mutation. White matter lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were observed in two patients. The three newly identified GJB1 mutations expand the clinical and mutational spectrum of CMTX1.
- Repeat-associated RNA structure and aberrant splicing. [Review]
- BBBiochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2019 Jul 16
- Over 30 hereditary disorders attributed to the expansion of microsatellite repeats have been identified. Despite variant nucleotide content, number of consecutive repeats, and different locations in …
Over 30 hereditary disorders attributed to the expansion of microsatellite repeats have been identified. Despite variant nucleotide content, number of consecutive repeats, and different locations in the genome, many of these diseases have pathogenic RNA gain-of-function mechanisms. The repeat-containing RNAs can form structures in vitro predicted to contribute to the disease characteristic assembly of intracellular RNA aggregates termed foci. The expanded repeat RNAs within these foci sequester RNA binding proteins (RBPs) with important roles in the regulation of RNA metabolism, most notably alternative splicing (AS). These deleterious interactions lead to downstream alterations in transcriptome-wide AS directly linked with disease symptoms. This review summarizes existing knowledge about the association between the repeat RNA structures and RBPs as well as the resulting aberrant AS patterns, specifically in the context of myotonic dystrophy. The connection between toxic, structured RNAs and dysregulation of AS in other repeat expansion diseases is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: RNA structure and splicing regulation edited by Francisco Baralle, Ravindra Singh and Stefan Stamm.
- Antiphospholipid syndrome's genetic and epigenetic aspects. [Review]
- ARAutoimmun Rev 2019 Jul 16; :102352
- Studies on last genetic and epigenetic predisposition to APS are summarized. It is well known that genetic predisposition is in HLA system (DR4 and DRw53) and that lupus anticoagulant (LA) and antica…
Studies on last genetic and epigenetic predisposition to APS are summarized. It is well known that genetic predisposition is in HLA system (DR4 and DRw53) and that lupus anticoagulant (LA) and anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) are both associated with the same HLA antigens. Other genes, outside the MHC, give their contribution to the development of this autoimmune syndrome, such as IRF5, STAT4 and those related to inherited thrombophilia - factor V Leiden and G20210A prothrombin polymorphisms. Finally, post-transcriptional modifications of anti-beta2GPI antibodies could be implicated too. The most important discovery of last years is that altered microRNAs' expression is linked to autoimmunity, thrombosis, early atherosclerosis, and oxidative stress in APS.
- Antifibrotic Potential of MiR-335-3p in Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dent Res 2019 Jul 19; :22034519863300
- Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a highly genetically heterogeneous disease, and current therapeutic method is limited to surgical resection with a high recurrence rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) a…
Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a highly genetically heterogeneous disease, and current therapeutic method is limited to surgical resection with a high recurrence rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are able to fine-tune large-scale target genes. Here we established a simple but effective computational strategy based on available miRNA target prediction algorithms to pinpoint the most potent miRNA that could negatively regulate a group of functional genes. Based on this rationale, miR-335-3p was top ranked by putatively targeting 85 verified profibrotic genes and 79 upregulated genes in HGF patients. Experimentally, downregulation of miR-355-3p was demonstrated in HGF-derived gingival fibroblasts as well as in transforming growth factor β-stimulated normal human gingival fibroblasts (NHGFs) compared to normal control. Ectopic miR-335-3p attenuated, whereas knockdown of miR-335-3p promoted, the fibrogenic activity of human gingival fibroblasts. Mechanically, miR-335-3p directly targeted SOS1, SMAD2/3, and CTNNB1 by canonical and noncanonical base paring. In particular, different portfolios of fibrotic markers were suppressed by silencing SOS1, SMAD2/3, or CTNNB1, respectively. Thus, our study first proposes a novel miRNA screening approach targeting a functionally related gene set and identifies miR-335-3p as a novel target for HGF treatment. Mechanically, miR-335-3p suppresses the fibrogenic activity of human gingival fibroblasts by repressing multiple core molecules in profibrotic networks. Our strategy provides a new paradigm in the treatment for HGF as well as other diseases.
- IPSC-Derived Corneal Endothelial-like Cells Act as an Appropriate Model System to Assess the Impact of SLC4A11 Variants on Pre-mRNA Splicing. [Journal Article]
- IOInvest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019 Jul 01; 60(8):3084-3090
- CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-concept study highlights the potential of using CE-like cells to investigate the pathogenic consequences of SLC4A11 disease-associated variants.
- Novel protective and risk loci in hip dysplasia in German Shepherds. [Journal Article]
- PGPLoS Genet 2019 Jul 19; 15(7):e1008197
- Canine hip dysplasia is a common, non-congenital, complex and hereditary disorder. It can inflict severe pain via secondary osteoarthritis and lead to euthanasia. An analogous disorder exists in huma…
Canine hip dysplasia is a common, non-congenital, complex and hereditary disorder. It can inflict severe pain via secondary osteoarthritis and lead to euthanasia. An analogous disorder exists in humans. The genetic background of hip dysplasia in both species has remained ambiguous despite rigorous studies. We aimed to investigate the genetic causes of this disorder in one of the high-risk breeds, the German Shepherd. We performed genetic analyses with carefully phenotyped case-control cohorts comprising 525 German Shepherds. In our genome-wide association studies we identified four suggestive loci on chromosomes 1 and 9. Targeted resequencing of the two loci on chromosome 9 from 24 affected and 24 control German Shepherds revealed deletions of variable sizes in a putative enhancer element of the NOG gene. NOG encodes for noggin, a well-described bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor affecting multiple developmental processes, including joint development. The deletion was associated with the healthy controls and mildly dysplastic dogs suggesting a protective role against canine hip dysplasia. Two enhancer variants displayed a decreased activity in a dual luciferase reporter assay. Our study identifies novel loci and candidate genes for canine hip dysplasia, with potential regulatory variants in the NOG gene. Further research is warranted to elucidate how the identified variants affect the expression of noggin in canine hips, and what the potential effects of the other identified loci are.
- Patisiran Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Exposure-Response Analyses in the Phase 3 APOLLO Trial in Patients With Hereditary Transthyretin-Mediated (hATTR) Amyloidosis. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Pharmacol 2019 Jul 19
- Hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis is an inherited, rapidly progressive, life-threatening disease caused by deposition of abnormal transthyretin protein. Patisiran is an RNA interf…
Hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis is an inherited, rapidly progressive, life-threatening disease caused by deposition of abnormal transthyretin protein. Patisiran is an RNA interference therapeutic comprising a novel, small interfering ribonucleic acid (ALN-18328) formulated in a lipid nanoparticle targeted to inhibit hepatic transthyretin protein synthesis. The lipid nanoparticle also contains 2 novel lipid excipients (DLin-MC3-DMA and PEG2000 -C-DMG). Here we report patisiran pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and exposure-response analyses from the phase 3 APOLLO trial, in which patients with hATTR amyloidosis with polyneuropathy were randomized 2:1 to receive patisiran 0.3 mg/kg or placebo intravenously every 3 weeks over 18 months. In patisiran-treated patients, mean maximum reduction in serum transthyretin level from baseline was 87.8%. Patisiran PK exposure was stable following chronic dosing. There were no meaningful differences in PK exposure, serum transthyretin reduction, and efficacy (change from baseline in modified Neuropathy Impairment Score+7) across all subgroups analyzed (age, sex, race, body weight, genotype status of valine-to-methionine mutation at position 30 [V30M] and non-V30M, prior use of tetramer stabilizers, mild/moderate renal impairment, and mild hepatic impairment). transthyretin reduction and efficacy were similar across the interpatient PK exposure range for ALN-18328. There was no trend in the incidence of adverse events or serious adverse events across the interpatient PK exposure range for all 3 analytes. Incidence of antidrug antibodies was low (3.4%) and transient, with no impact on PK, PD, efficacy, or safety. The patisiran dosing regimen of 0.3 mg/kg every 3 weeks is appropriate for all patients with hATTR amyloidosis.
- Predictive Biomarkers: Understanding Their Use in Treatment Decision Making. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Oncol Nurs 2019 Aug 01; 23(4):360-363
- Predictive biomarkers are revolutionizing decisions about colon cancer treatment. Knowing which biomarkers are altered provides valuable information about which treatment may be more effective. DNA m…
Predictive biomarkers are revolutionizing decisions about colon cancer treatment. Knowing which biomarkers are altered provides valuable information about which treatment may be more effective. DNA mismatch repair and microsatellite instability testing may also identify families that could benefit from further genetic evaluation to determine if there is hereditary risk for colon cancer. Nurses need to be able to explain what these biomarkers mean and how they affect treatment decisions, as well as recommend genetic counseling and testing for hereditary risk when appropriate.
- Glycation in Huntington's Disease: A Possible Modifier and Target for Intervention. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Huntingtons Dis 2019 Jul 16
- Glycation is the non-enzymatic reaction between reactive dicarbonyls and amino groups, and gives rise to a variety of different reaction products known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Accu…
Glycation is the non-enzymatic reaction between reactive dicarbonyls and amino groups, and gives rise to a variety of different reaction products known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Accumulation of AGEs on proteins is inevitable, and is associated with the aging process. Importantly, glycation is highly relevant in diabetic patients that experience periods of hyperglycemia. AGEs also play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. The resulting expanded polyglutamine stretch in the huntingtin (HTT) protein induces its misfolding and aggregation, leading to neuronal dysfunction and death. HD patients exhibit chorea and psychiatric disturbances, along with abnormalities in glucose and energy homeostasis. Interestingly, an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been reported in HD and in other CAG triplet repeat disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the connection between glycation and HD progression remain unclear. In this review, we explore the possible connection between glycation and proteostasis imbalances in HD, and posit that it may contribute to disease progression, possibly by accelerating protein aggregation and deposition. Finally, we review therapeutic interventions that might be able to alleviate the negative impact of glycation in HD.
New Search Next
- Whole-exome sequencing of familial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma identified rare pathogenic variants in new predisposition genes. [Journal Article]
- CTClin Transl Oncol 2019 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Together, we identified new potential esophageal squamous cancer predisposition variants in genes which may have a role in cancer and are involved in chromatin remodeling and cell-cycle pathway, which could increase the risk of ESCC.