- Morphological and immunohistochemical study of the midgut and fat body of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: noctuidae) treated with essential oils of the genus Piper. [Journal Article]
- BHBiotech Histochem 2019 May 08; :1-16
- Essential oils are a promising alternative to insecticides. We investigated the LD50 of oils extracted from Piper corcovadensis, P. marginatum, and P. arboreum after 48 h topical contact with Spodopt…
Essential oils are a promising alternative to insecticides. We investigated the LD50 of oils extracted from Piper corcovadensis, P. marginatum, and P. arboreum after 48 h topical contact with Spodoptera frugiperda larvae using morphometry, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry of the midgut and fat body. Chromatography revealed that E-caryophyllene was the principal compound common to the Piper species. The essential oils of P. corcovadensis, P. marginatum and P. arboreum caused deleterious changes in the midgut of S. frugiperda larvae. P. corcovadensis oil produced the lowest LD50 and significant histopathological alterations including elongation of the columnar cells, formation of cytoplasmic protrusions, reduction in carbohydrate, increased apoptotic index and decreased cell proliferation. P. arboreum oil caused histopathological alterations similar to P. corcovadensis, but caused the highest rate of cell proliferation and increased regenerative cells, which indicated rapid regeneration of the epithelium. Our findings demonstrated the insecticidal potential of P. corcovadensis for control of S. frugiperda owing to the significant damage it inflicted on S. frugiperda midgut.
- Effects of the expansion of bacterial colonies into the intervillous spaces on the localization of several lymphocyte lineages in the rat ileum. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Med Sci 2019 Apr 16; 81(4):555-566
- The effect of bacterial colonies expanded into the intervillous spaces on the localization of several lymphocyte lineages was immunohistochemically investigated in two types of mucosa: ordinary mucos…
The effect of bacterial colonies expanded into the intervillous spaces on the localization of several lymphocyte lineages was immunohistochemically investigated in two types of mucosa: ordinary mucosa of rat ileum, which consists of mucosa without any mucosal lymphatic tissue; and follicle-associated mucosa (FAM), which accompanies the parafollicular area under the muscularis mucosae in the rat ileal Peyer's patch. The results showed that bacterial colonies in the intervillous spaces induced increased populations of CD8+ cells in the epithelium of the intestinal villus in ordinary mucosa (IV) and intestinal villus in FAM (IV-FAM). Bacterial colonies in the intervillous spaces were also associated with increased numbers of IgA+ cells, which were mainly localized in the lamina propria of basal portions of IV and IV-FAM, and with expanded localization of IgA+ cells into the villous apex in both IV and IV-FAM. Moreover, IgA+ cells around the intestinal crypts adjacent to IV or IV-FAM were also increased in response to bacterial colonies. In the IV-FAM, but not IV, L-selectin+ cells, which were found to be immunopositive for TCRαβ or CD19, were drastically increased in the lamina propria from the crypt to middle portion of IV-FAM and in the lumen of central lymph vessel of IV-FAM in response to the bacterial colonies in the intervillous spaces. These findings revealed that the expansion of bacterial colonies into the intervillous spaces accompanies the change of histological localization of the lymphocyte lineage in both the ordinary mucosa and FAM.
- Three-dimensional analysis of fibroblast-like cells in the lamina propria of the rat ileum using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Med Sci 2019 Mar 30; 81(3):454-465
- Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) is useful for three-dimensional observation of tissues or cells at high-resolution. In this study, SBF-SEM was used to three-dimensionally ana…
Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) is useful for three-dimensional observation of tissues or cells at high-resolution. In this study, SBF-SEM was used to three-dimensionally analyze the characteristics of fibroblast-like cells (FBLCs) in the rat ileal lamina propria (LP). The results revealed that FBLCs in LP could be divided into four types, tentatively named FBLC type I-IV, based on the external cellular appearance, abundance or shape of each organelle, detailed distribution in the LP and relationship with surrounding cells. FBLC-I and -II localized around the intestinal crypt (InC), FBLC-III localized from the lateral portion of InC to the apical portion of the intestinal villus (InV), and FBLC-IV localized in the InV. FBLC-I, -II and -III, but not FBLC-IV, localized beneath the epithelium. FBLC-II possessed thin lamellar-shaped endoplasmic reticula, whereas FBLC-I possessed expanded endoplasmic reticula that occasionally showed a spherical shape. FBLC-III and -IV possessed a cytoplasmic region with high-electron density and no organelles immediately beneath the cellular membrane; this region was found at the epithelial sides in FBLC-III and scattered in FBLC-IV. FBLC-IV were in constant close proximity to villous myocytes throughout the InV and also in contact with FBLC-III especially in the apical portion of the InV. FBLC-I, -II and -IV, but not -III, were constantly found to be in contact with various immunocompetent cells in the LP. Three-dimensional analysis using SBF-SEM indicates that four types of FBLC localized in the rat ileal LP.
- Fluoxetine-induced androgenic failure impairs the seminiferous tubules integrity and increases ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1): Possible androgenic control of UCHL1 in germ cell death? [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2019; 109:1126-1139
- The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine has been used for the treatment of depression. Although sexual disorders have been reported in male patients, few studies have demonstrated the f…
The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine has been used for the treatment of depression. Although sexual disorders have been reported in male patients, few studies have demonstrated the fluoxetine effect on the reproductive histophysiology, and the target of this antidepressant in testes is unknown. We evaluated the impact of short-term treatment with fluoxetine on the adult rat testes, focusing on steroidogenesis by Leydig cells (LC) and androgen-dependent testicular parameters, including Sertoli cells (SC) and peritubular myoid cells (PMC). Since UCHL1 (ubiquitincarboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1) seems to control spermatogenesis, the immunoexpression of this hydrolase was also analyzed. Adult male rats received 20 mg/kg BW of fluoxetine (FG) or saline (CG) for eleven days. In historesin-embedded testis sections, the seminiferous tubule (ST) and epithelial (Ep) areas, and the LC nuclear diameter (LCnu) were measured. The number of abnormal ST, androgen-dependent ST, SC and PMC was quantified. Testicular β-tubulin levels and peritubular actin immunofluorescence were evaluated. Serum testosterone levels (STL) and steroidogenesis by 17β-HSD6 immunofluorescence were analyzed, and either UCHL1-immunolabeled or TUNEL-positive germ cells were quantified. In FG, abnormal ST frequency increased whereas ST and Ep areas, androgen-dependent ST number, LCnu, 17β-HSD6 activity and STL reduced significantly. TUNEL-positive PMC and SC was related to decreased number of these cells and reduction in peritubular actin and β-tubulin levels. In FG, uncommon UCHL1-immunoexpression was found in spermatocytes and spermatids, and the number of UCHL1-immunolabeled and TUNEL-positive germ cells increased in this group. These findings indicate that LC may be a fluoxetine target in testes, impairing PMC-SC integrity and disturbing spermatogenesis. The increase of UCHL1 in the damaged tubules associated with high incidence of cell death confirms that this hydrolase regulates germ cell death and may be controlled by androgens. The fertility in association with the androgenic status of patients treated with fluoxetine should be carefully evaluated.
- Coronary vasodilation impairment in pilocarpine model of epilepsy. [Journal Article]
- EBEpilepsy Behav 2019; 90:7-10
- We investigated the coronary arteries reactivity alterations in rats with epilepsy induced by pilocarpine. To do so, male Wistar rats weighing between 250 g and 300 g were used. Status epilepticus (S…
We investigated the coronary arteries reactivity alterations in rats with epilepsy induced by pilocarpine. To do so, male Wistar rats weighing between 250 g and 300 g were used. Status epilepticus (SE) was induced in rats using 385 mg/kg (i.p.) of pilocarpine. After 60 days from the first spontaneous seizure, rats were submitted to heart rate measurements and then, one day after, euthanized, and the heart was dissected and submitted to constant flow Langendorff approaches to evaluate coronary reactivity. Rats with epilepsy showed higher resting heart rate and impairment of coronary vasodilation induced by bradykinin. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) presented a reduced staining in coronary arteries, and eNOS expression was also reduced in the left ventricle of rats with epilepsy. Our findings demonstrated, for the first time, that epilepsy can cause impairment of coronary arteries reactivity, probably because of an endothelial dependent mechanism.
- [Chronic diseases, precancer, and cancer of the lung, which are associated with pathology of the club cells of respiratory and terminal bronchioles]. [Review]
- APArkh Patol 2018; 80(5):63-68
- The review of the literature deals with the participation of Clara cells now called club cells (CCs) of the epithelium in the respiratory and terminal bronchioles in the pathogenesis and morphogenesi…
The review of the literature deals with the participation of Clara cells now called club cells (CCs) of the epithelium in the respiratory and terminal bronchioles in the pathogenesis and morphogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, precancer, and cancer of the lung, which develop in the respiratory segments. The review summarizes data on the histophysiology of CCs and their participation in the pathogenesis and morphogenesis of chronic interstitial lung diseases, pneumoconiosis, chronic obstructive diseases, adenomatosis, and adenocarcinoma of the lung. In this area, there is a bronchioloalveolar junction area (BAJA), one of the most important stem cell niches. CCs are located in the BAJA; they are progenitor tissue stem cells and play an important role in the regeneration of the epithelium of the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli. Pathology of CCs in the BAJA leads to the maintenance of chronic inflammation, to the destruction of the lung elastic frame, and to impaired epithelial regeneration, interstitial fibrosis, and adenomatosis. In this case, decompensated inflammation, pathological regeneration, and fibrosis develop, which, along with the action of carcinogenic agents, can contribute to the accumulation of mutations and epigenetic rearrangements in the CCs, which subsequently results in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma of the lung.
- Prepubertal exposure to low doses of sodium arsenite impairs spermatogenesis and epididymal histophysiology in rats. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Toxicol 2019; 34(1):83-91
- For the first time, juvenile toxicity of inorganic arsenic (As) was investigated in male rats, focusing on reproductive effects. As is a metalloid naturally occurring in the environment, being the in…
For the first time, juvenile toxicity of inorganic arsenic (As) was investigated in male rats, focusing on reproductive effects. As is a metalloid naturally occurring in the environment, being the inorganic forms the most toxics. Contaminated drinking water and agricultural products are the main prospectors of intoxication for general population. In the present study, Wistar male rats (21 days old) were distributed into three groups (n = 10/group): control (received vehicle-filtered drinking water), As1 (received AsNaO2 at 0.01 mg L-1 ) and As2 (received AsNaO2 at 10 mg L-1 ). The animals were euthanized on PND 53. Testicular damages increased in As1 and As2 compared to control (ie, presence of vacuolization, acidophilic cells, and epithelium degeneration). Testicular interstitium of As1 and As2 presented fluid's increase and intense inflammatory infiltration. In the epididymis there was reduction of sperm amount in the lumen, besides epithelium areas presenting cribriform aspect in As1 and As2, exfoliation of cells in the light (in As1) and vacuoles (in As2). In epididymis interstitium, inflammatory infiltrates were observed in initial segment of As1 and As2. AsNaO2 changed immunolabeling pattern for androgen receptor in epididymis of As2, although serum testosterone levels was statistically comparable to control. Mass spectrometry revealed higher As concentrations in testis and epididymis of As2 compared to As1 and Control. These results indicate compromise of spermatogenesis and epididymal histophysiology in AsNaO2 -treated animals, possibly impairing sperm quality and fertility in long-term, even at low levels of exposure. Investigations about the reversibility of reproductive damages are necessary to better understand the mechanisms of As reproductive toxicity.
- Hardness and Painful Lesion of the Breast. [Case Reports]
- ADActa Dermatovenerol Croat 2017; 25(4):305-306
- Dear Editor, Lupus panniculitis or lupus profundus is a rare inflammatory complication found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) (1). When the br…
Dear Editor, Lupus panniculitis or lupus profundus is a rare inflammatory complication found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) (1). When the breast is involved, the term lupus mastitis (LM) is used. This disease involving the breast is rare, and the lesions may precede, coincide with, or occur later than the onset of other lupus lesions. Tissue biopsy is required to confirm the suspected diagnoses of LM. We report a case of a patient with lupus mastitis due to the important differential diagnosis. A 60-year-old woman presented with a painful nodular lesion in her left breast that had appeared 15 days ago (Figure 1, a). She had been previously diagnosed with discoid lupus erythematosus 3 years ago. Physical examination revealed a deep and firm erythematous subcutaneous nodule without overlying skin involvement in the lower-central portion of the left breast. Laboratory findings were positive for antinuclear antibodies (1:80) and double-stranded deoxynucleic acid antibodies (1:10). Mammography and ultrasounds showed an area of increased density and irregular breast tissue along with an important thickening of the overlying skin (Figure 1, b). On suspicion of malignancy, a needle biopsy of the breast lesion was performed and showed vacuolar alteration and lymphocytic infiltrate in the basal layer. Subcutaneous fat showed a lobular panniculitis with a prominent lymphocytic infiltrate and hyalinization of the fat lobules (hyaline fat necrosis). Direct immunofluorescence of the face biopsy revealed IgA, IgG, IgM, and C3 granular deposition. Based on these results, a diagnosis of lupus mastitis associated with DLE was established. Antimalarial therapy resulted in complete resolution of the clinical features. Three years later, the patient presented with a disfiguring atrophy with retraction in the damaged areas of the breast (Figure 2). Lupus mastitis is a very unusual disease that most commonly affects middle-aged women. The first case of LM was described by Tuffanelli in 1971. The lesions usually present following the diagnosis of SLE/DLE; however, on rare occasions they may be observed earlier (2). The histophysiology of this disease remains unclear, but the predominant theory suggests an autoimmune-related etiology. Corroborating evidence for this theory includes the finding of immune complexes, both at the basement membrane of the dermal-epidermal junction and in the blood vessels in the areas of panniculitis (3). Lupus mastitis may be present in the breast as single or multiple subcutaneous nodules that may be tender or painful and can progress to chronic ulcers over time or resolve, leaving atrophic scars. The overlying skin can be normal, erythematous, poikilodermic or ulcerated. When skin changes are prominent, the lesion may clinically and radiologically mimic inflammatory breast carcinoma. Mammographic and ultrasounds findings include an ill-defined breast density with or without associated microcalcifications (4). Histologically, this disease is characterized by lobular lymphocytic panniculitis and predominantly involves the fat lobule and the presence of anucleated adipocytes in a background of a glassy-appearing collagenous stroma (hyaline fat necrosis). Fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel wall has also been reported, but is usually absent (5). Differential diagnosis of lupus mastitis includes inflammatory breast carcinoma, primary medullary carcinoma, and other immune-mediated inflammatory conditions such as diabetic mastopathy. The first line of treatment the use of antimalarial drugs such as hydroxychloroquine. Systemic steroids and cyclophosphamide have also been used. Surgical treatment should be considered only in patients who do not respond to management with medications. In summary, we reported a case of lupus mastitis in a patient with discoid lupus erythematosus. This dermatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions in lupus patients, and a biopsy of the breast lesion is essential to reject suspected malignancy. If the disease is left untreated, unsightly atrophy will appear; it is thus important to diagnose early on. The course of the disease tends to be chronic with remission and flares, so patients should be followed-up regularly due to the risk of recurrences in the same area or in a different location.
- Histophysiological and surface ultrastructural studies of the saccus vasculosus of Notopterus chitala (Hamilton). [Journal Article]
- JMJ Microsc Ultrastruct 2017 Jul-Sep; 5(3):140-145
- We investigated the cytoarchitecture and surface ultrastructural characteristics of different cells lining the epithelium of the saccus vasculosus of Notopterus chitala (Hamilton, 1822). The saccus v…
We investigated the cytoarchitecture and surface ultrastructural characteristics of different cells lining the epithelium of the saccus vasculosus of Notopterus chitala (Hamilton, 1822). The saccus vasculosus, the richly vascularized reddish, sac like organ is situated on the ventral aspect of the diencephalon just behind the pituitary gland. Histologically, the saccus vasculosus consisted of several loculi lined with a heterogeneous population of a large number of specialized coronet cells and a smaller number of alternately arranged supporting cells. The loculi were densely surrounded by blood sinusoids. The loculi opened into several collecting channels that united and ultimately drained into the third ventricle of the brain. The coronet cells possessed central or basal nuclei and an apical globular protrusion. Under scanning electron microscopy, the coronet cells were variable in shape with prominent nuclei. The supporting cells were triangular in shape and placed in between the coronet cells. The apical parts of the coronet cells had different shapes of globular protrusions with distinct stalks. Intense silver stain was noted in the terminal end of the coronet cells and nerves were attached with blood vessels. Under scanning electron microscopy observation, nerve fibers of different caliber were attached to the coronet cells and blood vessels. The various cells of the saccus vasculosus in N. chitala were correlated with their functional significance.
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- Synaptophysin and caspase-3 expression on lumbar segments of spinal cord after sensorimotor restriction during early postnatal period and treadmill training. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Exerc Rehabil 2018; 14(3):489-496
- The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether locomotor stimulation training could have beneficial effects on spinal cord plasticity consequent to sensorimotor restriction (SR). Male Wi…
The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether locomotor stimulation training could have beneficial effects on spinal cord plasticity consequent to sensorimotor restriction (SR). Male Wistar rats were exposed to SR from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P28. Control and experimental rats underwent locomotor stimulation training in a treadmill from P31 to P52. The intensity of the synaptophysin and caspase-3 immunoreaction was determined on ventral horn of spinal cord. The synaptophysin immunoreactivity was lower in the ventral horn of sensorimotor restricted rats compared to controls animals and was accompanied by an increased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Those alterations were reversed at the end of the training period. Our results suggest that immobility affects the normal developmental process that spinal cord undergoes in early postnatal life influencing both pro-apoptotic and synapse markers. Also, we demonstrated that this phenomenon was reversed by 3 weeks of treadmill training.