- Potential role of neglected and underutilized plant species in improving women's empowerment and nutrition in areas of sub-Saharan Africa. [Journal Article]
- NRNutr Rev 2019 Jul 17
- In the context of the nutrition transition, women in sub-Sahara Africa are a critical target group from a nutrition standpoint, and they experience significant discrimination in food production. Food…
In the context of the nutrition transition, women in sub-Sahara Africa are a critical target group from a nutrition standpoint, and they experience significant discrimination in food production. Food-based, women-centered strategies are recommended to address nutrient gaps, and to educate and empower women. In this context, local natural resources, such as neglected and underutilized plant species (NUS), may contribute to adding nutritional value, enriching diet diversity, and ensuring nutrition security. The aim of the current narrative review is to investigate the nutritional status of the sub-Saharan African population and the potential role of local agriculture strategies in improving food production and diet diversity and in expanding income-generating activities for women. The nutritional properties of the most important regional NUS are also discussed.
- Effect of hunger strike on electrocardiographic parameters. [Journal Article]
- TKTurk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2019; 47(5):379-383
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first time long-term lack of nutrition was demonstrated to be associated with ER.
- Assessment of the Dose-Response Relationship between Meal Protein Content and Postprandial Thermogenesis: Effect of Sex and the Oral Contraceptive Pill. [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2019 Jul 15; 11(7)
- Implementation of efficacious dietary interventions to regulate energy balance requires understanding of the determinants of individual response. To date, information regarding individual variability…
Implementation of efficacious dietary interventions to regulate energy balance requires understanding of the determinants of individual response. To date, information regarding individual variability in response to elevated meal protein content is lacking. This study investigates whether sex and/or oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use play a role in the response to elevated meal protein in 21 healthy young adults (seven men, seven women not taking OCP, and seven women who were OCP users). Participants consumed each of three standardized isocaloric (590 kcal) meals of differing protein content (11, 23, 31% kcal protein). Resting energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), hunger and satiety were measured at baseline (fasting) and during 180 min postprandial. Whilst significant dose-response increases in EE were observed in men, meal protein-induced EE in women without OCP reached a maximum at <23% protein. Women taking OCP reported lower postprandial fullness than women without OCP, despite similar body size, but also, most notably, no significant difference in EE response between any of the meals. Whilst the mechanisms underpinning this thermogenic inflexibility in response across a wide-range (three-fold) of protein meal content require further investigation, this highlights the need for careful consideration of factors that may influence an individual's metabolic response to dietary interventions aimed at optimising postprandial thermogenesis for body weight regulation.
- GHSR-1 agonist sensitizes rat colonic intrinsic and extrinsic neurons to exendin-4: A role in the manifestation of postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome? [Journal Article]
- NMNeurogastroenterol Motil 2019 Jul 16; :e13684
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings support a temporal interaction between ghrelin and GLP-1, where the preprandial peak in ghrelin may temporarily sensitize colonic intrinsic and extrinsic neurons to the neurostimulatory actions of GLP-1. While the sensitizing effects of the GHSR-1 agonist were identified in both rat strains, in the rat model of IBS, underlying contractile activity was aberrant.
- Exploration of associations between the FTO rs9939609 genotype, fasting and postprandial appetite-related hormones and perceived appetite in healthy men and women. [Journal Article]
- AAppetite 2019 Jul 13; :104368
- CONCLUSIONS: Associations between the FTO rs9939609 genotype and fasting or postprandial appetite-related outcomes were weak in healthy men and women.
- The associations between sweet taste function, oral complex carbohydrate sensitivity, liking and consumption of ad libitum sweet and non-sweet carbohydrate milkshakes among female adults. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Nutr 2019 Jul 16; :1-26
- Excess energy intake is recognised as a strong contributing factor to the global rise of being overweight and obese. The aim of this paper was to investigate if oral sensitivity to complex carbohydra…
Excess energy intake is recognised as a strong contributing factor to the global rise of being overweight and obese. The aim of this paper was to investigate if oral sensitivity to complex carbohydrate relates to ad libitum consumption of complex carbohydrate foods in a sample group of female adults. Participants' [(n = 51 females): age 23.0 ± 0.6 years (range 20.0 - 41.0 years); excluding restrained eaters] sensitivity towards maltodextrin (oral complex carbohydrate) and glucose (sweet taste) were assessed by measuring detection threshold (DT) and suprathreshold intensity perception (ST). A crossover design was used to assess consumption of two different iso-caloric preload milkshakes and ad libitum milkshakes - 1) glucose based milkshake, 2) maltodextrin based milkshake. Ad libitum intake (primary outcome) and eating rate, liking, hunger, fullness, and prospective consumption ratings were measured. Participants who were more sensitive towards complex carbohydrate (maltodextrin DT) consumed significantly more maltodextrin based milkshake in comparison to less sensitive participants (P=0.01) and this was independent of liking. Participants who had higher liking for glucose based milkshake consumed significantly more glucose based milkshake in comparison to participants with lower hedonic ratings (P=0.049). The results provide support regarding the role of the oral system sensitivity (potentially taste) to complex carbohydrate and the prospective to overconsume complex carbohydrate based milkshake in a single sitting. The trial was registered at the ANZCTR as ACTRN12617000551392.
- A randomised controlled study of preoperative oral carbohydrate loading versus fasting in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Colorectal Dis 2019 Jul 15
- CONCLUSIONS: A preoperative CHO drink reduced the postoperative metabolic and inflammatory response and improved subjective well-being and surgical clinical outcomes but did not diminish the VAS pain score.
- Appetite control is improved by acute increases in energy turnover at different levels of energy balance. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jul 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Appetite is regulated more effectively at a high level of energy turnover, whereas overeating and consequently weight gain is likely to occur at low levels of energy turnover. In contrast to the prevailing concept of body weight control, the positive impact of physical activity is independent from burning up more calories and is explained by improved appetite sensations.
- Is Ramadan fasting correlated with disordered eating behaviours in adolescents? [Journal Article]
- EDEat Disord 2019 Jul 13; :1-14
- This study aimed to examine the cross-sectional relationship between Ramadan fasting as a spiritual factor with prolonged hunger and disordered eating behaviors. The study was conducted in June 2016 …
This study aimed to examine the cross-sectional relationship between Ramadan fasting as a spiritual factor with prolonged hunger and disordered eating behaviors. The study was conducted in June 2016 (11th-29th days of Ramadan) and consisted of 238 fasting and 49 non-fasting adolescents. Risk of disordered eating was evaluated using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-R18). Body image dissatisfaction was rated with Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale (FRS). Nutritional status was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. There was no significant difference between energy intake, EAT-26 and TFEQ-R18 scores (except the emotional eating sub-scores) between the groups. FRS revealed that the comparisons of their "ideal" and self were not significantly different between the groups whereas the gap between the figures they think healthy and closest to self was significantly higher amongst non-fasting adolescents. Two-hundred and two (97.5%) adolescents reported fasting for religious purposes whereas only 8 (3.4%) for losing weight. The EAT-26 total scores were in the pathological range in 39 (16.8%) adolescents who fasted for religious purposes. This study suggests that motivation of adolescents to fast during Ramadan was due to spiritual decisions rather than weight control or other factors and Ramadan fasting was not correlated with disordered eating behaviors or body image dissatisfaction.
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- The role of health animators in malaria control: a qualitative study of the health animator (HA) approach within the Majete malaria project (MMP) in Chikwawa District, Malawi. [Journal Article]
- BHBMC Health Serv Res 2019 Jul 12; 19(1):478
- CONCLUSIONS: The HA approach is a useful strategy for complementing malaria prevention strategies in rural communities and improving practices for health-seeking behaviour. Various factors influence HAs' motivation, retention, community engagement, and programme sustainability. However, little is known about how these factors interact to influence volunteers' motivation, community participation and sustainability over time. More research is needed to explore the acceptability of an HA approach and the impact on malaria control in other rural communities in Malawi.