- Description of buoyant fibers adhering to Argonauta nouryi (Cephalopoda: Argonautidae) collected from the stomach contents of three top predators in the Mexican South Pacific. [Journal Article]
- MPMar Pollut Bull 2019; 142:504-509
- Argonauta nouryi Lorois, 1852 is an octopod that inhabits the holopelagic zone, the objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of buoyant fibers adhering to the body and mantle cavity of …
Argonauta nouryi Lorois, 1852 is an octopod that inhabits the holopelagic zone, the objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of buoyant fibers adhering to the body and mantle cavity of A. nouryi females found in the stomach contents from Euthynnus lineatus (skipjack), Coryphaena hippurus (dolphinfish), and Istiophorus platypterus (sailfish). Stomach contents from 224 individuals were examined. All female evaluated presented fibers adhering to the mantle cavity; 92.6% of the fibers measured 0.25 to 5 mm in length and hyaline was the dominant color (72%). The amount of fibers in the fish stomach contents with A. nouryi was significantly greater than in stomachs without; this suggests that the fibers might be introduced via A. nouryi. Findings of this work could be related to the discharge of solid materials in the water column.
- Influence of ferulic acid consumption in ameliorating the cadmium-induced liver and renal oxidative damage in rats. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2019; 26(20):20631-20653
- The aim of this study relates to the modulatory role of ferulic acid (FA) against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of male Wistar albino rats. Cd is an extremely toxic in…
The aim of this study relates to the modulatory role of ferulic acid (FA) against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of male Wistar albino rats. Cd is an extremely toxic industrial and environmental pollutant and is well known for its varied toxic clinical manifestations. FA is a derivative of curcumin and a ubiquitous phenolic compound having a wide range of therapeutic activities. In the current study, Cd (10 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously for 15 and 30 days to induce hepato-renal toxicity. Cd concentration was found to be significantly high in Cd-intoxicated rats (liver > kidney) while the supplementation of FA (50 mg/kg) significantly reduces the Cd concentration in liver and kidney tissues. Reduced body and organ weights and food and water consumption and increased rectal temperature were noticed in Cd-treated rats while these parameters were significantly ameliorated in FA-supplemented rats. Liver and kidney damage induced by Cd was significantly revealed by the reduction in serum total protein contents (TPC) and increased activities of serum nitric oxide (NO) levels and hepato-nephrotoxicity marker enzymes, namely aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), AST:ALT ratio, uric acid, urea, urea nitrogen, and creatinine, along with the increased levels of hepatic and renal oxidative stress markers, namely lipid peroxidation (MDA levels), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyl content (PCC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in liver and kidney tissues. In addition, the toxicity of Cd was also evidenced by a significant decrease in the levels of total thiols (TTH), total antioxidant concentration (TAC), enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)), and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione (GSH) and total free sulfhydryl groups (TSH)). Administration of FA significantly restored the serum total protein levels and activities of serum NO levels and hepatic and renal marker enzymes to normal levels in comparison with Cd-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, FA significantly reduced the oxidative stress markers and recuperated the levels of antioxidant defense in the liver and kidney as evidenced by native PAGE and spectrophotometric assays, correlation and regression analysis and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and inferring the antioxidant role of FA. Histopathological damage due to Cd intoxication in the liver and kidney is demonstrated as vasodilatation and congestion in central veins and sinusoids as well as around the glomerulus, infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells and peripheral hemorrhage, hemorrhagic and enlarged sinusoids, disorganization of the hepatic parenchyma, focal necrosis, swelling of hepatocytes, calcified tissue inside blood vessels, hepatocyte degeneration and vacuolization of liver cells, hyaline casts, degenerated glomerulus with wide space and detached basement membrane, distal tubule with wide lumen, deformed proximal tubules with detached brush border, and degeneration and hyalinization of glomerular tuft. But, FA significantly reduced the toxicity of Cd and protected the normal histological architecture of the liver and kidney tissues. Cd-intoxicated rats were associated with a significant upregulation of TNF-α, COX-2, and HSP70 proteins, whereas treatment with FA caused downregulation of the above inflammatory markers indicating the anti-inflammatory role of FA. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Euclidean similarity measure studies clearly indicate that the liver is more prone to Cd toxicity than the kidney and FA supplementation significantly prevents oxidative stress, augmenting antioxidative status, and regaining histological parameters of the liver and kidney to normal, indicating hepato-nephroprotective, antiradical, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of this phenolic compound.
- The role of the hyaline spheres in sea cucumber metamorphosis: lipid storage via transport cells in the blastocoel. [Journal Article]
- EEvodevo 2019; 10:8
- CONCLUSIONS: The HS in A. mollis functions as a nutrient storage structure that separates lipid stores from the major morphogenic events that occur during the metamorphic transition from auricularia-doliolaria-pentactula (settled juvenile). The discovery of LTC within the blastocoel of sea cucumbers has implications for other invertebrate larvae with a gel-filled blastocoel and for our understanding of lipid use during metamorphosis in marine invertebrates.
- StatPearls: Talus Fracture [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- The talus ranks as the second largest tarsal bone with unique anatomic features and serves an important role in mobility of the foot and ankle as it is the osseous link between the leg and the foot. …
The talus ranks as the second largest tarsal bone with unique anatomic features and serves an important role in mobility of the foot and ankle as it is the osseous link between the leg and the foot. The anatomy of the talus is quite complex with three separate articulations with distinct features including the subtalar joint with its three faces. The talus divides into a head, neck, and body. Not surprisingly the covering of approximately two-thirds of the surface is articular cartilage, and there are few muscle or tendon attachments. The convex talar head is covered with hyaline cartilage articulating with the navicular at the anterior/distal aspect linking the ankle and midfoot. The talar head also articulates with the calcaneus via the anterior facet at its inferior margin (anterior portion of the subtalar joint). The talar body articulates with the calcaneus inferiorly using the middle (anteromedial) and posterior (posterolateral) facets. The posterior facet is the larger of the two making up the posterior subtalar joint while the middle facet articulates with the sustentaculum tali (medial process from the calcaneus). Incidentally, it is the middle facets of the subtalar joint which are most commonly involved in talocalcaneal coalition accounting for 45% of tarsal coalitions. The superior aspect of the body, the talar dome or trochlea, articulates with the tibia at the tibiotalar joint. The neck is the portion of the talus which joins the head and body, without an articular surface or cartilage. The sinus tarsi and tarsal canal lie along the inferior margin of the neck. The posterior process of the body is composed of the medial and lateral tubercles. The flexor hallucis longus tendon runs between these two tubercles. A Stieda process is an anatomic variant defined as elongation of the lateral tubercle. The os trigonum is another normal variant due to non-fusion of the lateral tubercle ossification center. Both of these normal variants can be involved in pathology ranging from fracture to os trigonum syndrome. The lateral process extends from the lateral aspect of the body of the talus. This process articulates with the fibula superiorly and forms the anterolateral portion of the posterior facet of the posterior subtalar joint. Fracture of the lateral process has been termed “snowboarder’s fracture” and is commonly missed on initial radiographs. Evaluation of the lateral process of the talus is best on AP radiographs of the ankle. Vascular supply to the talus arises from three arteries: posterior tibial, dorsalis pedis and perforating peroneal arteries. The blood supply is predominately extraosseous because of the extensive articular cartilage coverage and is therefore easily disrupted in the setting of displaced fractures or dislocation leading to avascular necrosis or osteonecrosis.
- StatPearls: Anatomy, Bony Pelvis and Lower Limb, Pelvic Joints [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- The joints of the pelvis include the sacrococcygeal, lumbosacral, pubic symphysis, and the sacroiliac. The pelvic joints are also held together by various ligaments which include the sacrotuberous, s…
The joints of the pelvis include the sacrococcygeal, lumbosacral, pubic symphysis, and the sacroiliac. The pelvic joints are also held together by various ligaments which include the sacrotuberous, sacrospinous, and iliolumbar. The lumbosacral joint forms from the fifth lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum. In between the articular processes, this joint has an intervertebral disc. The sacrococcygeal joint is a fusion of the bone between the sacrum and coccyx. It also consists of an intervertebral disc between the two vertebrae and several accessory ligaments. The sacroiliac joint is a synovial articulation between the surfaces of the ilium and sacrum on either side. Because of the articulation, the surface of the joint is smooth and flat. The sacroiliac joint has posterior strengthening by dorsal sacroiliac and inter-osseous ligaments. When a person is upright, the body weight usually transmits to the sacrum and ilia. While sitting or supine, the person's weight transmits to the ischial tuberosity. The pubic symphysis is a cartilaginous joint located between the main body of the pubic bone in the midline. The symphysis of the pubic bone is covered with hyaline cartilage and may have a cleft. The ligaments around the pubic symphysis are flexible and relax during pregnancy.
- Neuropathological lesions in the very old: results from a large Brazilian autopsy study. [Journal Article]
- BPBrain Pathol 2019 Mar 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite a higher frequency of neuropathological findings in the very old group, as found in studies with high-income populations, we found attenuation of the effect of infarcts rather than neurofibrillary tangles and plaques as reported previously.
- Chondroma of the Tongue. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Craniofac Surg 2019; 30(4):e315-e317
- CONCLUSIONS: Chondromas benign tumors of mature hyaline cartillage localized in soft tissues of head and neck region. Growing slowly, and painlessly, they remain silent for some period, until reaching certain dimensions, and becoming symptomatous. Magnetic resonance imaging scan provides complete information about localization, size, growth of the tissue, and contributes significantly to the decision of appropriate surgical approach.
- Alternative reproductive strategies in black-winged territorial males of Paraphlebia zoe (Odonata, Thaumatoneuridae). [Journal Article]
- PPeerJ 2019; 7:e6489
- Alternative reproductive strategies are commonly associated with male dimorphism. In Paraphlebia zoe, a species of damselfly whose males are dimorphic in wing coloration, black-and-white-winged (BW) …
Alternative reproductive strategies are commonly associated with male dimorphism. In Paraphlebia zoe, a species of damselfly whose males are dimorphic in wing coloration, black-and-white-winged (BW) males defend territories, while hyaline-winged (HW) males usually play the role of satellites. We found that several BW males can sometimes share a territory, and we hypothesized that within this morph there are two alternative tactics: submissive and dominant. We conducted an experiment to test whether dominant and submissive roles are plastic or stable and fixed on each individual. To this end, we manipulated black and white spots of BW males in four treatments: (i) painting over white and black spots without changing their size, (ii) erasing the white spot using black painting, (iii) increasing the black spot and moving the white spot maintaining its size and (iv) control males. Additionally, we investigated the correlation between some phenotypic variables (wing asymmetry, survival and recapture probabilities) and male behaviour (in terms of quality of the territory). We found that the two behavioural roles (submissive and dominant) were not affected by the manipulative experiments, therefore suggesting that they are stable and fixed. Additionally, we found a positive correlation between body size and survival in both sexes, and a positive effect of territory quality and lifespan on mating success. Moreover, the largest and youngest BW males were the most symmetrical. We conclude that Paraphlebia zoe holds high behavioural diversity, with two types of strategies in BW males, dominant and submissive. The occurrence of this intra-morph behavioural diversity might depend on demographic factors such as population density and/or the relative frequency of the different morphs.
- StatPearls: Bone Age [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- 1. Visualization by hand & wrist plain film radiographs: Standard posteroanterior (PA) view of the hand and wrist; Effective radiation received during each exposure is between 0.0001-0.1 mSV. Typi…
1. Visualization by hand & wrist plain film radiographs: Standard posteroanterior (PA) view of the hand and wrist; Effective radiation received during each exposure is between 0.0001-0.1 mSV. Typically, left-hand radiographs are utilized (as most individuals are right dominant and left hand has less chance of being deformed) Techniques: A. Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas : Based on "The Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development of the Hand and Wrist" by Dr. William Walter Greulich and Dr. Sarah Idell Pyle (1959). Includes reference standards of the left hand and left wrist until 18 years for females and 19 years for males. Advantage: Simpler and faster method; good reliability for Australian and Middle Eastern ethnicity. Disadvantage: Less reliable in Asians. B. Tanner Whitehouse (TW2) Method : Based on the level of maturity for 20 selected regions of interest (ROI) in specific bones of hand and wrist in each age population. The development level for each ROI is categorized into specific stages, and given a numerical score for each individual bone. A total maturity score is calculated by summing up all these scores, which then correlates with sex-specific bone age. Advantage: More accurate and more reproducible. Disadvantage: Comparatively more complex and more time-consuming. C. Gilsanz and Ratibin (GR) Atlas : Digital atlas prepared by Vincent Gilsanz and Osman Ratibin (2005). Includes age- and sex-specific artificial images of skeletal maturity after thoroughly analyzing size, shape, morphology, and density of ossification centers in healthy children (spaced at 6-monthly intervals between 2 and 6 years, and yearly intervals between 7 and 17 years). Advantage: More precise and better quality images, as compared with GP atlas. Disadvantage: Shows fairly similar results in previous studies, however, GR atlas has more outliers. D. Automated skeletal bone age assessment : Digital radiographs of hand and wrist Xray - Undergoes several stages of processing: Stage 1: Pre-processing: Image normalized to grayscale, background removed and re-oriented. Stage 2: Segmentation: Desired parts of image separated from the background. Stage 3: Analysis: Selected regions of interest analyzed for bone age by TW2 method or GP atlas. Recently developed software computes bone age by both GP and TW2 methods, which has demonstrated validity across different ethnicities. E. Capito-hamate planimetry [Choi et al. (2018)] : Defined as the measurement of the sum of areas of the capitate and hamate. Can be assessed using plain radiographs. 2. Visualization by ultrasound (US) : Specialized ultrasound device involving two transducers: one transmitted (ultrasonic waves of 750kHz Frequency) and one receiver. Includes 11 cycles directed at the epiphysis of distal radius and ulna and skeletal age is determined, based on demographics of subject and ultrasound results. Disadvantage: Still needs to be evaluated in multiethnic populations with large sample size. 3. Visualization by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) : Hand and wrist MRI has been evaluated as an option for bone age estimation (GP and TW2 methods) (Urschler et al. 2016); nevertheless, this technique still needs further validation. 4. Visualization of elbow ossification : Sauvegrain et al. (1962) developed a full 27-point scoring system for bone age assessment including the assessment of four growth centers (lateral condyle and epicondyle, trochlea, olecranon apophysis, and proximal radial epiphysis) on AP and lateral radiographs of the left elbow. This assessment modality involves relatively greater radiation exposure. The order of appearance and fusion of different ossification centers around the elbow and their correlation with chronological age has been described : capitellum (0-1 year; 10-15 years), radial head (2-6 years; 12-16 years), medial epicondyle (2-8 years; 13 years), trochlea (5-11 years; 10-18 years), olecranon (6-11 years; 13-16 years) and lateral epicondyle (8-13 years; 12-16 years). Appearance and fusion for all these ossification centers (except capitellum and radial head) have been demonstrated to be earlier in girls than boys. 5. Visualization of humeral head ossification : Li et al. (2018) had recently described the 5-staged humeral head ossification classification system: Stage 1 includes an incompletely ossified lateral epiphysis. Stage 2 demonstrates increased ossification of the lateral epiphysis, with a lateral curved margin. Stages 3 to 5 demonstrate collinearity between lateral margin of epiphysis and metaphysis; in stage 3, the lateral half of the physis is open without obvious fusion, in stage 4, the lateral half of physis is partly fused, and in stage 5, the lateral half of physis is completely fused. It has been demonstrated that peak height velocity (PHV) correlates between stages 2 and 3. 6. Visualization of clavicle : A secondary ossification center develops at the medial end of clavicle during adolescence and undergoes fusion at 22 years. Best bone to image for bone age assessment between 18 and 22 years of age. Conventional radiographs - not much use to assess; Conventional or Spiral CT - Concerns regarding radiation exposure; and MRI (3-Tesla versus 1.5 Tesla) - Can be a radiation-free option, however, further research to develop specific protocols needed. 7. Visualization of iliac bone : A. By pelvic radiographs: Risser sign - Based on the ossification of iliac crest apophysis. However, not a reliable or commonly used technique. B. Non-ionizing Imaging: Ultrasonography as a technique to assess bone age using iliac crest apophysis ossification - has also been considered. However, this technique still requires validation. 8. Visualization of femoral head : Bone age can be calculated by assessing the depth of epiphyseal cartilage of femoral head, in contrast to visualizing bony epiphyseal femur. As the ossification process occurs, most of the cartilage undergoes replacement by bone and hyaline articular cartilage. Ultrasound assessment has been studied to evaluate femoral head ossification; however, the evidence is still unequivocal. 9. Modified Oxford Score : Described by Stasikelis et al. assessed bone age on the basis of three consecutive stages of maturation of triradiate cartilage (TRC), femoral epiphysis, greater trochanter, and lesser trochanter. The total score ranges from 16 to 26. There is a solid body of literature regarding the role of this technique in predicting the contralateral slip in patients with SCFE. Modified Oxford score of 16 to 18 corresponds to increased contralateral slips in SCFE and 19 to 21 corresponds to PHV. 10. Calcaneal apophyseal ossification : Nicholson et al. (2016) described 5-staged bone age assessment based on calcaneal apophysis. Stage 0 - No ossification of apophysis: Stage 1 - Apophysis covers less than 50% of the metaphysis. Stage 2 - Apophysis covers more than 50% of the metaphysis. Stage 3 - Apophysis has extended fully over the plantar surface and continues to extend over the dorsal surface without evidence of fusion. Stage 4 - Fusion of the apophysis to metaphysis begins. Stage 5 - Fusion is complete. Calcaneal stages 0 to 2 corresponded to high chances of contralateral slip in SCFE and stage 3 corresponds closely to PHV 11. Visualization of cervical maturation : Schelgl et al. (2017) described the role of EOS 2D/3D imaging in the assessment of bone age, based on cervical vertebral body morphologies (Hassel–Farman Bone Age Stages - initiation, acceleration, transition, deceleration, maturation and completion stages). 12. Visualization of Dental Maturity: Predominantly studies for forensic purposes. Mineralization of teeth is much less affected by nutritional or endocrine disorders than the skeletal system. Techniques: A. Atlas method : Based on atlas containing standard age-matched orthopantomographic images, developed by Scour et al. (1944) This was further modified by Moorrees et al. and Anderson et al., where they defined dentition stages of all teeth. B. Scoring method : Numerical method devised by Demirjian et al. (1973), involving maturity score of each tooth, based on the level of dentition. A total maturity score is calculated by adding individual maturity scores. It has been demonstrated to show good correlation with the GP method of bone age estimation.
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- Microfractures and hydrogel scaffolds in the treatment of osteochondral knee defects: A clinical and histological evaluation. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Orthop Trauma 2019 Jan-Feb; 10(1):67-75
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated high patient satisfaction rates after microfractures combined with a modern hydrogel scaffold; histologic evaluation supported the hypothesis of creating an enhanced chondrogenic environment. Microfracture "augmentation" using modern acellular biomaterials, like hydrogels, might improve the clinical outcomes of this classical bone marrow stimulating procedure.