- Embryonic and postnatal development of mouse olfactory tubercle. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2019 Jun 11
- The olfactory tubercle (OT) is located in the ventral-medial region of the brain where it receives primary input from olfactory bulb (OB) projection neurons and processes olfactory behaviors related …
The olfactory tubercle (OT) is located in the ventral-medial region of the brain where it receives primary input from olfactory bulb (OB) projection neurons and processes olfactory behaviors related to motivation, hedonics of smell and sexual encounters. The OT is part of the dopamine reward system that shares characteristics with the striatum. Together with the nucleus accumbens, the OT has been referred to as the "ventral striatum". However, despite its functional importance little is known about the embryonic development of the OT and the phenotypic properties of the OT cells. Here, using thymidine analogs, we establish that mouse OT neurogenesis occurs predominantly between E11-E15 in a lateral-to-medial gradient. Then, using a piggyBac multicolor technique we characterized the migratory route of OT neuroblasts from their embryonic point of origin. Following neurogenesis in the ventral lateral ganglionic eminence (vLGE), neuroblasts destined for the OT followed a dorsal-ventral pathway we named "ventral migratory course" (VMC). Upon reaching the nascent OT, neurons established a prototypical laminar distribution that was determined, in part, by the progenitor cell of origin. A phenotypic analysis of OT neuroblasts using a single-color piggyBac technique, showed that OT shared the molecular specification of striatal neurons. In addition to primary afferent input from the OB, the OT also receives a robust dopaminergic input from ventral tegmentum (Ikemoto, 2007). We used tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression as a proxy for dopaminergic innervation and showed that TH onset occurs at E13 and progressively increased until postnatal stages following an 'inside-out' pattern. Postnatally, we established the myelination in the OT occurring between P7 and P14, as shown with CNPase staining, and we characterized the cellular phenotypes populating the OT by immunohistochemistry. Collectively, this work provides the first detailed analysis of the developmental and maturation processes occurring in mouse OT, and demonstrates the striatal nature of the OT as part of the ventral striatum (vST).
- Lack of zinc finger protein 521 upregulates dopamine β-hydroxylase expression in the mouse brain, leading to abnormal behavior. [Journal Article]
- LSLife Sci 2019 Jun 11; :116559
- CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the lack of ZFP521 upregulates the expression of DBH, which leads to a decrease in the DA level and an increase in the NA level in the brain, resulting in abnormal behaviors.
- Differential effects of oral boluses of vitamin D2 versus vitamin D3 on vitamin D metabolism: a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 Jun 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Bolus-dose vitamin D2 is less effective than bolus-dose vitamin D3 in elevating total serum 25(OH)D concentration. Administration of vitamin D2 reduces 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 and 1-alpha hydroxylation of 25(OH)D3, while increasing 24R-hydroxylation of 25(OH)D3.
- The protective effect of Korean Red Ginseng against rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease in rat model: modulation of nuclear factor-κβ and caspase-3. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Pharm Biotechnol 2019 Jun 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Ginseng could be a promising treatment in PD. It can suppress the dopaminergic neuron degeneration through variable mechanisms mainly via inhibition of NF-κβ pathway in addition to inhibition oxidative stress and apoptosis.
- Identification and expression of the 11β-steroid hydroxylase from Cochliobolus lunatus in Corynebacterium glutamicum. [Journal Article]
- MBMicrob Biotechnol 2019 Jun 14
- Hydroxylation of steroids has acquired special relevance for the pharmaceutical industries. Particularly, the 11β-hydroxylation of steroids is a reaction of biotechnological importance currently carr…
Hydroxylation of steroids has acquired special relevance for the pharmaceutical industries. Particularly, the 11β-hydroxylation of steroids is a reaction of biotechnological importance currently carried out at industrial scale by the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus. In this work, we have identified the genes encoding the cytochrome CYP103168 and the reductase CPR64795 of C. lunatus responsible for the 11β-hydroxylase activity in this fungus, which is the key step for the preparative synthesis of cortisol in industry. A recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strain harbouring a plasmid expressing both genes forming a synthetic bacterial operon was able to 11β-hydroxylate several steroids as substrates. This is a new example to show that the industrial strain C. glutamicum can be used as a suitable chassis to perform steroid biotransformation expressing eukaryotic cytochromes.
- Regulation of the Serotonergic System by Kainate in the Avian Retina. [Journal Article]
- CMCell Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jun 13
- Serotonin (5-HT) has been recognized as a neurotransmitter in the vertebrate retina, restricted mainly to amacrine and bipolar cells. It is involved with synaptic processing and possibly as a mitogen…
Serotonin (5-HT) has been recognized as a neurotransmitter in the vertebrate retina, restricted mainly to amacrine and bipolar cells. It is involved with synaptic processing and possibly as a mitogenic factor. We confirm that chick retina amacrine and bipolar cells are, respectively, heavily and faintly immunolabeled for 5-HT. Amacrine serotonergic cells also co-express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of dopaminergic cells in the retina. Previous reports demonstrated that serotonin transport can be modulated by neurotransmitter receptor activation. As 5-HT is diffusely released as a neuromodulator and co-localized with other transmitters, we evaluated if 5-HT uptake or release is modulated by several mediators in the avian retina. The role of different glutamate receptors on serotonin transport and release in vitro and in vivo was also studied. We show that L-glutamate induces an inhibitory effect on [3H]5-HT uptake and this effect was specific to kainate receptor activation. Kainate-induced decrease in [3H]5-HT uptake was blocked by CNQX, an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, but not by MK-801, a NMDA receptor antagonist. [3H]5-HT uptake was not observed in the presence of AMPA, thus suggesting that the decrease in serotonin uptake is mediated by kainate. 5-HT (10-50 μM) had no intrinsic activity in raising intracellular Ca2+, but addition of 10 μM 5-HT decreased Ca2+ shifts induced by KCl in retinal neurons. Moreover, kainate decreased the number of bipolar and amacrine cells labeled to serotonin in chick retina. In conclusion, our data suggest a highly selective effect of kainate receptors in the regulation of serotonin functions in the retinal cells.
- Restoring brain cholesterol turnover improves autophagy and has therapeutic potential in mouse models of spinocerebellar ataxia. [Journal Article]
- ANActa Neuropathol 2019 Jun 14
- Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are devastating neurodegenerative disorders for which no curative or preventive therapies are available. Deregulation of brain cholesterol metabolism and impaired brain…
Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are devastating neurodegenerative disorders for which no curative or preventive therapies are available. Deregulation of brain cholesterol metabolism and impaired brain cholesterol turnover have been associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. SCA3 or Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is the most prevalent ataxia worldwide. We show that cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1), the key enzyme allowing efflux of brain cholesterol and activating brain cholesterol turnover, is decreased in cerebellar extracts from SCA3 patients and SCA3 mice. We investigated whether reinstating CYP46A1 expression would improve the disease phenotype of SCA3 mouse models. We show that administration of adeno-associated viral vectors encoding CYP46A1 to a lentiviral-based SCA3 mouse model reduces mutant ataxin-3 accumulation, which is a hallmark of SCA3, and preserves neuronal markers. In a transgenic SCA3 model with a severe motor phenotype we confirm that cerebellar delivery of AAVrh10-CYP46A1 is strongly neuroprotective in adult mice with established pathology. CYP46A1 significantly decreases ataxin-3 protein aggregation, alleviates motor impairments and improves SCA3-associated neuropathology. In particular, improvement in Purkinje cell number and reduction of cerebellar atrophy are observed in AAVrh10-CYP46A1-treated mice. Conversely, we show that knocking-down CYP46A1 in normal mouse brain impairs cholesterol metabolism, induces motor deficits and produces strong neurodegeneration with impairment of the endosomal-lysosomal pathway, a phenotype closely resembling that of SCA3. Remarkably, we demonstrate for the first time both in vitro, in a SCA3 cellular model, and in vivo, in mouse brain, that CYP46A1 activates autophagy, which is impaired in SCA3, leading to decreased mutant ataxin-3 deposition. More broadly, we show that the beneficial effect of CYP46A1 is also observed with mutant ataxin-2 aggregates. Altogether, our results confirm a pivotal role for CYP46A1 and brain cholesterol metabolism in neuronal function, pointing to a key contribution of the neuronal cholesterol pathway in mechanisms mediating clearance of aggregate-prone proteins. This study identifies CYP46A1 as a relevant therapeutic target not only for SCA3 but also for other SCAs.
- [Syndromes with skin fragility]. [Review]
- HHautarzt 2019 Jun 13
- Syndromic disorders with skin fragility belong to different groups of genodermatoses: epidermolysis bullosa (EB), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and porphyria. The genetic defects mainly concern structural p…
Syndromic disorders with skin fragility belong to different groups of genodermatoses: epidermolysis bullosa (EB), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and porphyria. The genetic defects mainly concern structural proteins which assure the mechanical stability of the skin and other tissues. Depending on the expression pattern of the affected protein in the skin, cutaneous fragility may manifest as superficial erosions, blisters, wounds, wound healing defects or scars. Extracutaneous manifestations are manifold and involve the heart, skeletal muscles, intestine, kidneys, blood vessels or the skeleton. Syndromic types of EB include in addition to skin blistering: (i) cardiomyopathy in case of desmoplakin, plakoglobin, or kelch-like protein mutations; (ii) muscular dystrophy in case of plektin mutations; (iii) pyloric atresia in case of integrin α6β4 or plectin mutations; (iv) nephrotic syndrome in case of CD151 or integrin α3 mutations. Lysyl hydroxylase 3 mutations affect posttranslational modifications of collagens and lead to a dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa-like multisystemic disorder. Ehlers-Danlos syndromes are due to defects of dermal collagens or their processing and affect the skin, joints and blood vessels. Finally porphyrias are complex metabolic disorders with photosensitivity and sometimes skin fragility, liver or neurologic problems. Their pathogenesis relies on the accumulation of precursors in the tissues. Although these syndromes are rare in clinical practice, knowledge of the syndromic constellation contributes to early diagnosis and detection of complications.
- Corticosterone Upregulates Gene and Protein Expression of Catecholamine Markers in Organotypic Brainstem Cultures. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 Jun 14; 20(12)
- Glucocorticoids are produced by the adrenal cortex and regulate cell metabolism in a variety of organs. This occurs either directly, by acting on specific receptors in a variety of cells, or by stimu…
Glucocorticoids are produced by the adrenal cortex and regulate cell metabolism in a variety of organs. This occurs either directly, by acting on specific receptors in a variety of cells, or by stimulating catecholamine expression within neighbor cells of the adrenal medulla. In this way, the whole adrenal gland may support specific metabolic requirements to cope with stressful conditions from external environment or internal organs. In addition, glucocorticoid levels may increase significantly in the presence of inappropriate secretion from adrenal cortex or may be administered at high doses to treat inflammatory disorders. In these conditions, metabolic alterations and increased blood pressure may occur, although altered sleep-waking cycle, anxiety, and mood disorders are frequent. These latter symptoms remain unexplained at the molecular level, although they overlap remarkably with disorders affecting catecholamine nuclei of the brainstem reticular formation. In fact, the present study indicates that various doses of glucocorticoids alter the expression of genes and proteins, which are specific for reticular catecholamine neurons. In detail, corticosterone administration to organotypic mouse brainstem cultures significantly increases Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and Dopamine transporter (DAT), while Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is not affected. On the other hand, Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase (DBH) increases only after very high doses of corticosterone.
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- HIF-1α is required for development of the sympathetic nervous system. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Jun 13
- The molecular mechanisms regulating sympathetic innervation of the heart during embryogenesis and its importance for cardiac development and function remain to be fully elucidated. We generated mice …
The molecular mechanisms regulating sympathetic innervation of the heart during embryogenesis and its importance for cardiac development and function remain to be fully elucidated. We generated mice in which conditional knockout (CKO) of the Hif1a gene encoding the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is mediated by an Islet1-Cre transgene expressed in the cardiac outflow tract, right ventricle and atrium, pharyngeal mesoderm, peripheral neurons, and hindlimbs. These Hif1aCKO mice demonstrate significantly decreased perinatal survival and impaired left ventricular function. The absence of HIF-1α impaired the survival and proliferation of preganglionic and postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic system, respectively. These defects resulted in hypoplasia of the sympathetic ganglion chain and decreased sympathetic innervation of the Hif1aCKO heart, which was associated with decreased cardiac contractility. The number of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla was also decreased, indicating a broad dependence on HIF-1α for development of the sympathetic nervous system.