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1,118 results
  • The place of ARBs in heart failure therapy: is aldosterone suppression the key? [Journal Article]
    Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 2019 Jan-Dec; 13:1753944719868134Markan U, Pasupuleti S, … Lymperopoulos A
  • Since the launch of the first orally available angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker (ARB) losartan (Cozaar) in the late 1990s, the class of ARBs (or 'sartans', short for Angiotensin-RecepTor-ANtagonistS) quickly expanded to include candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, valsartan, telmisartan, and olmesartan. All ARBs have high affinity for the AT1 receptor, expressed in various ti…
  • Sex-dependent differences in water homeostasis in wild-type and V-ATPase B1-subunit deficient mice. [Journal Article]
    PLoS One 2019; 14(8):e0219940Nair AV, Yanhong W, … Brown D
  • Men tend to dehydrate more than women after prolonged exercise, possibly due to lower water intake and higher perspiration rate. Women are prone to exercise-associated hyponatremia, primarily attributed to the higher water consumption causing hypervolemia. Since aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels in the kidney collecting duct (CD) principal cells (PCs) are involved in maintaining water balance, we…
  • The Use of Portal Vein Pulsatility to Differentiate Hypervolemic and Hypovolemic Hyponatremia. [Case Reports]
    Case Rep Crit Care 2019; 2019:9591823Singh G, Rachoin JS, … Patel S
  • Hypotonic hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder defined by a blood serum sodium value of less than 136 meq/L. A challenge in managing hyponatremia is accurately determining the etiology for the free water excess as management can markedly differ. Accurate diagnosis of the etiology of hypotonic hyponatremia requires precision in the determination of extracellular volume status. Determinati…
  • Loop Diuretics in Acute Kidney Injury Prevention, Therapy, and Risk Stratification. [Review]
    Kidney Blood Press Res 2019; :1-8Patschan D, Patschan S, … Ritter O
  • CONCLUSIONS: The substances increase the clearance of electrolytes and water; thus, they allow us to control hypervolemia and to prevent patients from pulmonary edema. LD are also frequently applied to patients with an acute decrease in glomerular filtration rate, namely, acute kidney injury (AKI). Nevertheless, volume depletion may be associated with reduced renal perfusion and possibly slower restitution or even aggravation of kidney dysfunction. Several trials on the preventive or therapeutic efficacy of LD have been published since the early 1970s. Our review article is intended to summarize the most important references related to this topic. In addition, we discuss the diagnostic value of the so-called furosemide stress test. The currently available data indicate that LD may act in a beneficial manner as long as euvolemia is maintained (matched hydration). Key Massages: LD are not beneficial for AKI treatment if kidney-related endpoints are considered. In certain situations, AKI prevention with LD can be associated with favorable outcomes as long as euvolemia is maintained. LD can help to identify AKI subjects at a higher risk of AKI progression, but the exact clinical consequences need to be determined.
  • Ultrafiltration for management of fluid overload in patients with heart failure. [Review]
    Artif Organs 2019Gologorsky RC, Roy S
  • Heart failure is the number one cause of death in the United States and a significant burden to the healthcare system. One of the primary complications of heart failure is fluid overload, for which current treatments are limited. Medical therapy is first-line; however, rates of diuretic insensitivity are high, medications are not easily titrated, and they do not address the underlying physiologic…
  • Pharmacologic Treatment of Chronic Hyperkalemia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. [Review]
    Electrolyte Blood Press 2019; 17(1):1-6Kim GH
  • Hyperkalemia is frequently complicated in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) because kidney is the major route of potassium excretion. Urinary potassium excretion is reduced according to the decline in glomerular filtration rate, and the risk of hyperkalemia is increased in patients with high potassium intake, advanced age, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and medicat…
  • Comparison between Urine Sodium and Clinical Evaluation to Assess Saline Responsiveness in Severe Hyponatremia - A Prospective Study. [Journal Article]
    J Assoc Physicians India 2019; 67(4):17-20N AK, Balan S, … Pisharody R
  • CONCLUSIONS: Volume status of patients with hyponatremia can be assessed clinically with a high degree of reliability if the hyponatremia is severe. Thus we re-emphasize the importance of measuring volume status in patients with hyponatremia and classify patients on basis of volume status prior to triaging management. The measurement of UNa had a poor correlation with saline responsiveness and this shows that the laboratory measure is subject to errors due to prior treatments given to the patient and has to be interpreted with the prior clinical scenario in mind.
  • Fluid Stewardship During Critical Illness: A Call to Action. [Journal Article]
    J Pharm Pract 2019; :897190019853979Hawkins WA, Smith SE, … Branan TN
  • Intravenous fluids (IVFs) are the most common drugs administered in the intensive care unit. Despite the ubiquitous use, IVFs are not benign and carry significant risks associated with under- or overadministration. Hypovolemia is associated with decreased organ perfusion, ischemia, and multi-organ failure. Hypervolemia and volume overload are associated with organ dysfunction, delayed liberation …
  • [The Cardiorenal Syndrome]. [Journal Article]
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2019; 144(13):910-916Scurt FG, Kuczera T, … Chatzikyrkou C
  • Chronic heart failure is associated with high morbidity and mortality and is the most common hospital diagnosis for elderly patients. Concomitant or superimposed acute or chronic kidney injury, as is the case with cardiorenal syndrome, has a dramatic impact on the outcome. The inhibition of the neurohumoral axis and the adequate treatment of hypervolemia are fundamental elements of modern cardiac…
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