- Carboxymethylpachymaran entrapped plant-based hollow microcapsules for delivery and stabilization of β-galactosidase. [Journal Article]
- FFFood Funct 2019 Jul 17
- β-Galactosidase (β-Gal) as a dietary supplement can alleviate symptoms of lactose intolerance. However, β-Gal is deactivated due to the highly acidic conditions and proteases in the digestive tract. …
β-Galactosidase (β-Gal) as a dietary supplement can alleviate symptoms of lactose intolerance. However, β-Gal is deactivated due to the highly acidic conditions and proteases in the digestive tract. In this work, β-Gal was encapsulated into L. clavatum sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) to fabricate an oral-controlled release system and increase the stability of β-Gal in the digestive tract. The SEC extraction process was optimized. A 3-hour vacuum loading was determined as the optimal loading time. Five different initial ratios of SECs : β-Gal were optimized with the maximum enzyme retention rate reaching 79.40 ± 1.96%. Furthermore, β-Gal-loaded SECs entrapped in carboxymethylpachymaran (CMP) could control the release of β-Gal under simulated gastrointestinal conditions (SGC). The optimal enzyme retention rate reached 65.33 ± 1.46% within 24 h under SGC. Collectively, these results indicated that the entrapped SECs could be used as an effective oral delivery vehicle of β-Gal to improve its performance as a dietary supplement in the digestion of lactose.
- A Personalised Dietary Approach-A Way Forward to Manage Nutrient Deficiency, Effects of the Western Diet, and Food Intolerances in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. [Review]
- NNutrients 2019 Jul 05; 11(7)
- This review discusses the personalised dietary approach with respect to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It identifies gene-nutrient interactions associated with the nutritional deficiencies that pe…
This review discusses the personalised dietary approach with respect to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It identifies gene-nutrient interactions associated with the nutritional deficiencies that people with IBD commonly experience, and the role of the Western diet in influencing these. It also discusses food intolerances and how particular genotypes can affect these. It is well established that with respect to food there is no "one size fits all" diet for those with IBD. Gene-nutrient interactions may help explain this variability in response to food that is associated with IBD. Nutrigenomic research, which examines the effects of food and its constituents on gene expression, shows that-like a number of pharmaceutical products-food can have beneficial effects or have adverse (side) effects depending on a person's genotype. Pharmacogenetic research is identifying gene variants with adverse reactions to drugs, and this is modifying clinical practice and allowing individualised treatment. Nutrigenomic research could enable individualised treatment in persons with IBD and enable more accurate tailoring of food intake, to avoid exacerbating malnutrition and to counter some of the adverse effects of the Western diet. It may also help to establish the dietary pattern that is most protective against IBD.
- Oligosaccharides act as the high efficiency stabilizer for β-galactosidase under heat treatment. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2019 Jun 28; 137:69-76
- β-Galactosidase (β-Gal) as dietary supplement has the ability to alleviate symptoms of lactose intolerance. This study investigated the ability of oligosaccharides to protect β-Gal against heat stres…
β-Galactosidase (β-Gal) as dietary supplement has the ability to alleviate symptoms of lactose intolerance. This study investigated the ability of oligosaccharides to protect β-Gal against heat stress. Four kinds of oligosaccharides including Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO), Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS), Konjac-oligosaccharides (KOS), and Mycose significantly increased the activity retention of β-Gal under heat treatment. The results of three assays including circular dichroism, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) illustrated that these oligosaccharides could stabilize the secondary and tertiary structure of β-Gal under thermal conditions through hydrogen bond interaction. Unlike these four oligosaccharides, Chito-oligosaccharides (COS) changed the secondary and tertiary structure of β-Gal, thus decreasing its activity retention rate. Under heat treatment, the activity retention rate of β-Gal with optimal composition (30% IMO, w/v and 40% XOS, w/v) reached 82.1%, which was significantly higher than that of the native β-Gal (the activity retention rate of 20%). This study provides an insight into the mechanism by which sugar stabilizes protein under heat stress and offers guidance for application of liquid lactase to food industry.
- Physicochemical and sensory properties of milk supplemented with lactase microcapsules coated with enteric coating materials. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2019; 102(8):6959-6970
- In this paper, we report the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk supplemented with a powder of microencapsulated lactase. The core material was lactase (β-galactosidase), the primary coati…
In this paper, we report the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk supplemented with a powder of microencapsulated lactase. The core material was lactase (β-galactosidase), the primary coating material was medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), and the secondary (enteric) coating material was either hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) or shellac, comparing both against market milk as a control. The physicochemical properties of both types of microcapsules were analyzed, including the particle size, zeta potential, and in vitro release behavior. To survey the stability of the microcapsules in milk during storage, we studied the residual lactose content and pH. Furthermore, to determine the properties of milk supplemented with the microcapsules, changes in color and sensory properties were evaluated during storage. The particle sizes (volume-weighted mean; D[4,3]) of the microcapsules coated with HPMCP or shellac were 2,836 and 7,834 nm, respectively, and the zeta potential of the capsules coated with shellac was higher than the zeta potential of those coated with HPMCP. The pH levels of milk supplemented with the lactase microcapsules were similar to those of the control (unsupplemented market milk); however, for milk supplemented with HPMCP-coated microcapsules, the pH was slightly lower. The core material, lactase, was released from the microcapsules during 12-d storage, and 18.82 and 35.09% of lactose was hydrolyzed in the samples for HPMCP- and shellac-coated microcapsules, respectively. The sensory characteristics of milk containing microcapsules coated with HPMCP did not show significant differences from the control, in terms of sweetness or off-taste, until 8 d of storage. However, shellac-coated microcapsules showed significant difference in sweetness and off-taste at d 8 and 6 of storage, respectively. The color of milk containing HPMCP-coated microcapsules did not show a significant difference during storage. However, that containing shellac-coated microcapsules was somewhat higher in color values than others. In particular, it showed significance from 0 to 4 d storage in L* and C* values. In conclusion, a powder of lactase microcapsules coated with HPMCP can be suitable as a supplement for milk.
- Effects of Agitation Speed and Kinetic Studies on Probiotication of Pomegranate Juice with Lactobacillus casei. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2019 Jun 26; 24(13)
- The issues of lactose intolerance and vegetarianism have encouraged the introduction of non-dairy fermented food into the market. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of agitation speed …
The issues of lactose intolerance and vegetarianism have encouraged the introduction of non-dairy fermented food into the market. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of agitation speed on the bioactive compounds and functional characteristics of probioticated pomegranate juice. Pomegranate juice was fermented with Lactobacillus casei at different agitation speeds ranging from 0 (microaerophilic) to 150 rpm at 37 °C. The functional properties of probioticated pomegranate juice were evaluated in terms of growth (biomass), lactic acid production, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and key metabolites using LC-MS/MS. The growth kinetics of fermentation was monitored at the optimal condition using one factor at a time method. High cell growth (3.58 × 1010 cfu/mL or 7.9 gL-1) was observed for L. casei probioticated pomegranate juice agitated at 0 rpm. The findings of this study reveal the potential of pomegranate juice as a medium for L. casei cultivation without nutrient supplementation. The improvement of antioxidant activity in the probioticated juice could be due to the increment of quercetin-3-glucoside. Therefore, L. casei grew well in pomegranate juice with a high cell viability and antioxidant activity at a non-agitated condition. Probioticated pomegranate juice is a potentially functional drink.
- Congruency of Genetic Predisposition to Lactase Persistence and Lactose Breath Test. [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2019 Jun 20; 11(6)
- The physiological decline of lactase production in adulthood, in some individuals, is responsible for the so-called "Lactose Intolerance." This clinical syndrome presents with gastrointestinal and no…
The physiological decline of lactase production in adulthood, in some individuals, is responsible for the so-called "Lactose Intolerance." This clinical syndrome presents with gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal symptoms following the consumption of dairy containing food. Lactose intolerance can be evaluated by means of the Lactose Breath Test (phenotype) and/or genetic evaluation of lactase-gene polymorphism (genotype). A comparison of the two tests was carried out in a large number of symptomatic adult subjects, which are selected and not representative of the general population. Congruency was as high as 88.6%. Among lactase non-persistent (genotype C/C), 14 subjects showed a negative Lactose Breath Test (LBT), possibly due to young age. Among lactase-persistent (genotype C/T), four subjects showed a positive LBT, which helps to diagnose secondary lactose intolerance. Symptoms, both gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal, were reported by 90% of patients during the breath test. Clinical use of both tests in the same patients could be taken into consideration as a sharp diagnostic tool. We suggest considering the use of the genetic test after LBT administration, when secondary hypolactasia is suspected, for completion of diagnostic procedures.
- Nutrition Knowledge of Elderly and Middle-age Urban Population and Its Effects on Diet Quality and Dairy Consumption: A Cross-sectional Study in Eight Cities of China (P10-060-19). [Journal Article]
- CDCurr Dev Nutr 2019; 3(Suppl 1)
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicated that knowledge gaps surrounding nutrition and dairy products exist in Chinese elderly and middle-age urban population. Moreover, good command of nutrition knowledge and dairy knowledge has a positive effect of dietary quality and milk consumption rate.
- Riboflavin Bioavailability Varies with Milk Type and Is Altered in Self-Reported Dairy Intolerance States (P24-012-19). [Journal Article]
- CDCurr Dev Nutr 2019; 3(Suppl 1)
- CONCLUSIONS: Riboflavin from CM is more bioavailable than LF-CM or A2M indicating that riboflavin content depends on the milk type or processing. However, regardless of milk type, decreased bioavailability may put NLDI individuals at increased risk of riboflavin inadequacy compared to LI people.
- Physico-chemical properties of Khoa prepared from lactose hydrolyzed buffalo milk. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Sci Technol 2019; 56(6):3067-3076
- Lactose is a reducing sugar which is abundantly found in mammalian milk. Lactose intolerance affects more than 70% of the world population, being apparent by the absence of β-galactosidase enzyme, th…
Lactose is a reducing sugar which is abundantly found in mammalian milk. Lactose intolerance affects more than 70% of the world population, being apparent by the absence of β-galactosidase enzyme, thus leading to the inability to consume dairy products. In the present work, Khoa was prepared from lactose hydrolysed milk and its physico-chemical, textural and microbiological quality were examined during storage at 5-7 °C for 28 days. The sensory quality of low lactose Khoa was comparable with that of the control Khoa up to the 14th day of storage. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between the acidity, hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF) content, lightness, redness, springiness, chewiness and hardness values of the low lactose Khoa and the control Khoa were observed. The standard plate count (SPC), coliform and yeast and mould counts of the low lactose Khoa were within Food safety and standards authority of India (FSSAI) standards throughout the 28 days of storage. Therefore, the low lactose Khoa developed in this study had different physicochemical properties from the control sample with better shelf life.
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- Lactose digestion in humans: intestinal lactase appears to be constitutive whereas the colonic microbiome is adaptable. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Clin Nutr 2019 Jun 08
- Globally, ∼70% of adults are deficient in intestinal lactase, the enzyme required for the digestion of lactose. In these individuals, the consumption of lactose-containing milk and dairy products can…
Globally, ∼70% of adults are deficient in intestinal lactase, the enzyme required for the digestion of lactose. In these individuals, the consumption of lactose-containing milk and dairy products can lead to the development of various gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The primary solution to lactose intolerance is withdrawing lactose from the diet either by eliminating dairy products altogether or substituting lactose-free alternatives. However, studies have shown that certain individuals erroneously attribute their GI symptoms to lactose and thus prefer to consume lactose-free products. This has raised the question whether consuming lactose-free products reduces an individual's ability to absorb dietary lactose and if lactose-absorbers should thus avoid these products. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the acclimatization of lactose processing in humans. Human studies that have attempted to induce intestinal lactase expression with different lactose feeding protocols have consistently shown lack of enzyme induction. Similarly, withdrawing lactose from the diet does not reduce intestinal lactase expression. Evidence from cross-sectional studies shows that milk or dairy consumption is a poor indicator of lactase status, corroborating the results of intervention studies. However, in lactase-deficient individuals, lactose feeding supports the growth of lactose-digesting bacteria in the colon, which enhances colonic lactose processing and possibly results in the reduction of intolerance symptoms. This process is referred to as colonic adaptation. In conclusion, endogenous lactase expression does not depend on the presence of dietary lactose, but in susceptible individuals, dietary lactose might improve intolerance symptoms via colonic adaptation. For these individuals, lactose withdrawal results in the loss of colonic adaptation, which might lower the threshold for intolerance symptoms if lactose is reintroduced into the diet.