- Characteristics, comorbidities, and correlates of atypical depression: evidence from the UK Biobank Mental Health Survey. [Journal Article]Psychol Med 2019; :1-10PM
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the clinical and public health significance of AD as a chronic form of depression, associated with high comorbidity and lifetime adversity. Our findings have implications for predicting depression course and comorbidities, guiding research on aetiological mechanisms, planning service use and informing therapeutic approaches.
- Helicid alleviates pain and sleep disturbances in a neuropathic pain-like model in mice. [Journal Article]J Sleep Res 2017; 26(3):386-393JS
- Natural helicid (4-formylphenyl-O-β-d-allopyranoside), a main active constituent from seeds of the Chinese herb Helicia nilagirica, has been reported to exert a sedative, analgesic and hypnotic effect, and is used clinically to treat neurasthenic syndrome, vascular headaches and trigeminal neuralgia. In the current study, mechanical allodynia tests, electroencephalograms, electromyogram recording…
Natural helicid (4-formylphenyl-O-β-d-allopyranoside), a main active constituent from seeds of the Chinese herb Helicia nilagirica, has been reported to exert a sedative, analgesic and hypnotic effect, and is used clinically to treat neurasthenic syndrome, vascular headaches and trigeminal neuralgia. In the current study, mechanical allodynia tests, electroencephalograms, electromyogram recordings and c-Fos expression in neuropathic pain-like model mice of partial sciatic nerve ligation were used to investigate the effect of helicid on neuropathic pain and co-morbid insomnia. Our results showed that helicid at a dose of 100, 200 or 400 mg kg-1 could increase the mechanical threshold by 2.5-, 2.8- and 3.1-fold for 3 h after administration, respectively. Helicid at 200 and 400 mg kg-1 given at 07:00 hours increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep in a 3-h period by 1.27- and 1.35-fold in partial sciatic nerve ligated mice. However, helicid (400 mg kg-1) given at 21:00 hours did not change the sleep pattern in normal mice. Immunohistochemical study showed that helicid (400 mg kg-1) administration could reverse the increase of c-Fos expression in the neurons of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and tuberomammillary nucleus, and the decrease of c-Fos expression in the ventrolateral preoptic area caused by partial sciatic nerve ligation. These results indicate that helicid is an effective agent for both neuropathic pain and sleep disturbances in partial sciatic nerve ligated mice.
- Sleep and Cognitive Abnormalities in Acute Minor Thalamic Infarction. [Journal Article]Neurosci Bull 2016; 32(4):341-8NB
- In order to characterize sleep and the cognitive patterns in patients with acute minor thalamic infarction (AMTI), we enrolled 27 patients with AMTI and 12 matched healthy individuals. Questionnaires about sleep and cognition as well as polysomnography (PSG) were performed on days 14 and 90 post-stroke. Compared to healthy controls, in patients with AMTI, hyposomnia was more prevalent; sleep arch…
In order to characterize sleep and the cognitive patterns in patients with acute minor thalamic infarction (AMTI), we enrolled 27 patients with AMTI and 12 matched healthy individuals. Questionnaires about sleep and cognition as well as polysomnography (PSG) were performed on days 14 and 90 post-stroke. Compared to healthy controls, in patients with AMTI, hyposomnia was more prevalent; sleep architecture was disrupted as indicated by decreased sleep efficiency, increased sleep latency, and decreased non-rapid eye movement sleep stages 2 and 3; more sleep-related breathing disorders occurred; and cognitive functions were worse, especially memory. While sleep apnea and long-delay memory recovered to a large extent in the patients, other sleep and cognitive function deficit often persisted. Patients with AMTI are at an increased risk for hyposomnia, sleep structure disturbance, sleep apnea, and memory deficits. Although these abnormalities improved over time, the slow and incomplete improvement suggest that early management should be considered in these patients.
- Angelman syndrome: a case series assessing neurological issues in adulthood. [Journal Article]Eur Neurol 2015; 73(1-2):119-25EN
- CONCLUSIONS: A retrospective analysis of data from six adults patients with clinical, electroencephalographic and genetic confirmation of AS was performed. Movement disorders of the hands and mouth, laughing spells, severe expressive speech disorders, a happy nature, hyposomnia and anxiety are the major neurological characteristics of AS in adulthood. Cerebellar ataxia, muscle hypotonia and tremor, though constant in childhood, tend to be attenuated in adulthood. Epilepsy, one of the most frequent symptoms in childhood and in adulthood, is characterised by specific electroencephalographic patterns. Key Messages: These clinical characteristics are important to improve the clinical awareness and genetic diagnosis of AS. Clinicians must be better informed concerning the adult phenotype as it is not well described in the literature. We stress the importance of AS as one of the main causes of intractable epilepsy. The authors suggest frontal and cerebellar dysfunction. Further functional cerebral imaging studies are necessary.
- Using the test of variables of attention to determine the effectiveness of modafinil in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a prospective methylphenidate-controlled trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]J Child Neurol 2012; 27(12):1547-52JC
- The efficacy of modafinil in comparison with methylphenidate in treatment of pediatric attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been thoroughly investigated. This study compared the effect of modafinil versus methylphenidate on continuous attention task in children with ADHD, using the Test of Variables of Attention. Twenty-eight participants completed a baseline test followed by a…
The efficacy of modafinil in comparison with methylphenidate in treatment of pediatric attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been thoroughly investigated. This study compared the effect of modafinil versus methylphenidate on continuous attention task in children with ADHD, using the Test of Variables of Attention. Twenty-eight participants completed a baseline test followed by administration of a single dose of either methylphenidate or modafinil, after which the test was repeated. The test was performed a third time, after each subject received a dose of the medication not previously administered. Comparison of scores showed mean baseline, postmethylphenidate, and postmodafinil scores of -2.04, 0.017, and 0.09, respectively. No difference was found between improvements observed with either medication (P < .05). Adverse events for both agents were mild and self-limited, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and hyposomnia. The authors conclude that modafinil is as effective as methylphenidate; however, a larger scale long-term study is required to confirm these results.
- [Effect of Tianwang Buxin decoction or Tianwang Buxin without Radix platycodi decoction on brain neurotransmitter of rats hyposomnia model]. [Journal Article]Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2009; 34(2):217-23ZZ
- CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism of hypnosis action lie in enhancement of releasing 5-HT in encephalic regions for the Tianwang Buxin whole prescription decoction, but it's possible that radix platycodi may be the key point that adjusts the additional quantity.
- [Olfactory acuity and improvement of olfaction after total laryngectomy]. [Journal Article]Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2005; 40(7):536-40ZE
- CONCLUSIONS: The proceed hypofunction of olfaction may be influenced by the reform of respiratory air, the extinction of air velocity bypass the nasal cavity and the apoptosis of epithelial cells in the patients after total laryngectomy. But if we give an early intervention study such as tracheoesophageal fistula voice reconstruction and CNOAM, the olfactory function may be maintenance. During the intervention, the ending of olfactory nerves may be get uninterrupt stimulation. This may help the patients keep a better existing quality than those fail to accept the interventions.
- Counterpointing the functional role of the forebrain and of the brainstem in the control of the sleep-waking system. [Review]J Sleep Res 2004; 13(3):179-208JS
- This paper reviews the lifetime contributions of the author to the field of sleep-wakefulness (S-W), reinterprets results of the early studies, and suggests new conclusions and perspectives. Long-term cats with mesencephalic transection show behavioral/polygraphic rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), including the typical oculo-pupillary behavior, even when the section is performed in kittens prior t…
This paper reviews the lifetime contributions of the author to the field of sleep-wakefulness (S-W), reinterprets results of the early studies, and suggests new conclusions and perspectives. Long-term cats with mesencephalic transection show behavioral/polygraphic rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), including the typical oculo-pupillary behavior, even when the section is performed in kittens prior to S-W maturation. REMS can be induced as a reflex. Typical non-rapid eye movement S (NREMS) is absent and full W/arousal is present only after a precollicular section. The isolated forebrain (IF) rostral to the transection exhibits all features of W/arousal and NREMS [with electroencephalographic (EEG) spindles and delta waves], arousal to olfactory stimuli, and including the appropriate oculo-pupillary behaviors. These features also mature normally after neonatal transection. REMS is absent from the IF. After deprivation there is NREMS pressure and rebound in the IF, but the decerebrate cat only shows pressure for REMS. Most IF reactions to pharmacologic agents are within expectations, except for the tolerance/withdrawal effects of long-term morphine use which are absent. In contrast, these effects are supported by the brainstem (i.e. seen in the decerebrate cat). In cats with ablation of the telencephalon, or diencephalic cats, delta waves are absent in the thalamus. EEG thalamic spindle waves are seen triggering S for only 4-5 days after ablation. Therefore, true NREMS is absent in chronic diencephalic cats although pre- and postsomniac behaviors persist. These animals are hyperactive and show a pronounced, permanent insomnia; however, a low dose of barbiturate triggers a dramatic REMS/atypical NREMS rebound. Cats without the thalamus (athalamic cats), initially show a dissociation between behavioral hyperactivity/insomnia and the neocortical EEG, which for 15-20 days exhibits only delta and slower oscillations. Fast, low-voltage W rhythms appear later on, first during REMS, but spindle waves and S postures are absent from the start, such that these cats also display only atypical NREMS. Athalamic cats also show barbiturate-sensitive insomnia. Cats with ablation of the frontal cortices or the caudate nuclei remain permanently hyperactive. They also show a mild, but significant hyposomnia, which is permanent in afrontal cats, but lasts for about a month in acaudates. The polygraphic/behavioral features of their S-W states remain normal. We conclude and propose that: (a) the control of the S-W system is highly complex and distributed, but is organized hierarchically in a well-defined rostro-caudal manner; the rostral-most or highest level (telencephalon), is the most functionally complex/adaptative and regulates the lower levels; the diencephalic/basal forebrain, or middle level, has a pivotal role in inducing switching between S and W and in coordinating the lowest (brainstem) and highest levels; (b) W can occur independently in both the forebrain and brainstem, but true NREMS- and REMS-generating mechanisms exist exclusively in the forebrain and brainstem, respectively; (c) forebrain and brainstem S-W processes can operate independently from each other and are preprogrammed at birth; this helps understanding normal and abnormal polygraphic/behavioral dissociations in humans and normal dissociations/splitting in aquatic mammals; (d) NREMS homeostasis is present in the IF, but only REMS pressure after deprivation persists in the decerebrate cat; (e) the thalamus engages in both NREMS and W; (f) insomnia in diencephalic cats is the result of an imbalance between antagonistic W- and S-promoting cellular groups in the ventral brain (normally modulated by the telencephalon); (g) the EEG waves, which are signature for each S-W state, appear to truly drive the concomitant behaviors, e.g. a hypothetical human IF could alternate between behavioral NREMS and W/arousal/awareness; (h) a role for REMS is to keep the individual sleeping at the end of the self-limiting NREMS periods. The need for accelerating research on telencephaling NREMS periods. The need for accelerating research on telencephalic S-W processes and downstream control of the lower S-W system levels is emphasized.
- Recurrent hyper- and hyposomnia: a new diagnostic entity? Polysomnographic findings and a 30-year follow-up. [Journal Article]Sleep Med 2002; 3(1):15-20SM
- CONCLUSIONS: In this patient, the recurrent hypersomnia/hyposomnia episodes may have been based mainly on psychiatric factors.
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- Anatomical correlates of the lateral hypothalamic influence on waking-sleep relationship in the rat. [Journal Article]Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2000; 60(3):309-22AN
- Restricted electrolytic lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) evoke sleeplessness in the rat. The present study was aimed to analyze a possible anatomical substrate of the LH hyposomnia within the hypothalamus. In a group of electrolytically lesioned LH rats the intensity of sleep disturbances, assessed on the basis of EEG records from the neocortex and the hippocampus, was confronted with the…
Restricted electrolytic lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) evoke sleeplessness in the rat. The present study was aimed to analyze a possible anatomical substrate of the LH hyposomnia within the hypothalamus. In a group of electrolytically lesioned LH rats the intensity of sleep disturbances, assessed on the basis of EEG records from the neocortex and the hippocampus, was confronted with the localization and the extent of destruction of the LH area and with the topography of known fiber systems of the medical forebrain bundle (MFB). In separate experiments the effects of the destruction of LH cell bodies by means of bilateral ibotenic acid (IBO) injections and inhibition of LH neuronal elements by bilateral muscimol (MUSC) administration were also tested. It was found that pronounced hyposomnia follows electrolytic but not IBO lesions of the LH/MFB area. The effective LH damage might have been localized at every level of its antero-posterior axis, from the preoptic area up to the posterior hypothalamus, suggesting involvement of fiber system(s) rather than a localized group of neuronal pericaria. The most effective lesions transsected projections descending from the preoptic/anterior hypothalamic area, olfactory structures, ventral striatum and the central amygdaloid nucleus as well as fibers connecting LH with the brainstem reticular formation, many of them using GABA as a neurotransmitter. Bilateral MUSC injections caused a dose-dependent, bicuculline-reversible, increase in waking time, most pronounced at a dose of 50 ng, which ressembled the effect of the electrolytic lesion. These results indicate that LH hyposomnia is not attributable to the damage to the intrahypothalamic neurons and suggest the participation of GABA-ergic transmission in LH in waking-sleep regulation.