- The use of post-mortem lividity to determine sleep position in sudden unexpected deaths in infancy. [Journal Article]
- APActa Paediatr 2019 May 03
- CONCLUSIONS: Previously published odds ratios may have underestimated the risk of sudden infant death associated with prone sleep position. SUDI death scene investigation protocols should require photographic documentation of lividity prior to transporting an infant.
- Genetic analysis of suppressor mutants of a pho84 disruptant in the search for genes involved in intracellular inorganic phosphate sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. [Journal Article]
- GGGenes Genet Syst 2018 Dec 22; 93(5):199-207
- To achieve inorganic phosphate (Pi) homeostasis, cells must be able to sense intracellular and extracellular Pi concentrations. In the Pi signaling (PHO) pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, high Pi …
To achieve inorganic phosphate (Pi) homeostasis, cells must be able to sense intracellular and extracellular Pi concentrations. In the Pi signaling (PHO) pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, high Pi represses genes involved in Pi uptake (e.g., PHO84) and Pi utilization (PHO5); conversely, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Pho81 inhibits the activity of the Pho80-Pho85 cyclin-cyclin dependent kinase complex in low-Pi conditions, leading to induction of these genes. However, how yeast senses Pi availability remains unresolved. To identify factors involved in Pi sensing upstream of the Pho81-Pho80-Pho85 complex, we generated and screened suppressor mutants of a Δpho84 strain that shows constitutive PHO5 expression. By a series of genetic tests, including dominance-recessiveness, complementation and tetrad analyses, three sef (suppressor of pho84 [pho eighty-four]) mutants (sef8, sef9 and sef10) were shown to contain a novel single mutation. The sef mutants suppressed the phenotype of constitutive PHO5 expression at the transcriptional level, but did not show restored Pi uptake capacity. An epistasis-hypostasis test revealed that the sef mutations were hypostatic to pho80 mutation, indicating that their gene products function upstream of the Pho81-Pho80-Pho85 complex in the PHO pathway. The sef mutations identified are associated with gene(s) that may be involved in the homeostasis of an intracellular Pi level-sensing mechanism in S. cerevisiae.
- Lung weight estimation with postmortem CT in forensic cases. [Journal Article]
- LMLeg Med (Tokyo) 2018; 35:61-65
- Postmortem computed tomography (CT) is a minimally invasive technique to examine internal organs before a forensic autopsy. The purpose of our study was to estimate lung weight in a forensic setting …
Postmortem computed tomography (CT) is a minimally invasive technique to examine internal organs before a forensic autopsy. The purpose of our study was to estimate lung weight in a forensic setting in cases of various lung states, including fluid accumulation (congestion, edema, hypostasis, and inflammation etc.) using postmortem CT. From January 2016 to July 2018, 111 deceased bodies (62 males and 59 females, aged from 18 to 95 (average 59.6) years) were examined by CT before autopsy. Both lungs of the 111 deceased were analyzed separately, making it a total of 222 samples. We extracted lung fields from CT images manually after semi-automatic detection using an image workstation. The total lung volume and 6 categories of lung volume divided according to their CT density were measured. Multiple regression analysis was performed with lung weight in autopsy as the response variable, while the 6 categories were labelled as explanatory variables. The relation between lung weight in autopsy and lung weight estimated using postmortem CT showed a high Pearson's correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9106). Using postmortem CT, the lung weight can be estimated in forensic settings.
- Investigation into the potential for post-mortem formation of carboxyhemoglobin in bodies retrieved from fires. [Journal Article]
- FSForensic Sci Med Pathol 2018; 14(3):342-348
- The forensic investigation of a deceased person retrieved following a fire includes measuring carboxyhemoglobin. A carboxyhemoglobin saturation above 10% is considered indicative of respiration durin…
The forensic investigation of a deceased person retrieved following a fire includes measuring carboxyhemoglobin. A carboxyhemoglobin saturation above 10% is considered indicative of respiration during a fire, implying the person had been alive. This relies on the assumption that carbon monoxide will not diffuse into blood used for toxicological analysis. This project investigated the potential for carbon monoxide to passively diffuse into a body and if carboxyhemoglobin levels could become elevated post-mortem. Stillborn piglets with intact skin were exposed to carbon monoxide. Carboxyhemoglobin formed in the hypostasis of the skin, but carboxyhemoglobin levels in blood from the heart and chest cavities were not significantly elevated. However, defects in the skin over body cavities (producing breaches to replicate cases with stab wounds or heat damage) resulted in cavity blood carboxyhemoglobin levels above 10%. A review of fire death cases in South Australia 2000-2015 was performed to determine the origin of the blood samples used for toxicological analysis and the incidence of cases with breaches of body cavities. This revealed a small number of cases in which blood from the cavities had been analyzed when cavity breaches were present. Thus, there is a potential for significant elevation of carboxyhemoglobin saturation post-mortem in forensic casework involving bodies retrieved from fires.
- Increased Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Are Correlated with Eosinophilic Granulocytes in Patients with Allergic Airway Inflammation. [Journal Article]
- IAInt Arch Allergy Immunol 2018; 176(2):124-132
- The T helper 2 (Th2)-type response was considered the hypostasis of allergic airway diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR). However, more recent studies have suggested that allergic ai…
The T helper 2 (Th2)-type response was considered the hypostasis of allergic airway diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR). However, more recent studies have suggested that allergic airway inflammation also depends on innate immunity and is closely related to group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). This study evaluated the ILC2 levels of asthma subjects, patients with asthma and AR, and healthy individuals, regarding how to investigate the relationship between clinical data and ILC2 levels. It was found that asthma patients and asthma with AR patients had higher ILC2 levels compared to healthy subjects. ILC2s were positively correlated with the percentage of eosinophils in patients with asthma and AR, but not with pulmonary function. ILC2 levels were higher in mild asthma subjects than in patients with severe asthma. This study provides a new interpretation of the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation and may provide a new direction for the diagnosis and assessment of allergic airway diseases.
- Intra-Abdominal Hemorrhage Complicating Electrothermal Arterial Injury During Pelvic Surgery: A Case Report. [Case Reports]
- AJAm J Forensic Med Pathol 2017; 38(4):362-366
- Iatrogenic vascular injury is a potentially serious complication of surgical procedures. Here we report a case of delayed fatal intra-abdominal hemorrhage because of electrocautery injury of a right …
Iatrogenic vascular injury is a potentially serious complication of surgical procedures. Here we report a case of delayed fatal intra-abdominal hemorrhage because of electrocautery injury of a right external iliac artery. The decedent, a 31-year-old woman, died suddenly on postoperative day 1 after a laparoscopic staging operation for an ovarian tumor. Her past medical history included a recent diagnosis of a microinvasive carcinoma in the background of a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the right ovary. Postmortem examination revealed a young woman with evidence of emergency intervention, recent laparoscopic pelvic surgery, and pale hypostasis limited to the back surfaces of the body. The internal examination confirmed the postmortem computed tomography findings of a large amount of blood in the pelvic and abdominal cavities and evidence of recent surgical intervention. The soft tissues around the aorta and major pelvic vessels showed electrocautery change and marked perivascular hemorrhage preferentially surrounding the right external iliac artery. Histological examination of the vascular bundle showed an electrocautery injury of the arterial wall: transmural necrosis, acute inflammation, and hemorrhage. In this report, we offer an approach to a postmortem examination in postoperative deaths with emphasis on deaths due to iatrogenic vascular injuries and discuss the rationale for determining the manner of death.
- Effects of Solid Fraction on Droplet Wetting and Vapor Condensation: A Molecular Dynamic Simulation Study. [Journal Article]
- LLangmuir 2017 10 31; 33(43):12379-12388
- Recently, numerous studies focused on the wetting process of droplets on various surfaces at a microscale level. However, there are a limited number of studies about the mechanism of condensation on …
Recently, numerous studies focused on the wetting process of droplets on various surfaces at a microscale level. However, there are a limited number of studies about the mechanism of condensation on patterned surfaces. The present study performed the dynamic wetting behavior of water droplets and condensation process of water molecules on substrates with different pillar structure parameters, through molecular dynamic simulation. The dynamic wetting results indicated that droplets exhibit Cassie state, PW state, and Wenzel state successively on textured surfaces with decreasing solid fraction. The droplets possess a higher static contact angle and a smaller spreading exponent on textured surfaces than those on smooth surfaces. The condensation processes, including the formation, growth, and coalescence of a nanodroplet, are simulated and quantitatively recorded, which are difficult to be observed by experiments. In addition, a wetting transition and a dewetting transition were observed and analyzed in condensation on textured surfaces. Combining these simulation results with previous theoretical and experimental studies will guide us to understand the hypostasis and mechanism of the condensation more clearly.
- The East, the West and the universal machine. [Review]
- PBProg Biophys Mol Biol 2017; 131:251-260
- After reviewing the basic of theology of Universal Numbers/Machines, as detailed in Marchal (2007), I illustrate how that body of thought might be used to shed some light upon the apparent dichotomy …
After reviewing the basic of theology of Universal Numbers/Machines, as detailed in Marchal (2007), I illustrate how that body of thought might be used to shed some light upon the apparent dichotomy in Eastern/Western spirituality. This paper relies entirely on my previous interdisciplinary work in mathematical logic, computer science and machine's theology, where "theology" is used here in the sense of Plato: it is the truth, or the "truth-theory" (in the sense of logicians) about a machine that the machine can either deduce from some of its primitive beliefs, or can be intuited in some sense that eventually is made clear through the modal logic of machine self-reference. Such a theology appears to be testable, because it has been shown that physics has to be necessarily retrieved from it when we assume the mechanist hypothesis in the cognitive sciences, and this in a unique precise (introspective) way, so that we only need to compare the physics of the introspective machine with the physics inferred from the human observation; and up to now, it is the only theory known to fit both the existence of personal "consciousness" (undoubtable yet unjustifiable truth) and quanta and quantum relationships (Marchal, 1998; Marchal, 2004; Marchal, 2013; Marchal, 2015).
- Suicide patterns in children and adolescents: a review from a pediatric institution in England. [Review]
- FSForensic Sci Med Pathol 2017; 13(2):115-122
- Suicide is a catastrophic event to both families and communities yet it is potentially preventable. This study aims to determine incidence and patterns of suicide in children and young adolescents in…
Suicide is a catastrophic event to both families and communities yet it is potentially preventable. This study aims to determine incidence and patterns of suicide in children and young adolescents in our region, raise awareness of this entity as a potentially preventable cause of death in this age group, and identify its possible associated risk factors. We retrospectively reviewed suicide cases presenting as sudden unexpected death in children and adolescents that underwent coronial post-mortems at our institution. This is the largest pathological review of completed suicide in children and young adolescents within a single institution in the United Kingdom. We identified 23 suicide cases during a 12 year period from 2003 to 2015, in which 18 cases (78%) were male and 5 cases (22%) were female. The age range was from 8 to 16 years (mean age 12.82 +/- 2.52 SD). With the exception of one case, all of the victims were Caucasian. The majority, 19 cases (81%), were found dead inside their place of residence, 15 of whom were discovered in their own bedrooms. Twenty-one cases (91%) died from neck compression due to hanging; 6 cases (26%) had used the cord of a dressing gown and 5 (22%) opted to use a belt as the ligature. Two cases (9%) that died from multiple-drug toxicity were female. In 7 cases (30.5%) there was evidence of self-harm and in 3 cases (13%) there was a history of previous suicide attempts. Petechial hemorrhages were found at autopsy in more than half of hanging victims and only three cases (14%) displayed dual distribution of post-mortem hypostasis (back and legs). Seven victims (30.5%) left some form of suicide message to family members and friends, 2 of which wrote the message on their arm. Parental separation, conflict with parents, and depression, were common amongst decedents prior to committing suicide. Substance abuse was uncommon in suicide within our cases. Valuable information is available from thorough review of suicide data in children and young adolescents from a single institution. Pathologists and clinicians can play crucial roles in identifying potential risk factors that may contribute to prevent future deaths.
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- Experimental drowning lung images on postmortem CT - Difference between sea water and fresh water. [Journal Article]
- LMLeg Med (Tokyo) 2016; 19:11-5
- CONCLUSIONS: There were no differences among FRESH, SEA, and ACC in %ALV within 24h. Only ground-glass opacity could be detected on postmortem lung CT, experimentally.