- Self-control is linked to interoceptive inference: Craving regulation and the prediction of aversive interoceptive states induced with inspiratory breathing load. [Journal Article]
- CCognition 2019 Jul 19; 193:104028
- The interoceptive inference framework suggests that our brain continuously anticipates future states of our body and aims to avoid events that might counteract homeostasis by minimizing prediction er…
The interoceptive inference framework suggests that our brain continuously anticipates future states of our body and aims to avoid events that might counteract homeostasis by minimizing prediction errors through active inference; e.g. appropriate actions. If predicted interoceptive models are inaccurate, behavior inconsistent with our long-term homeostatic goals may result; e.g. in failures in self-control. Using a within-subject design including an inspiratory breathing-load task to examine the prediction of aversive interoceptive perturbation and a craving-regulation for palatable foods task, we examined the relationship between self-control and aversive interoceptive predictive models. Those individuals (n = 51 healthy individuals from the general population) who were more accurate in predicting their interoceptive state with respect to anticipated versus experienced dyspnea were significantly more effective in the down-regulation of craving using negative future-thinking strategies. These individuals also scored higher on a measure of trait self-control, i.e. self-regulation to achieve long-term goals. Thus, individuals with more accurate predictive interoceptive models are better able to modulate cravings and thus exert better self-control.
- Novel technologies for heart rate assessment during neonatal resuscitation at birth - A systematic review. [Review]
- RResuscitation 2019 Jul 19
- CONCLUSIONS: While electrocardiography is faster to assess HR at birth and more reliable to detect HR changes compared to other recommended technologies, practice should not exclusively rely on ECG. While novel technologies could support HR assessment, no studies validate their clinical efficacy during neonatal resuscitation.
- Issues associated with medical tourism for cancer care in Japan. [Journal Article]
- JJJpn J Clin Oncol 2019 Apr 26
- CONCLUSIONS: Medical tourism raises various issues. Institutional and medical staff should be adequately prepared by developing working systems.
- Structured override reasons for drug-drug interaction alerts in electronic health records. [Journal Article]
- JAMIAJ Am Med Inform Assoc 2019 Apr 26
- CONCLUSIONS: We found wide variability in override reasons between sites and many opportunities to improve alerts. Some override reasons were irrelevant to DDIs. Many override reasons attested to a future action (eg, decreasing a dose or ordering monitoring tests), which requires an additional step after the alert is overridden, unless the alert is made actionable. Some override reasons deferred to another party, although override reasons often are not visible to other users. Many override reasons stated that the alert was inaccurate, suggesting that specificity of alerts could be improved.Organizations should improve the options available to providers who choose to override DDI alerts. DDI alerting systems should be actionable and alerts should be tailored to the patient and drug pairs.
- Investigation of the validity of two Bayesian ancestral state reconstruction models for estimating Salmonella transmission during outbreaks. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0214169
- Ancestral state reconstruction models use genetic data to characterize a group of organisms' common ancestor. These models have been applied to salmonellosis outbreaks to estimate the number of trans…
Ancestral state reconstruction models use genetic data to characterize a group of organisms' common ancestor. These models have been applied to salmonellosis outbreaks to estimate the number of transmissions between different animal species that share similar geographical locations, with animal host as the state. However, as far as we are aware, no studies have validated these models for outbreak analysis. In this study, salmonellosis outbreaks were simulated using a stochastic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model, and the host population and transmission parameters of these simulated outbreaks were estimated using Bayesian ancestral state reconstruction models (discrete trait analysis (DTA) and structured coalescent (SC)). These models were unable to accurately estimate the number of transmissions between the host populations or the amount of time spent in each host population. The DTA model was inaccurate because it assumed the number of isolates sampled from each host population was proportional to the number of individuals infected within each host population. The SC model was inaccurate possibly because it assumed that each host population's effective population size was constant over the course of the simulated outbreaks. This study highlights the need for phylodynamic models that can take into consideration factors that influence the characteristics and behavior of outbreaks, e.g. changing effective population sizes, variation in infectious periods, intra-population transmissions, and disproportionate sampling of infected individuals.
- Per-sample immunoglobulin germline inference from B cell receptor deep sequencing data. [Journal Article]
- PCPLoS Comput Biol 2019 Jul 22; 15(7):e1007133
- The collection of immunoglobulin genes in an individual's germline, which gives rise to B cell receptors via recombination, is known to vary significantly across individuals. In humans, for example, …
The collection of immunoglobulin genes in an individual's germline, which gives rise to B cell receptors via recombination, is known to vary significantly across individuals. In humans, for example, each individual has only a fraction of the several hundred known V alleles. Furthermore, the currently-accepted set of known V alleles is both incomplete (particularly for non-European samples), and contains a significant number of spurious alleles. The resulting uncertainty as to which immunoglobulin alleles are present in any given sample results in inaccurate B cell receptor sequence annotations, and in particular inaccurate inferred naive ancestors. In this paper we first show that the currently widespread practice of aligning each sequence to its closest match in the full set of IMGT alleles results in a very large number of spurious alleles that are not in the sample's true set of germline V alleles. We then describe a new method for inferring each individual's germline gene set from deep sequencing data, and show that it improves upon existing methods by making a detailed comparison on a variety of simulated and real data samples. This new method has been integrated into the partis annotation and clonal family inference package, available at https://github.com/psathyrella/partis, and is run by default without affecting overall run time.
- Smartphone-Based Analysis of Urine Reagent Strips Is Inaccurate for Assessing Underhydration. [Journal Article]
- TJTelemed J E Health 2019 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: The uChek© application does not accurately detect underhydration.
- Guess who? On the importance of using appropriate name: case study of Marphysasanguinea (Montagu, 1813). [Journal Article]
- ZZookeys 2019; 859:1-15
- The common bait worm Marphysasanguinea (Montagu, 1813), originally described from the south coast of England, is the type species of the genus. This species has been widely reported from all around t…
The common bait worm Marphysasanguinea (Montagu, 1813), originally described from the south coast of England, is the type species of the genus. This species has been widely reported from all around the world and has been considered as cosmopolitan until recently. This is partly because the original description was very brief and poorly illustrated, and also because all species superficially look similar. In order to clarify the situation, M.sanguinea was redescribed and a neotype was designated by Hutchings and Karageorgpoulos in 2003. Recently, specimens from Cornwall, close to the type locality, were sampled, examined morphologically, and used to obtain COI gene sequences for this species. Molecular results permitted us to confirm the identity and presence of M.sanguinea along the French coasts and to highlight the presence of inaccurate sequences of this species on GenBank. Use of this "false" cosmopolitan species at a worldwide scale by many biologists is also discussed in this paper.
- Children's selective trust: When a group majority is confronted with past accuracy. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Dev Psychol 2019 Jul 20
- In two experiments, 3- to 5-year-old children were tested for their preferences when seeking and accepting information about novel animals. In Experiment 1, children watched as two adults named unfam…
In two experiments, 3- to 5-year-old children were tested for their preferences when seeking and accepting information about novel animals. In Experiment 1, children watched as two adults named unfamiliar animals - one adult was predominantly accurate, whereas the other was predominantly inaccurate, as judged by a teacher. In a subsequent test phase, participants viewed additional unfamiliar animals and were invited to endorse one of two conflicting names. Either the predominantly accurate or the predominantly inaccurate adult proposed one name, whereas a majority of three unfamiliar adults proposed the other name. Children were more likely to endorse the predominantly accurate adult as compared to the majority but showed no significant preference for the predominantly inaccurate adult as compared to the majority. In Experiment 2, participants watched two adults correctly name three familiar animals, but only one named three additional unfamiliar animals whereas the other expressed uncertainty. On subsequent test trials, children preferred the apparently well-informed adult to the less-informed adult but, contrary to the results of Experiment 1, children preferred the information provided by a majority instead of the apparently well-informed adult. The implications of these results are discussed in the light of previous research on children's selective trust in an accurate informant as compared to a consensus. Statement of contribution What is already known on the subject? Young children monitor past accuracy and use this epistemic cue to decide whom to trust; Children are receptive to information coming from a consensus; Non-epistemic cues, such as familiarity and accent, also influence children's deference What does this study adds? Children favour a dissenter over a majority if the dissenter's past accuracy has been publicly highlighted. They favour a majority if a dissenter's past accuracy has not been publicly highlighted. A confident informant is preferred to a hesitant informant.
New Search Next
- Effects of neuromuscular blockade reversal on bispectral index and frontal electromyogram during steady-state desflurane anesthesia: a randomized trial. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 19; 9(1):10486
- The degree of neuromuscular blockade reversal may affect bispectral index (BIS) value. One possible reason is that the reverse of neuromuscular blockade affects electromyographic (EMG) signals of fas…
The degree of neuromuscular blockade reversal may affect bispectral index (BIS) value. One possible reason is that the reverse of neuromuscular blockade affects electromyographic (EMG) signals of fascial muscle. Another reason is, the afferentation theory, the reverse of neuromuscular blockade relieves block signals generated in muscle stretch receptors from accessing the brain through afferent nerve pathways and induces arousal. Inaccurate BIS value may lead to overdose of drugs or the risk of intraoperative awareness. We compared changes in BIS and EMG values according to neuromuscular blockade reversal agents under steady-state desflurane anesthesia. A total of 65 patients were randomly allocated to receive either neostigmine 0.05 mg/kg, sugammadex 4 mg/kg, or pyridostigmine 0.25 mg/kg for neuromuscular blockade reversal under stable desflurane anesthesia, and 57 patients completed the study. The primary outcome was change in BIS and EMG values before and after administration of neuromuscular blockade reversal agents (between train-of-four [TOF] count 1-2 and TOF ratio 0.9). The change in BIS and EMG values before and after administration of neuromuscular blockade reversal agents were statistically different in each group (BIS: Neostigmine group, P < 0.001; Sugammadex group, P < 0.001; Pyridostigmine group, P = 0.001; EMG: Neostigmine group, P = 0.001; Sugammadex group, P < 0.001; Pyridostigmine group, P = 0.001; respectively). The BIS and EMG values had a positive correlation (P < 0.001). Our results demonstrate that the EMG and BIS values have increased after neuromuscular blockade reversal under desflurane anesthesia regardless of the type of neuromuscular blockade reversal agent. BIS should be applied carefully to measure of depth of anesthesia after neuromuscular blockade reversal.