- Klotho restrain RIG-1/NF-κB signaling activation and monocyte inflammatory factor release under uremic condition. [Journal Article]
- LSLife Sci 2019 Jun 14; :116570
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that Klotho can suppress CKD-associated systemic inflammation through inhibiting IS-induced RIG-1/NF-κB activation and monocyte inflammatory factor release.
- Performance evaluation of an Indoxyl Sulfate Assay Kit "NIPRO". [Journal Article]
- CCClin Chem Lab Med 2019 Jun 07
- Background The relationship between renal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently known as cardiorenal syndrome. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is one of the uremic toxins that accelerates the pr…
Background The relationship between renal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently known as cardiorenal syndrome. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is one of the uremic toxins that accelerates the progression of cardiorenal syndrome. This report presents a new method for measuring IS in a simpler way. Methods We evaluated the analytical performance of an IS Assay Kit "NIPRO" loaded on LABOSPECT 008. The evaluated analytical performances included accuracy, precision, dilution linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), recovery test, interference test and comparison against assays performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results Total precision showed a <5.3% coefficient of variation at IS concentrations of 3.57-277.73 μmol/L, and satisfactory results were observed in the dilution linearity, LOD, LOQ, recovery and interference tests. The IS Assay Kit "NIPRO" showed a high correlation with the HPLC conventional method (r = 0.993). Conclusions The IS Assay Kit "NIPRO" demonstrated satisfactory analytical performance, and this suggests it could shortly become another common method to measure circulating IS.
- Indoxyl Sulfate Induces Renal Fibroblast Activation through a Targetable Heat Shock Protein 90-Dependent Pathway. [Journal Article]
- OMOxid Med Cell Longev 2019; 2019:2050183
- Indoxyl sulfate (IS) accumulation occurs early during chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and contributes to renal dysfunction by inducing fibrosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and tissue re…
Indoxyl sulfate (IS) accumulation occurs early during chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and contributes to renal dysfunction by inducing fibrosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and tissue remodeling. Renal toxicity of high IS concentrations (250 μM) has been widely explored, particularly in resident tubular and glomerular cells, while the effect of a moderate IS increase on kidneys is still mostly unknown. To define the effects of IS accumulation on renal fibroblasts, we first analyzed kidneys of C57BL/6 mice receiving IS (0.1%) in drinking water for 12 weeks. As a next step, we treated renal fibroblasts (NRK-49F) with IS (20 μM) with or without the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG (1 μM). In mouse kidneys, IS increased the collagen deposition and HSP90 and α-SMA expression (immunohistochemistry) in interstitial fibroblasts and caused tubular necrosis (histological H&E and picrosirius red staining). In NRK-49F cells, IS induced MCP1, TGF-β, collagen I, α-SMA, and HSP90 gene/protein expression and Smad2/3 pathway activation. IS had no effects on fibroblast proliferation and ROS production. 17-AAG counteracted IS-induced MCP1, TGF-β, collagen I, and α-SMA expression and Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Our study demonstrates that the IS increase promotes renal fibroblast activation by a HSP90-dependent pathway and indicates HSP90 inhibition as a potential strategy to restrain IS-induced kidney inflammation and fibrosis in CKD.
- Metabolic route computation in organism communities. [Journal Article]
- MMicrobiome 2019 Jun 07; 7(1):89
- CONCLUSIONS: Our tool quickly found plausible routes for the discussed multi-organism route-finding problems. The routes shed light on how diverse organisms cooperate to perform multi-step metabolic transformations. Our tool enables scientists to consider multiple alternative routes and identifies the organisms responsible for each reaction.
- Methionine restriction delays senescence and suppresses the senescence-associated secretory phenotype in the kidney through endogenous hydrogen sulfide. [Journal Article]
- CCCell Cycle 2019 Jun 05; :1-15
- Aging is a risk factor for various acute and chronic kidney injuries. Kidney aging is accompanied by the secretion of growth factors, proteases, and inflammatory cytokines, known as the senescence-as…
Aging is a risk factor for various acute and chronic kidney injuries. Kidney aging is accompanied by the secretion of growth factors, proteases, and inflammatory cytokines, known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). These factors accelerate the aging process and senescence-associated changes. Delaying kidney senescence may prevent acute and chronic kidney injury. Methionine restriction (MR) was found to be an effective intervention for delaying senescence. However, the mechanism of MR remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of MR on the survival rate and renal aging of C57BL/6 mice and examined the relevant mechanisms. MR increased the survival rate and decreased the levels of senescence markers in the aging kidney. Both in vivo and in vitro, MR upregulated the transsulfuration pathway to increase H2S production, downregulated senescence markers and the SASP, and activated AMPK. The ability of MR to delay aging was reduced when AMPK was inhibited. These results suggest that MR may slow animal aging and kidney senescence through H2S production and AMPK pathway activation. Abbreviations: DR: diet restriction; MR: methionine restriction; SASP: senescence-associated secretory phenotype; AL: ad libitum; CKD, chronic kidney disease; AKI: acute kidney disease; TSP: transsulfuration pathway; CGL: cystathionine g-lyase; H2S: hydrogen sulfide; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin; IS: indoxyl sulfate; CC: compound C.
- The brown fat-secreted adipokine neuregulin 4 is decreased in human and murine chronic kidney disease. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Endocrinol 2019 May 01
- CONCLUSIONS: Circulating Nrg4 is independently associated with a preserved renal function and mNrg4 mRNA expression is reduced in adipose tissue depots of mice with DKD. The BAT-secreted adipokine is further associated with a beneficial glucose and lipid profile supporting Nrg4 as potential treatment target in metabolic and renal disease states.
- Very Low Protein Diet for Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Recent Insights. [Review]
- JCJ Clin Med 2019 May 20; 8(5)
- Use of nutritional therapy (NT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is still debated among nephrologists, but it represents a fundamental point in the conservative treatment of CKD. It has been …
Use of nutritional therapy (NT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is still debated among nephrologists, but it represents a fundamental point in the conservative treatment of CKD. It has been used for years and it has new goals today, such as (1) the reduction of edema, diuretics, and blood pressure values with a low sodium-content diet; (2) the dose reduction of phosphate levels and phosphate binders; (3) the administration of bicarbonate with vegetables in order to correct metabolic acidosis and delay CKD progression; (4) the reduction of the number and the doses of drugs and chemical substances; and (5) the lowering of urea levels, the cure of intestinal microbioma, and the reduction of cyanates levels (such as indoxyl-sulphate and p-cresol sulphate), which are the most recent known advantages achievable with NT. In conclusion, NT and especially very low protein diet (VLPD) have several beneficial effects in CKD patients and slows the progression of CKD.
- The Effect of Sevelamer on Serum Levels of Gut-Derived Uremic Toxins: Results from In Vitro Experiments and A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial. [Journal Article]
- TToxins (Basel) 2019 May 17; 11(5)
- High serum levels of gut-derived uremic toxins, especially p-cresyl sulfate (pCS), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and indole acetic acid (IAA), have been linked to adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kid…
High serum levels of gut-derived uremic toxins, especially p-cresyl sulfate (pCS), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and indole acetic acid (IAA), have been linked to adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sevelamer carbonate could represent an interesting option to limit the elevation of gut-derived uremic toxins. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adsorptive effect of sevelamer carbonate on different gut-derived protein-bound uremic toxins or their precursors in vitro, and its impact on the serum levels of pCS, IS and IAA in patients with CKD stage 3b/4. For the in vitro experiments, IAA, p-cresol (precursor of pCS) and indole (precursor of IS), each at a final concentration of 1 or 10 µg/mL, were incubated in centrifugal 30 kDa filter devices with 3 or 15 mg/mL sevelamer carbonate in phosphate-buffered saline at a pH adjusted to 6 or 8. Then, samples were centrifuged and free uremic toxins in the filtrates were analyzed. As a control experiment, the adsorption of phosphate was also evaluated. Additionally, patients with stage 3b/4 CKD (defined as an eGFR between 15 and 45 mL/min per 1.73 m2) were included in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. The participants received either placebo or sevelamer carbonate (4.8 g) three times a day for 12 weeks. The concentrations of the toxins and their precursors were measured using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with a diode array detector. In vitro, regardless of the pH and concentration tested, sevelamer carbonate did not show adsorption of indole and p-cresol. Conversely, with 10 µg/mL IAA, use of a high concentration of sevelamer carbonate (15 mg/mL) resulted in a significant toxin adsorption both at pH 8 (mean reduction: 26.3 ± 3.4%) and pH 6 (mean reduction: 38.7 ± 1.7%). In patients with CKD stage 3b/4, a 12-week course of treatment with sevelamer carbonate was not associated with significant decreases in serum pCS, IS and IAA levels (median difference to baseline levels: -0.12, 0.26 and -0.06 µg/mL in the sevelamer group vs. 1.97, 0.38 and 0.05 µg/mL in the placebo group, respectively). Finally, in vitro, sevelamer carbonate was capable of chelating a gut-derived uremic toxin IAA but not p-cresol and indole, the precursors of pCS and IS in the gut. In a well-designed clinical study of patients with stage 3b/4 CKD, a 12-week course of treatment with sevelamer carbonate was not associated with significant changes in the serum concentrations of pCS, IS and IAA.
- Specific Urinary Metabolites in Malignant Melanoma. [Journal Article]
- MMedicina (Kaunas) 2019 May 16; 55(5)
- CONCLUSIONS: HPLC detection of metabolites of L-tyrosine and tryptophan in the urine of melanoma patients may play a significant role in diagnostics as well as a therapeutic strategy of melanoma cancer.
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- Indoxyl Sulfate-Induced Extracellular Vesicles Released from Endothelial Cells Stimulate Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Inducing Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Production. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vasc Res 2019 May 14; :1-10
- Vascular access stenosis predominantly occurs as a result of neointimal hyperplasia (NH) formation at the anastomosis. Moreover, in the presence of NH, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) promote…
Vascular access stenosis predominantly occurs as a result of neointimal hyperplasia (NH) formation at the anastomosis. Moreover, in the presence of NH, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) promotes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by endothelial cells are closely associated with vascular dysfunction. Here, we investigated the effects of EVs on TGF-β signaling and VSMC proliferation. Specifically, EVs were collected from the culture medium of indoxyl sulfate (IS)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells and used (2 × 106) to stimulate human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) (1 × 106). Western blotting was performed to assess the levels of Akt, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Smad3. BrdU proliferation assays, quantitative PCR, and ELISA assays were performed to evaluate SMC proliferation and TGF-β production. The IS-induced EVs stimulated the proliferation of aortic SMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. The EVs both contained TGF-β and promoted TGF-β production by SMCs by phosphorylating Akt, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Smad3, which was significantly inhibited by an anti-TGF-β antibody. SMC proliferation was suppressed by both an anti-TGF-β antibody and inhibitors of the downstream factors. These results suggest that EVs are involved in the pathogenesis of vascular access stenosis by modulating TGF-β signaling in VSMCs under uremic conditions.