- Abnormal involuntary movement scale in tardive dyskinesia: Minimal clinically important difference. [Journal Article]
- MDMov Disord 2019 Jun 24
- CONCLUSIONS: Results from an anchor-based method indicate that a 2-point decrease in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale total score may be considered clinically important. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- Role of sclerostin in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in mice and humans. [Journal Article]
- ECEndocr Connect 2019 Jun 01
- Glucocorticoids (GC) are used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including various forms of arthritis. However, their use is limited, amongst others, by adverse effects on bone. The Wnt and …
Glucocorticoids (GC) are used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including various forms of arthritis. However, their use is limited, amongst others, by adverse effects on bone. The Wnt and bone formation inhibitor sclerostin was recently implicated in the pathogenesis of GC-induced osteoporosis. However, data are ambiguous. The aim of this study was to assess the regulation of sclerostin by GC using several mouse models with high GC levels and two independent cohorts of patients treated with GC. Male 24-week-old C57BL/6 and 18-week-old DBA/1 mice exposed to GC and 12-week-old mice with endogenous hypercortisolism displayed reduced bone formation as indicated by reduced levels of P1NP and increased serum sclerostin levels. The expression of sclerostin in femoral bone tissue and GC-treated bone marrow stromal cells, however, was not consistently altered. In contrast, GC dose- and time-dependently suppressed sclerostin at mRNA and protein level in human mesenchymal stromal cells, and this effect was GC receptor-dependent. In line with the human cell culture data, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n=101) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR, n=21) who were exposed to GC had lower serum levels of sclerostin than healthy age- and sex-matched controls (-40%, p<0.01 and -26.5%, p<0.001, respectively). In summary, sclerostin appears to be differentially regulated by GC in mice and humans as it is suppressed by GCs in humans but is not consistently altered in mice. Further studies are required to delineate the differences between GC regulation of sclerostin in mice and humans and assess whether sclerostin mediates GC-induced osteoporosis in humans.
- Sugar production from bioenergy sorghum by using pilot scale continuous hydrothermal pretreatment combined with disk refining. [Journal Article]
- BTBioresour Technol 2019 Jun 18; 289:121663
- Chemical-free pretreatments are attracting increased interest because they generate less inhibitor in hydrolysates. In this study, pilot-scaled continuous hydrothermal (PCH) pretreatment followed by …
Chemical-free pretreatments are attracting increased interest because they generate less inhibitor in hydrolysates. In this study, pilot-scaled continuous hydrothermal (PCH) pretreatment followed by disk refining was evaluated and compared to laboratory-scale batch hot water (LHW) pretreatment. Bioenergy sorghum bagasse (BSB) was pretreated at 160-190 °C for 10 min with and without subsequent disk milling. Hydrothermal pretreatment and disk milling synergistically improved glucose and xylose release by 10-20% compared to hydrothermal pretreatment alone. Maximum yields of glucose and xylose of 82.55% and 70.78%, respectively were achieved, when BSB was pretreated at 190 °C and 180 °C followed by disk milling. LHW pretreated BSB had 5-15% higher sugar yields compared to PCH for all pretreatment conditions. The surface area improvement was also performed. PCH pretreatment combined with disk milling increased BSB surface area by 31.80-106.93%, which was greater than observed using LHW pretreatment.
- Discovery and structure-activity relationship of novel diphenylthiazole derivatives as BTK inhibitor with potent activity against B cell lymphoma cell lines. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2019 Jun 15; 178:767-781
- By the analysis of different binding modes with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), series of novel diphenylthiazole derivatives were rationally designed, synthesized and characterized. Biologically eval…
By the analysis of different binding modes with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), series of novel diphenylthiazole derivatives were rationally designed, synthesized and characterized. Biologically evaluation in biochemistry and cellular assay indicated that, compounds 5m, 5o, 6b, 6c, 6g, 6i, 7h, 7i, 7k, 7m, 7n, 7o and 7s exhibited improved potency against Ramos cell (IC50 = 1.36-8.60 μM) and Raji cell (IC50 = 1.20-14.04 μM) as compared with ibrutinib (IC50 = 14.69 and 15.99 μM, respectively). Especially, compounds 7m and 7n showed 10-time improved potency against Ramos cell viability over ibrutinib. Compound 6b improved 13-fold activity against Raji cell viability than ibrutinib. In addition, active compound 7o potently inhibited C481S mutant BTK with IC50 value of 0.061 μM. Apoptosis analysis of both Ramos and Raji cells indicated that 7o was remarkably more potent than CGI-1746 and ibrutinib. Compound 7o potently inhibited BTK Y223 phosphorylation in Raji cells, and arrested cell cycle progression in the G0/G1 phase in Raji and Ramos cells. This study expanded the structural diversity of BTK inhibitors and compound 7o was discovered as an active lead inhibitor with great potential for further studies.
- Protective effects of melatonin on sepsis-induced liver injury and dysregulation of gluconeogenesis in rats through activating SIRT1/STAT3 pathway. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2019 Jun 21; 117:109150
- Sepsis, a life-threatening disease with high morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, usually leads to serious complications including liver damage and dysregulated metabolic homoeostasis.…
Sepsis, a life-threatening disease with high morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, usually leads to serious complications including liver damage and dysregulated metabolic homoeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of melatonin in rats with caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, which mimics critical infections in humans and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received CLP surgery under anaesthesia to induce polymicrobial sepsis. Melatonin (20 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected every 12 h for 7 days after CLP, with or without intraperitoneal injection of the SIRT1 inhibitor EX527 (5 mg/kg). Markers of glucose metabolism, inflammation, liver function and associated signaling pathway were measured. Septic rats exhibited marked inhibition of the hepatic SIRT1/STAT3 pathway, along with increased blood glucose levels and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Melatonin administration efficiently attenuated liver dysfunction and glucose metabolism disorders by promoting hepatic SIRT1 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, inhibition of SIRT1 by EX527 significantly diminished the protective effects of melatonin on sepsis induced liver injury, hyperglycaemia and STAT3 inactivation. These results emphasize that melatonin is a potential therapeutic agent for sepsis-associated liver injury and glucose metabolism disorders, possibly acting by targeting SIRT1-mediated STAT3 activation in the liver.
- Decreased M1 macrophage polarization in dabigatran-treated Ldlr-deficient mice: Implications for atherosclerosis and adipose tissue inflammation. [Journal Article]
- AAtherosclerosis 2019 Jun 08; 287:81-88
- CONCLUSIONS: Dabigatran treatment reduces pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions, thereby contributing to plaque stabilizing and atheroprotective effects of the thrombin inhibitor. This finding is not restricted to the vascular wall but is also present in AT where dabigatran treatment reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and accumulation of M1 macrophages.
- Lysophosphatidic acid induces interleukin-6 and CXCL15 secretion from MLO-Y4 cells through activation of the LPA1 receptor and PKCθ signaling pathway. [Journal Article]
- IIInt Immunopharmacol 2019 Jun 21; 74:105664
- Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a multifunctional phospholipid. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone and can orchestrate bone formation and resorption, in part by producing cytokines that re…
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a multifunctional phospholipid. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone and can orchestrate bone formation and resorption, in part by producing cytokines that regulate osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and activity. Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 are two important cytokines that have potent effects on bone fracture healing. Previous studies suggest that platelet-derived LPA may influence fracture healing by inducing osteocyte dendrite outgrowth. However, the biological mechanism through which LPA induces cytokine production in osteocytes is poorly understood. In this study, we report that LPA markedly enhanced IL-6 and CXCL15 (mouse homologue of human IL-8) production in MLO-Y4 cells and that this enhancement was suppressed by the LPA1/3-selective antagonist Ki16425, the Gi/o protein inhibitor PTX or the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor sotrastaurin. We also observed that of all the PKC isoform targets of sotrastaurin, only PKCθ was activated by LPA in MLO-Y4 cells and that this activation was blocked by sotrastaurin, Ki16425 or PTX. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that LPA may be a potent inducer of IL-6 and CXCL15 production in MLO-Y4 cells and that this induction is associated with the activation of LPA1, Gi/o protein and the PKCθ pathway. These findings may help us better understand the mechanism of fracture healing and contribute to the treatment of bone damage.
- Design, synthesis and antitumor study of a series of N-Cyclic sulfamoylaminoethyl substituted 1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-amines as new indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitors. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2019 Jun 17; 179:38-55
- Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) plays a key role in tryptophan catabolism which is an important mechanism in immune tolerance. The small molecule epacadostat is the most advanced IDO1 inhibitor…
Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) plays a key role in tryptophan catabolism which is an important mechanism in immune tolerance. The small molecule epacadostat is the most advanced IDO1 inhibitor, but its phase III trials as a single agent or in combinations with PD-1 antibody failed to show appreciable objective responses. To gain more insight on the antitumor efficacy of IDO1 inhibitors, we have designed a series of analogues of epacadostat by incorporating a cyclic aminosulfonamide moiety as the sidechain capping functionality. Compound 5a was found to display significant potency against recombinant hIDO1 and hIDO1 expressed HEK293 cancer cells. This compound has improved physico-chemical properties, acceptable PK parameters as well as optimal cardiac safety. Similar to epacadostat, 5a is ineffective as single agent in the CT-26 syngeneic xenograft model, however, the combination of 5a with PD-1 antibody showed both elevated tumor growth inhibition and prolonged median life span.
- Small-molecule drug screening identifies drug Ro 31-8220 that reduces toxic phosphorylated tau in Drosophila melanogaster. [Journal Article]
- NDNeurobiol Dis 2019 Jun 21; :104519
- The intraneuronal aggregates of hyperphosphorylated and misfolded tau (neurofibrillary tangles, NFTs) cause a stereotypical spatiotemporal Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression that correlates with th…
The intraneuronal aggregates of hyperphosphorylated and misfolded tau (neurofibrillary tangles, NFTs) cause a stereotypical spatiotemporal Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression that correlates with the severity of the associated cognitive decline. Kinase activity contributes to the balance between neuron survival and cell death. Hyperactivation of kinases including the conventional protein kinase C (PKC) is a defective molecular event accompanying associative memory loss, tau phosphorylation, and progression of AD or related neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the ability of small therapeutic compounds (a custom library) to improve tau-induced rough-eye phenotype in a Drosophila melanogaster model of frontotemporal dementia. We also assessed the tau phosphorylation in vivo and selected hit compounds. Among the potential hits, we investigated Ro 31-8220, described earlier as a potent PKCα inhibitor. Ro 31-8220 robustly improved the rough-eye phenotype, reduced phosphorylated tau species in vitro and in vivo, reversed tau-induced memory impairment, and improved the fly motor functions. In a human neuroblastoma cell line, Ro 31-8220 reduced the PKC activity and the tau phosphorylation pattern, but we also have to acknowledge the compound's wide range of biological activity. Nevertheless, Ro 31-8220 is a novel therapeutic mitigator of tau-induced neurotoxocity.
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- The oncological survival and prognosis of individuals receiving PD-1 inhibitor with and without immunologic cutaneous adverse events. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Acad Dermatol 2019 Jun 21
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates an association between developing at least one of three CAE and improved progression-free survival in this cohort of patients.