- Perinatal depressive symptoms among low-income South African women at risk of depression: trajectories and predictors. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019 Jun 14; 19(1):202
- CONCLUSIONS: A small proportion of women who are at risk for depression antenatally remain at risk throughout the perinatal period, and can be differentiated from those who show a natural remission. Identification and referral strategies should be developed with these findings in mind, especially given the limited mental health resources in low-income settings.
- Funding Sources and Perceived Financial Insecurity in Pediatric Subspecialty Fellowship Programs. [Journal Article]
- APedAcad Pediatr 2019 Jun 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Perceived financial insecurity of fellowship programs was strongly associated with program size, funding source and unfilled positions, limiting recruitment and resources. Stable funding of fellowship programs is critical to maintain an adequate pediatric subspecialty workforce.
- Examining intersections between violence against women and violence against children: perspectives of adolescents and adults in displaced Colombian communities. [Journal Article]
- CHConfl Health 2019; 13:25
- CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest interventions that systemically consider families' struggles with relocation and violence with multifaceted attention to socioecological intersections.
- Food Insecurity and Unmet Needs Among Youth and Young Adults Living With HIV in the San Francisco Bay Area. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Adolesc Health 2019 Jun 10
- CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the need for more research and structural interventions targeting food assistance strategies among YLWH.
- An Overview on Acute Malnutrition and Food Insecurity among Children during the Conflict in Yemen. [Journal Article]
- CChildren (Basel) 2019 Jun 05; 6(6)
- CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition is a serious public health problem. The humanitarian community needs to adopt alternative strategies to improve food security and the nutrition status in Yemen.
- StatPearls: Substance Use In Pregnancy [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Substance use disorders (SUDs) can have a devastating impact on individuals, families, and communities. SUDs occur when recurrent alcohol or illicit drug use causes clinically significant impairment,…
Substance use disorders (SUDs) can have a devastating impact on individuals, families, and communities. SUDs occur when recurrent alcohol or illicit drug use causes clinically significant impairment, including health problems, disability, and failure to meet primary responsibilities at work, school, or home. The lifetime prevalence rates of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and drug use disorders in women are 19.5% and 7.1%, respectively. Women are at their highest risk of developing a substance use disorder between ages 18 to 29 years old and are at increased risk throughout their reproductive years (18 to 44). Pregnant females and soon to become pregnant females are therefore at increased risk of substance use. Prenatal substance use correlates with several harmful consequences for mother and fetus. Tobacco is the most common substance used during pregnancy, followed by alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit substances. Population-based National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) between 2005 and 2014 studied 80498 adolescent (ages 12 to 17 years) and 152043 adult (ages 18 to 44 years) females. Rates of past-month use of tobacco were 23.0% in adolescent and 14.9% in adult females. Rates of past-month alcohol use were 11.5% in adolescent and 8.7% in adult females. There is a recent increase in opiate use nationally in the general population, as well as in pregnancy, with a reported five-fold increase in pregnancy opioid use between 2000 and 2009.  Between 2008 and 2012, amongst females of reproductive age, 39.4% of patients with Medicaid, and 27.7% of patients with private insurance filled an outpatient opioid prescription each year. Among the evaluation of over 1 million pregnant women with Medicaid, 21.6% filled a prescription for an opioid, and 2.5% of pregnant women received more than a one month supply of chronic opioid medication. Among those admitted to substance use treatment facilities for treatment of opioid use, the rate of pregnant females seeking treatment rose from 2% to 28% between 1992 and 2012. Additionally, polysubstance use is common in pregnancy and often found with psychiatric comorbidities. In population-based National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) studying pregnant and non-pregnant adolescent and adult females, results showed that compared to pregnant abstainers, pregnant women engaging in alcohol and/or tobacco use were more likely to have experienced a major depressive episode in the last 12 months. Furthermore, environmental stressors and inconsistent prenatal care contribute to worsening maternal and fetal outcomes. It is widely accepted and understood that substance use is discouraged in pregnancy, and women are encouraged to seek abstinence while pregnant. Even for women who achieve and maintain abstinence while pregnant, postpartum substance use relapse is common within the first 6 to 12 months after delivery. This period coincides with the time when childcare needs are highest, and infant development is reliant on maternal attention and bonding. Females are not only at the highest risk of substance use disorders during reproductive years, but rates of mental health problems are also most prevalent while women are of childbearing age. With knowledge of the adverse effects for mother and fetus that result from peripartum mental illness, the World Health Organization recommends engaging women in improving their mental health before becoming pregnant. As studies reveal almost half of all pregnancies are unplanned, it is crucial to expand preconception care beyond the confines of those planning to conceive. Earlier treatment and diagnosis of mental illness in women of childbearing age can assist women in achieving emotional and psychiatric stability before becoming pregnant, and therefore reducing negative mother and fetus outcomes. Furthermore, perinatal substance use correlates with severe psychiatric and medical morbidity for peripartum women and their newborns. In populations where pregnancy and substance use disorders coincide, patients frequently do not receive adequate prenatal care. Patients with a substance use disorder in pregnancy have unique barriers to accessing care, which include transportation, caring for existing children, food and housing insecurity, medical and psychiatric comorbidities, and overall lack of resources. In comprehensive healthcare reform, the need to combine substance use and mental health care is gaining recognition and integration; however, this approach is less frequent in the context of maternity care.
- Empathic accuracy: Associations with prosocial behavior and self-insecurity. [Journal Article]
- EEmotion 2019 Jun 13
- Empathic accuracy, or the degree to which one accurately understands another person's emotions, is widely thought to be related to better social functioning. However, empirical tests of this assumed …
Empathic accuracy, or the degree to which one accurately understands another person's emotions, is widely thought to be related to better social functioning. However, empirical tests of this assumed relationship are quite scarce. We tested the hypotheses that people higher in empathic accuracy would be more likely to engage in prosocial behavior and report lower self-insecurity (rejection of their own weaknesses). In a large sample (N = 211) of undergraduates, we administered behavioral measures of empathic accuracy and helping, and self-reported self-insecurity. We found that people who were more accurate in detecting others' negative emotions were significantly more likely to help a confederate in need, and reported marginally lower self-insecurity. We found a nonsignificant association between empathic accuracy of positive emotions and helping, and no association between empathic accuracy of positive emotions and self-insecurity. Our findings suggest accurate emotion perception and healthy self-evaluation may be important for being prosocial. We discuss implications for social emotion regulation and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
- Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Free Summer Meal Participation Among Parents in New York City. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nutr Educ Behav 2019 Jun 08
- CONCLUSIONS: The main purpose of summer meals is to reduce food insecurity, but the programs also provide social and psychological benefits valued by lower-income families in New York, although participation barriers persist.
- Deliberate fires: From data to intelligence. [Journal Article]
- FSForensic Sci Int 2019 May 30; 301:240-253
- Deliberate fires are a very common problem affecting all countries around the world. They create a high sense of insecurity within communities, consuming and straining many resources (human and finan…
Deliberate fires are a very common problem affecting all countries around the world. They create a high sense of insecurity within communities, consuming and straining many resources (human and financial). Yet, despite various attempts, significantly tackling and reducing deliberate fires has remained largely ineffective, mainly due to the case-by-case approach implemented in responding to these incidents. Drawing on the repetitive nature of some types of deliberate fires, it was shown that adopting an intelligence-based approach is promising in tackling and reducing repetitive deliberate fires. This paper presents a two-fold procedure developed to produce intelligence on a dataset of fire events that were either deliberate or unknown in origin. Firstly, through the creation of a relevant dataset (which is a peculiar problem due to the specificities of the event of fire) and secondly through the application of specific analyses. This procedure was implemented on a dataset of fire events collated from a nine-year period in the State of Geneva, Switzerland. Results show that rudimentary data and simple processing can already generate valuable intelligence, often unsuspected until then. These results provide responding agencies with a clearer understanding of the problem, which can also support their decision-making process. This study proposes the basis for the development of an integrated real-time intelligence process. Such a process would allow the systematic and real-time monitoring of fire events in general and deliberate fires in particular by providing an immediate view of the problem, detecting recurrent events and revealing linkages between cases indicating repetitions. In terms of policies and governance, such a study should encourage institutions that deal with fires to collectively reshape their objectives, share data and analyses, and coordinate their actions to reduce harm.
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- Addressing Health-Related Social Needs: Value-Based Care or Values-Based Care? [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gen Intern Med 2019 Jun 10
- Health-related social needs, such as food insecurity, housing instability, and lack of transportation, are associated with worse health outcomes, and are increasingly the focus of health-related soci…
Health-related social needs, such as food insecurity, housing instability, and lack of transportation, are associated with worse health outcomes, and are increasingly the focus of health-related social needs interventions within healthcare. Adoption of health-related social needs interventions is often justified by the potential to reduce healthcare costs. However, this can present a conundrum to clinicians. Physicians are often more accustomed to justifying clinical innovation based on improvements in health, in accord with the fundamental values of the medical profession, which include using our knowledge, skills, and the resources at our disposal to improve both individual and public health. In cases where health-related social needs interventions improve health but are not cost-saving, these two types of justifications can conflict. We provide a framework for considering these issues, and an agenda for scholarly work on this topic. Ultimately, if promoting patient and public health are key values for our profession, then understanding when to emphasize values-based care, rather than simply value-based care, is crucial to fulfilling our professional duty.