- Applications of near infrared and surface enhanced Raman scattering techniques in tumor imaging: A short review. [Review]
- SASpectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2019 Jun 16; 222:117279
- Imaging technologies play a vital role in clinical oncology and have undergone massive growth over the past few decades. Research in the field of tumor imaging and biomedical diagnostics requires ear…
Imaging technologies play a vital role in clinical oncology and have undergone massive growth over the past few decades. Research in the field of tumor imaging and biomedical diagnostics requires early detection of physiological alterations so as to provide curative treatment in real time. The objective of this review is to provide an insight about near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging techniques that can be used to expand their capabilities for the early detection and diagnosis of cancer cells. Basic setup, principle and working of the instruments has been provided and common NIRF imaging agents as well as SERS tags are also discussed besides the analytical advantages/disadvantages of these techniques. This review can help researchers working in the field of molecular imaging to design cost effective fluorophores and SERS tags to overcome the limitations of both NIRF as well as SERS imaging technologies.
- Biomechanical analysis of motion following sacroiliac joint fusion using lateral sacroiliac screws with or without lumbosacral instrumented fusion. [Journal Article]
- CBClin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2019 May 25; 68:182-189
- CONCLUSIONS: Sacroiliac joint ligament injury with existing lumbosacral fixation doubled sacroiliac joint range of motion, but thereafter, fixation with lateral sacroiliac screws decreased range of motion of the injured sacroiliac joint. Screw configuration played a minor role, but generally, 6 sacroiliac joint screws had the greatest motion reduction.
- Understanding Gunshot Residue Evidence and Its Role in Forensic Science. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Forensic Med Pathol 2019 Jun 14
- Gunshot residue, or GSR, can be a valuable tool in forensic science, but its importance depends greatly on how it is utilized during an investigation and applied in criminal courts. This comprehensiv…
Gunshot residue, or GSR, can be a valuable tool in forensic science, but its importance depends greatly on how it is utilized during an investigation and applied in criminal courts. This comprehensive review defines what constitutes GSR resulting from a discharged firearm. Sampling methods and analytical testing instrumentation will be discussed along with data interpretation and limitations of analysis.
- [Study on sensorless suction detection method based on the intrinsic parameter of rotary left ventricular assist devices]. [Journal Article]
- SWSheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jun 25; 36(3):478-485
- The rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has been an effective option for end-stage heart failure. However, while clinically using the LVAD, patients are often at significant risk for ventric…
The rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has been an effective option for end-stage heart failure. However, while clinically using the LVAD, patients are often at significant risk for ventricular collapse, called suction, mainly due to higher LVAD speeds required for adequate cardiac output. Some proposed suction detection algorithms required the external implantation of sensors, which were not reliable in long-term use due to baseline drift and short lifespan. Therefore, this study presents a new suction detection system only using the LVAD intrinsic blood pump parameter (pump speed) without using any external sensor. Three feature indices are derived from the pump speed and considered as the inputs to four different classifiers to classify the pumping states as no suction or suction. The in-silico results using a combined human circulatory system and LVAD model show that the proposed method can detect ventricular suction effectively, demonstrating that it has high classification accuracy, stability, and robustness. The proposed suction detection system could be an important part in the LVAD for detecting and avoiding suction, while at the same time making the LVAD meet the cardiac output demand for the patients. It could also provide theoretical basis and technology support for designing and optimizing the control system of the LVAD.
- [Study on the improvement of brain cognitive function status by mind-control game training]. [Journal Article]
- SWSheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jun 25; 36(3):364-370
- This study uses mind-control game training to intervene in patients with mild cognitive impairment to improve their cognitive function. In this study, electroencephalogram (EEG) data of 40 participan…
This study uses mind-control game training to intervene in patients with mild cognitive impairment to improve their cognitive function. In this study, electroencephalogram (EEG) data of 40 participants were collected before and after two training sessions. The continuous complexity of EEG signals was analyzed to assess the status of cognitive function and explore the effect of mind-control game training on the improvement of cognitive function. The results showed that after two training sessions, the continuous complexity of EEG signal of the subject increased (0.012 44 ± 0.000 29, P < 0.05) and amplitude of curve fluctuation decreased gradually, indicating that with increase of training times, the continuous complexity increased significantly, the cognitive function of brain improved significantly and state was stable. The results of this paper may show that mind-control game training can improve the status of the brain cognitive function, which may provide support and help for the future intervention of cognitive dysfunction.
- Oil behavior in sea ice: Changes in chemical composition and resultant effect on sea ice dielectrics. [Journal Article]
- MPMar Pollut Bull 2019; 142:216-233
- There has been increasing urgency to develop methods for detecting oil in sea ice owing to the effects of climate change in the Arctic. A multidisciplinary study of crude oil behavior in a sea ice en…
There has been increasing urgency to develop methods for detecting oil in sea ice owing to the effects of climate change in the Arctic. A multidisciplinary study of crude oil behavior in a sea ice environment was conducted at the University of Manitoba during the winter of 2016. In the experiment, medium-light crude oil was injected underneath young sea ice in a mesocosm. The physical and thermodynamic properties of the oil-infiltrated sea ice were monitored over a three-week time span, with concomitant analysis of the oil composition using analytical instrumentation. A resonant perturbation technique was used to measure the oil dielectric properties, and the contaminated sea ice dielectric properties were modeled using a mixture model approach. Results showed that the interactions between the oil and sea ice altered their physical and thermodynamic properties. These changes led to an overall decrease in sea ice dielectrics, potentially detectable by remote sensing systems.
- Analyzing aggregation propensities of clinically relevant PTEN mutants: a new culprit in pathogenesis of cancer and other PTENopathies. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biomol Struct Dyn 2019 Jun 22; :1-14
- While studies on pathological protein aggregation are largely limited to neurodegenerative disease, emerging evidence suggests that other diseases are also associated with pathogenic protein aggregat…
While studies on pathological protein aggregation are largely limited to neurodegenerative disease, emerging evidence suggests that other diseases are also associated with pathogenic protein aggregation. For example, tumor suppressor protein p53, and its mutant conformers, undergo protein aggregation, exacerbating the cancer phenotype. These findings raise the possibility that inactivation of tumor suppressors via protein aggregation may participate in cancer and other disease pathologies. Since tumor suppressor protein PTEN has similar functions to p53, and is mutated in multiple diseases, we examined the aggregation propensity of PTEN wild-type and 1523 clinically relevant PTEN mutants. Applying computational tools to PTEN mutation databases revealed that PTEN wild-type protein can aggregate under physiological conditions, and 274 distinct PTEN mutants had increased aggregation propensity. To understand the mechanism underlying PTEN conformer aggregation, we analyzed the physicochemical properties of these 274 PTEN mutants and defined their aggregation potential. We conclude that increased aggregation propensity of select PTEN mutants may contribute to disease phenotypes. Our studies have built the foundation for interrogating the aggregation potential of these select mutants in cancers and in PTENopathies. Elucidating the pathogenic mechanisms associated with aggregation-prone PTEN conformers will aid in developing therapies that target PTEN-aggregates in multiple diseases. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
- Can a retro-polypeptide fold into a globule? [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biomol Struct Dyn 2019 Jun 24; :1-8
- To understand if insertion of the potential folding nucleus affects folding predisposition of the retro-protein, we designed, purified and analyzed hybrid retro-endolysin with the "direct" insertion …
To understand if insertion of the potential folding nucleus affects folding predisposition of the retro-protein, we designed, purified and analyzed hybrid retro-endolysin with the "direct" insertion of potential folding nucleation center. Analysis of this hybrid retro-protein revealed that it did not show any signs of folding at any conditions studied, behaving exactly as the previously analyzed retro-endonuclease of the bacteriophage T5. These findings suggested that even if the inserted motif might serve as a folding nucleation site for the original endonuclease, it definitely does not have such a function for the hybrid retro-polypeptide. Therefore, folding nucleation centers (or folding nuclei), if they exist, are likely to be as unique as any natural polypeptide chain that is capable of folding into a protein globule. Furthermore, most likely, the localization of these folding nuclei within the amino acid sequence is also of great importance for the correct folding of a polypeptide chain. We provide an explanation of why it was not possible to find the conditions for the appropriate folding of the retro-polypeptide, and also an explanation of why it will not be possible to find such conditions in principle, or at least without using some external ligands.
- Surgical Treatment of Flat Back Syndrome With Anterior Hyperlordotic Cages. [Journal Article]
- ONOper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2019 Jun 24
- CONCLUSIONS: Anterior surgery with HLCs followed by posterior instrumentation is an effective technique to treat flat back syndrome. HLCs are effective to maximize LL up to 30°, which is equivalent in magnitude to a pedicle subtraction osteotomy, but associated with less blood loss, quicker recovery, lower complications, and good surgical outcome.
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- Perspectives on Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and the Cyberbiosecurity of Freshwater Systems. [Journal Article]
- FBFront Bioeng Biotechnol 2019; 7:128
- Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) have been observed in all 50 states in the U.S., ranging from large freshwater lakes, such as the Great Lakes, to smaller inland lakes, rivers, and reservoirs, as well as …
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) have been observed in all 50 states in the U.S., ranging from large freshwater lakes, such as the Great Lakes, to smaller inland lakes, rivers, and reservoirs, as well as marine coastal areas and estuaries. In 2014, a HAB on Lake Erie containing microcystin (a liver toxin) contaminated the municipal water supply in Toledo, Ohio, providing non-potable water to 400,000 people. Studying HABs is complicated as different cyanobacteria produce a range of toxins that impact human health, such as microcystins, saxitoxin, anatoxin-a, and cylindrospermopsin. HABs may be increasing in prevalence with rising temperatures and higher nutrient runoff. Consequently, new tools and technology are needed to rapidly detect, characterize, and respond to HABs that threaten our water security. A framework is needed to understand cyber threats to new and existing technologies that monitor and forecast our water quality. To properly detect, assess, and mitigate security threats on water infrastructure, it is necessary to envision water security from the perspective of a cyber-physical system (CPS). In doing so, we can evaluate risks and research needs for cyber-attacks on HAB-monitoring networks including data injection attacks, automated system hijacking attacks, node forgery attacks, and attacks on learning algorithms. Herein, we provide perspectives on the research needed to understand both the threats posed by HABs and the coupled cyber threats to water security in the context of HABs.