- Prospective evaluation of a protocol for transitioning porcine lente insulin-treated diabetic cats to human recombinant protamine zinc insulin. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Feline Med Surg 2018; 20(2):114-121
- Objectives The objective was to evaluate a nadir-led protocol for transitioning porcine lente insulin suspension (PLIS)-treated diabetic cats onto human recombinant protamine zinc insulin (PZIR). Met…
Objectives The objective was to evaluate a nadir-led protocol for transitioning porcine lente insulin suspension (PLIS)-treated diabetic cats onto human recombinant protamine zinc insulin (PZIR). Methods Recently diagnosed (<5 months) diabetic cats, treated with PLIS q12h for ⩾6 weeks, were recruited. Fructosamine, 24 h blood glucose curve (BGC), quality of life assessment (DIAQoL-pet score) and Diabetic Clinical Score (DCS) were assessed at enrolment (PLIS-treated) and 2, 4 and 12 weeks after transitioning to PZIR (starting dose 0.2-0.7 U/kg q12h). Short duration of insulin action was defined as <9 h. Linear mixed effects modelling assessed for change in fructosamine, mean blood glucose (MBG) during BGCs, DIAQoL-pet score, DCS and q12h insulin dose. McNemar's tests compared the proportion of cats with hypoglycaemia at week 0 (PLIS-treated) and week 4 (PZIR-treated). Results Twenty-two cats were recruited. Median PLIS dose at enrolment was 0.5 U/kg (interquartile range 0.3-0.7 U/kg) q12h, equalling median PZIR starting dose (0.5 U/kg; interquartile range 0.3-0.7 U/kg q12h). Transitioning was followed by significant decreases in fructosamine (P = 0.00007), insulin dose (P = 0.02), DCS (P = 8.1 × 10-8) and DIAQoL-pet score (P = 0.003), indicating improved quality of life. MBG did not alter significantly (P = 0.1). Five cats (22.7%) achieved remission. Hypoglycaemia was recorded in 30/190 12 h BGCs (15.8%) and five cats experienced clinical hypoglycaemia. The proportion of cats with hypoglycaemia did not differ between PLIS (week 0) and PZIR (week 4) (P = 1.0). Duration of action was analysed in 19 cats. Six cats (31.6%) showed short duration of action on PLIS, compared with two cats (10.5%) after 4 weeks on PZIR. All six cats with short PLIS duration showed duration of ⩾9 h on PZIR. Conclusions and relevance Used alongside a low-carbohydrate diet, transitioning to PZIR was associated with significantly improved clinical signs and quality of life, with some cats achieving remission. Transition to PZIR should be considered for cats with short duration of action on PLIS.
- Treatment of 46 cats with porcine lente insulin--a prospective, multicentre study. [Multicenter Study]
- JFJ Feline Med Surg 2008; 10(5):439-51
- This prospective, multicentre, non-blinded, open study followed 46 cats with diabetes mellitus during treatment with porcine lente insulin (also known as porcine insulin zinc suspension, Caninsulin, …
This prospective, multicentre, non-blinded, open study followed 46 cats with diabetes mellitus during treatment with porcine lente insulin (also known as porcine insulin zinc suspension, Caninsulin, Intervet) for 16+/-1 weeks (stabilization phase), with additional monitoring of some cats (n=23) for a variable period. At least three of the following were present at initial presentation: appropriate history of clinical signs consistent with diabetes mellitus, glucosuria, blood glucose greater than 15 mmol/l and fructosamine greater than 380 micromol/l. Insulin treatment was started at a dose rate of 0.25-0.5 IU/kg body weight twice daily, with a maximum starting dose of 2 IU/injection. Twenty-eight of the cats were classed as reaching clinical stability during the study, in 23 of these cats this was during the stabilization phase. Seven cats went into remission during the stabilization phase and one of the cats in week 56. Clinical signs of hypoglycaemia, significantly associated with a dose of 3 units or 0.5 IU/kg or more per cat (twice daily), were observed in nine of the 46 cats during the stabilization phase and concomitant biochemical hypoglycaemia was recorded in most cases. Biochemical hypoglycaemia, recorded in 6% of the blood glucose curves performed during the stabilization phase, was significantly associated with a dose rate of 0.75 IU/kg or more twice daily. This further highlights the need for cautious stepwise changes in insulin dose. The protocol used in the present study is suitable for and easy to use in practice. This study confirmed the efficacy and safety of porcine lente insulin (Caninsulin) in diabetic cats under field conditions.
- [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--1 Novo Nordisk]. [Historical Article]
- TTheriaca 2008; (37):9-26
- The article series provides an account in words and pictures of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from the earliest times until about 1950. Part 1 deals with products from Nordisk Insulin…
The article series provides an account in words and pictures of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from the earliest times until about 1950. Part 1 deals with products from Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium, founded in 1923, and Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium, founded in 1925. The two companies were competitors for many years and became two of the world's leading insulin producers. In 1989 they joined forces, merging to become Novo Nordisk A/S, today one of the world's leading biotech companies. The article chronicles the earliest decades of development and progress in insulin production, illustrated with photos of several types of consumer packaging. In 1923 Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium marketed Insulin "Leo" tablets, from which patients had to make their own sterile solution for injection two to three times a day, because the solution was unstable. Ready-to-use solutions gradually came on the market, and formulations with prolonged duration, so-called protamin-insulins, were developed in the 1930s. Insulin "Leo" Retard was marketed in 1936, and its basic properties were maintained and further developed in step with research breakthroughs well into the 1980s. Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium's first insulin was Insulin Novo in 1925, and at the same time one of the company founders developed Novo-sprøjten (the Novo Syringe) for individual dosage from a special ampoule. The syringe was further developed over the years and was the prototype for the NovoPen launched in 1985 as well as for later advanced dosage systems. Starting in 1938 Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium marketed Zink-Protamin-Insulin Novo and products based on other insulin derivatives in the 1940s. The era concludes with Insulin Novo Lente from 1952 as well as suspensions of amorphous and crystalline zinc-insulin. Ever since, insulin treatments for diabetes have been the focus of intensive development throughout the global marketplace and continue to be so.
- Effects of dobutamine and acetylcholine on perfused hearts isolated from streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. [Journal Article]
- AArzneimittelforschung 1989; 39(4):470-4
- In order to study the responsiveness of the diabetic heart to autonomic agents, effects of dobutamine (DOB) and acetylcholine (ACh) on perfused hearts isolated from streptozocin (streptozotocin, STZ)…
In order to study the responsiveness of the diabetic heart to autonomic agents, effects of dobutamine (DOB) and acetylcholine (ACh) on perfused hearts isolated from streptozocin (streptozotocin, STZ)-induced diabetic rats and insulin-treated diabetic rats were evaluated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180-210 g, were divided into control (C) group, diabetes mellitus (DM) group, and diabetes mellitus treated with insulin (DMI) group. C group was injected with buffered vehicle. DM and DMI groups were injected intravenously with 60 mg/kg STZ at the first day. Three days after STZ injection, DMI group was subsequently treated with 4 U of insulin zinc suspension (lente insulin) subcutaneously every day. At 45 days after injection of STZ, experiments were performed using a Langendorff perfused heart preparation. In the evaluation of effect of ACh, heart rate and myocardial developed tension (T) were measured. In the evaluation of effect of DOB, heart was paced at 300 beats/min and T was measured isometrically. Plasma glucose values (mg/dl) were 116.0 +/- 4.9 in C, 482.3 +/- 30.3 in DM, and 204.6 +/- 34.8 in DMI group, respectively. The order of percent increases in T induced by DOB (10(-8)-3 x 10(-6) g) was C greater than DMI greater than DM. The order of percent decreases in T and heart rate by ACh (10(-7)-3 x 10(-6) g) was C greater than DMI greater than DM. These results suggest that both adrenergic receptor-mediated and cholinergic receptor-mediated cardiac responsiveness are significantly depressed in the diabetic heart.
- Assessing effect of mixing insulins by glucose-clamp technique in subjects with diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- DCDiabetes Care 1986 Nov-Dec; 9(6):579-86
- The glucose-clamp technique was used to assess the effect on insulin activity of mixing clinically relevant doses of short- and longer-acting insulins in insulin-treated diabetic subjects. Mixtures o…
The glucose-clamp technique was used to assess the effect on insulin activity of mixing clinically relevant doses of short- and longer-acting insulins in insulin-treated diabetic subjects. Mixtures of porcine regular and lente insulins resulted in a reduction in activity of the mixture compared with separate injection that was more apparent with premixing for 5 min before injecting than with premixing for 2 min. These findings were not explained by differences in volume of the injected insulin preparations. Mixing of porcine regular and bovine ultralente insulins for 2 min before injecting resulted in a reduced activity compared with separate injection. No difference in activity was obvious for porcine regular and NPH insulins given separately or premixed for 5 min. A reduction of activity during the 1st h after injection was observed when separate injection of one brand of these insulins (Velosulin or Insulatard) was compared with the manufactured mixture (Mixtard). These results indicate that premixing regular and NPH insulins in a 1-to-2 ratio does not alter the biological activity compared with separate administration of the insulins. However, the mixing of regular and insulin-zinc suspensions results in a loss of insulin activity, the magnitude of which depends on the time between mixing and injecting the insulin. The clinical significance of the effect of mixing on the efficacy of subcutaneous insulin therapy should be considered in the context that this is only one of many factors that may affect the activity of subcutaneously injected insulin.
- Insulin in the management of diabetes mellitus in Nigerians. [Journal Article]
- WAWest Afr J Pharmacol Drug Res 1975; 2(2):97-102
- Insulin therapy was reviewed in 172 Nigerian diabetic patients. Insulin zinc suspension (IZS--lente) was the preparation most commonly used and therapy was free of side effects. Only a small number o…
Insulin therapy was reviewed in 172 Nigerian diabetic patients. Insulin zinc suspension (IZS--lente) was the preparation most commonly used and therapy was free of side effects. Only a small number of the patients (students) had the problem of unrestricted physical activity and possibly irregular eating habits which might adversely influence insulin therapy. Although in the majority of cases, the age of onset of diabetes mellitus was under 21 years, insulin dependence covered a broad age spectrum. It was not possible to predict the severity of the diabetes from the age of onset. There was about equal chance that therapy might be changed from insulin to oral hypoglycaemic drugs or vice-versa.
- [TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS WITH INSULIN-ZINC SUSPENSIONS]. [Journal Article]
- TATer Arkh 1964; 36:79-83
- INSULIN ZINC SUSPENSION AFTER TEN YEARS. [Journal Article]
- BMBr Med J 1964 Feb 01; 1(5378):275-8
- [On the insulin IV. Test result for prolongation of insulin effect of insulin zinc suspension]. [Journal Article]
- ESEisei Shikenjo Hokoku 1961; 79:245-6
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- [Experineces with insulin-zinc suspensions in the tretment of diabetes]. [Journal Article]
- MWMed Welt 1961 Feb 11; 6:287-90