- Highly sensitive electron paramagnetic resonance nanoradicals for quantitative intracellular tumor oxymetric images. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Nanomedicine 2019; 14:2963-2971
- CONCLUSIONS: The highly sensitive nanoformulated trityl spin probe can profile intracellular oxygen distributions of tumor in a real-time and quantitative manner using in vivo EPRI.
- Fabrication and Physicochemical Characterization of Pseudosciaena crocea Roe Protein-Stabilized Emulsions as a Nutrient Delivery System. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Sci 2019 May 20
- The aim of this study was to develop a protein emulsifier that can be used to construct a nutrient delivery system. Pseudosciaena crocea roe protein isolate (PRPI) was prepared and tested for its emu…
The aim of this study was to develop a protein emulsifier that can be used to construct a nutrient delivery system. Pseudosciaena crocea roe protein isolate (PRPI) was prepared and tested for its emulsifying properties. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) was used as a model delivery nutrient in the constructed emulsions. The average particle size, zeta potential, and BITC retention rate of the emulsions were used as the main evaluation indexes, and confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to test the storage stability of the emulsions (composition: 5 mg/mL protein, 5% oil, 0 to 5 mg/mL BITC, pH 8). After storing at 20 °C for 7 days, the largest particle size of the emulsion at pH 8 increased from 274.27 to 280.82 nm. Storing at higher temperatures had a negative impact on the particle size and BITC retention rate. On the seventh day, the average particle size at 20 and 4 °C was 289.63 nm and 275.67 nm, respectively, and the BITC retention rate at 20 °C (83.30%) was found to be 15.50% lower than that at 4 °C (98.58%). These results demonstrate that the PRPI-based emulsion system is effective in protecting nutrients and has excellent stability at 4 °C. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study provides some useful information for the food industry to develop a nutrient delivery system emulsified with fish roe protein isolate. The properties of the isolated protein and its protective effect on nutrients are discussed.
- Polydatin enhances the chemosensitivity of osteosarcoma cells to paclitaxel. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Biochem 2019 May 20
- Despite improvements in the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients, chemotherapy fails in a considerable number of cases due to drug resistance. The development of novel agents may enhance chemosensitivi…
Despite improvements in the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients, chemotherapy fails in a considerable number of cases due to drug resistance. The development of novel agents may enhance chemosensitivity. This study explored the anticancer function of polydatin and its ability-in combination with paclitaxel-to overcome drug resistance in human osteosarcoma U-2OS and MG-63 cell lines. A cell proliferation assay (celll counting kit-8), a cell-cycle assay, an apoptosis assay (annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide), and a cell migration assay (Transwell) were used to analyze cell activity. Western blot analysis and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed to examine function-related mRNA and protein levels. Treatment with polydatin suppressed cell growth and migration in both cell lines. Moreover, polydatin induced cell apoptosis in both parental and paclitaxel-resistant cells, and cell-cycle arrest in the S phase. Furthermore, it altered the expression of various proteins associated with cell growth (Ki67, p21, cyclin A, cyclin E, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2), migration (matrix metalloproteinase-2 [MMP-2], MMP-9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1), apoptosis (poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 and caspase 3), and drug resistance (p-glycoprotein 1, lung resistance-related protein 1, growth arrest and DNA damage-45α, glutathione S-transferase π, and heat shock protein 27) in paclitaxel-resistant osteosarcoma cells. Cells transfected with myr-Akt caused obvious upregulation and activation of Akt, which were significantly attenuated via polydatin treatment. In conclusion, polydatin may enhance the chemosensitivity of osteosarcoma cells to paclitaxel.
- Impact of a Bacillus Direct-Fed Microbial on Growth Performance, Intestinal Barrier Integrity, Necrotic Enteritis Lesions, and Ileal Microbiota in Broiler Chickens Using a Laboratory Challenge Model. [Journal Article]
- FVFront Vet Sci 2019; 6:108
- Decreases in the use of antibiotics and anticoccidials in the poultry industry have risen the appearance of necrotic enteritis (NE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a Bacillus…
Decreases in the use of antibiotics and anticoccidials in the poultry industry have risen the appearance of necrotic enteritis (NE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a Bacillus direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, intestinal integrity, NE lesions and ileal microbiota using a previously established NE-challenged model. At day-of-hatch, chicks were randomly assigned to three different groups: Negative control (NC), Positive control (PC) challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium (day 1), Eimeria maxima (EM, day 13) and Clostridium perfringens (CP, day 18-19), and Bacillus-DFM group (DFM) challenged as the PC. Body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG) were measured weekly. Total feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated at day 21. Liver samples were collected to assess bacterial translocation and blood samples were used to measure superoxide dismutase (SOD) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d). Intestinal contents were obtained for determination of total IgA and microbiota analysis. NE lesion scores (LS) were performed at day 21. Chickens consuming the DFM significantly improved BW and had a numerically more efficient FCR compared to PC at day 21. Additionally, there were no significant differences in FCR between the DFM group and NC. Furthermore, the DFM group showed significant reductions in LS, IgA and FITC-d levels compared to the PC. However, there were no significant differences in SOD between the groups. The microbiota analysis indicated that the phylum Proteobacteria was significantly reduced in the DFM group in comparison to PC. At the genus level, Clostridium, Turicibacter, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus were reduced, whereas, Lactobacillus and Bacillus were increased in the DFM group as compared to PC (p < 0.05). Likewise, the DFM significantly reduced CP as compared to PC. In contrary, no significant differences were observed in bacterial composition between NC vs. DFM. In addition, beta diversity showed significant differences in the microbial community structure between NC vs. PC, and PC vs. DFM. These results suggest that the dietary inclusion of a selected DFM could mitigate the complex negative impacts caused by NE possibly through mechanism(s) that might involve modulation of the gut microbiota.
- Rapid synthesis of Au/Ag bimetallic nanoclusters with highly biochemical stability and its applications for temperature and ratiometric pH sensing. [Journal Article]
- ACAnal Chim Acta 2019 Sep 06; 1070:88-96
- Herein, we developed a simple and rapid strategy to synthesize gold/silver bimetallic nanoclusters (Au/Ag NCs) with highly biochemical stability by a one-pot route. The Au/Ag NCs were obtained via a …
Herein, we developed a simple and rapid strategy to synthesize gold/silver bimetallic nanoclusters (Au/Ag NCs) with highly biochemical stability by a one-pot route. The Au/Ag NCs were obtained via a chemical reduction procedure in alkaline aqueous solution at 75 °C within only 20 min by employing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as both ligand and reductant. The as-obtained Au/Ag NCs displayed bright orange fluorescence with an emission peak located at 570 nm and temperature-dependent fluorescence property, which were utilized as fluorescent thermometer directly. More intriguingly, the Au/Ag NCs were very stable against various pH values, ions, biothiols, H2O2, fetal bovine serum (FBS), RPMI 1640 medium and amino acids. Taking advantage of the excellent biochemical stability, a ratiometric fluorescence biosensor, fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC)-Au/Ag NCs, was constructed for pH sensing based on the incorporation of FITC into the Au/Ag NCs. Furthermore, the ratiometric pH sensor was also successfully applied on the model of HeLa cells.
- Phytochemical composition and biological activities of differently pigmented cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) varieties. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sci Food Agric 2019 May 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Obtained results suggest that there must be some kind of interaction between different phytochemicals, which decides about the final health promoting activity of edible plants as suggested by e.g. food synergy concept. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Folate-Decorated Polyamidoamine Dendrimer Nanoparticles for Head and Neck Cancer Gene Therapy. [Journal Article]
- MMMethods Mol Biol 2019; 1974:393-408
- Gene delivery systems have been developed on the basis of dendrimers and many other types of nanoparticle carriers, but few have been developed for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Her…
Gene delivery systems have been developed on the basis of dendrimers and many other types of nanoparticle carriers, but few have been developed for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of fluorescently labeled, folic acid-decorated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) generation 4 (G4) dendrimer conjugates for HNSCC-targeted gene delivery. This delivery system comprises a dendrimer as the carrier that is conjugated with folic acid (FA) as HNSCC targeting moiety and imaging agents fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or IRDye 800CW (NIR) for in vitro trafficking or bioimaging, respectively. By complexing with plasmid or siRNA, G4-FA/plasmid (or siRNA) significantly enhances gene transfection or knockdown efficiency in HNSCC cells. In a mouse xenograft model of HNSCC, this versatile G4-FA vector shows high biocompatibility, tumor targeting, high uptake, and sustained retention, making it a suitable platform for HNSCC gene therapy.
- Antinociceptive activity of Copaifera officinalis Jacq. L oil and kaurenoic acid in mice. [Journal Article]
- IInflammopharmacology 2019 May 16
- Copaifera officinalis L. possesses traditional uses as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic. However, until now the antinociceptive effect and the mechanism of action were not described fo…
Copaifera officinalis L. possesses traditional uses as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic. However, until now the antinociceptive effect and the mechanism of action were not described for Copaifera officinalis L. oil and no compound present in this oil was identified to be responsible for its biological effects. The goal of this study was to identify the presence of kaurenoic acid in Copaifera officinalis oil and investigate its antinociceptive effect, mechanism of action, and possible adverse effects in mice. The quantification of kaurenoic acid in Copaifera officinalis oil was done by HPLC-DAD technique. Male and female albino Swiss mice (25-35 g) were used to test the antinociceptive effect of Copaifera officinalis (10 mg/kg, intragastric) or kaurenoic acid (1 mg/kg) in the tail-flick test, intraplantar injection of capsaicin, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Copaifera officinalis oil and kaurenoic acid caused the antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick test in a dose-dependent manner, and their effect was reversed by naloxone (an opioid antagonist). Copaifera officinalis oil or kaurenoic acid reduced the nociception caused by capsaicin or AITC and produced an anti-allodynic effect in the CFA model (after acute or repeated administration for 7 days). Possible adverse effects were also observed, and non-detectable adverse effect was observed for the intragastric administration of Copaiba officinalis oil or kaurenoic acid and in the same way, the treatments were neither genotoxic nor mutagenic at the doses tested. Thus, Copaiba officinalis oil, and kaurenoic acid possess antinociceptive action without adverse effects.
- Lectin-stimulated cellular iron uptake and toxin generation in the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. [Journal Article]
- HAHarmful Algae 2019; 83:25-33
- The lectin family is composed of mono- and oligosaccharide binding proteins that could activate specific cellular activities, such as cell-cell attachment and toxin production. In the present study, …
The lectin family is composed of mono- and oligosaccharide binding proteins that could activate specific cellular activities, such as cell-cell attachment and toxin production. In the present study, the effect of the external addition of lectins to culture media containing the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa on its metabolic activities, such as iron uptake and toxin production was investigated. Among the three lectins examined in this study (concanavalin A [Con A], wheat germ agglutinin [WGA] and peanut agglutinin [PNA]), PNA substantially increased the accumulated intracellular and extracellular iron content. The binding of PNA and Con A to M. aeruginosa cells was visualized via fluorescence microscopy using a lectin adjunct with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and resulted in carbohydrate and protein accumulation in the cellular capsule. Given that the highest carbohydrate accumulation was seen in the Con A system (where iron accumulation was relatively lower), carbohydrate quality is likely important factor that influences cellular iron accumulation. Since PNA specifically binds to sugars such as galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine, these saccharide species could be important candidates for intracellular and extracellular iron accumulation and transport. Microcystin biosynthesis was stimulated in the presence of PNA and WGA, whereas cellular iron uptake increased only in the presence of PNA. Thus, the iron uptake was not necessarily congruent with the upregulation of microcystin synthesis, which suggested that the positive effect of lectin on iron uptake is probably attributable to the PNA-assisted iron accumulation around the cell surface. Overall, the present study provides insights into the interactions of lectin that influence cellular metabolic activities such as iron uptake, extracellular polymeric substance accumulation, and toxin production.
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- Prenatal epigenetics diets play protective roles against environmental pollution. [Review]
- CEClin Epigenetics 2019 May 16; 11(1):82
- It is thought that germ cells and preimplantation embryos during development are most susceptible to endogenous and exogenous environmental factors because the epigenome in those cells is undergoing …
It is thought that germ cells and preimplantation embryos during development are most susceptible to endogenous and exogenous environmental factors because the epigenome in those cells is undergoing dramatic elimination and reconstruction. Exposure to environmental factors such as nutrition, climate, stress, pathogens, toxins, and even social behavior during gametogenesis and early embryogenesis has been shown to influence disease susceptibility in the offspring. Early-life epigenetic modifications, which determine the expression of genetic information stored in the genome, are viewed as one of the general mechanisms linking prenatal exposure and phenotypic changes later in life. From atmospheric pollution, endocrine-disrupting chemicals to heavy metals, research increasingly suggests that environmental pollutions have already produced significant consequences on human health. Moreover, mounting evidence now links such pollution to relevant modification in the epigenome. The epigenetics diet, referring to a class of bioactive dietary compounds such as isothiocyanates in broccoli, genistein in soybean, resveratrol in grape, epigallocatechin-3-gallate in green tea, and ascorbic acid in fruits, has been shown to modify the epigenome leading to beneficial health outcomes. This review will primarily focus on the causes and consequences of prenatal environment pollution exposure on the epigenome, and the potential protective role of the epigenetics diet, which could play a central role in neutralizing epigenomic aberrations against environmental pollutions.