- StatPearls: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) [BOOK]StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)BOOK
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often a disabling condition consisting of bothersome intrusive thoughts that elicit a feeling of discomfort. To reduce the anxiety and distress associated with these thoughts, the patient may employ compulsions or rituals. These rituals may be personal and private, or they may involve others to participate; the rituals are to compensate for the ego-dystonic…
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often a disabling condition consisting of bothersome intrusive thoughts that elicit a feeling of discomfort. To reduce the anxiety and distress associated with these thoughts, the patient may employ compulsions or rituals. These rituals may be personal and private, or they may involve others to participate; the rituals are to compensate for the ego-dystonic feelings of the obsessional thoughts and can cause a significant decline in function. In The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5, which was published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 2013, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder sits under its own category of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. Within that are the following subcategories were placed: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Hoarding disorder. Trichotillomania. Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder. Substance/medication-induced obsessive-compulsive and related disorder. Obsessive-compulsive and related disorder as a result of another medical condition. Other specified obsessive-compulsive and related disorder. Unspecified obsessive-compulsive and related disorder. A. Presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both: Obsessions are defined by (1) and (2): 1. Recurrent thoughts, urges, or images that are experienced, at some time during the disturbance, as unwanted, and that in most individuals cause marked distress. 2. The individual attempts to suppress such thoughts, urges, or images, with some other thought or action (i.e., by replacing with a compulsion). Compulsions are defined by (1) and (2): 1. Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession. 2. The behaviors or mental acts aim at reducing anxiety or distress or preventing some dreaded situation; however, these behaviors or mental actions do not connect in a realistic way with what they are designed to prevent or are clearly excessive. B. The obsessions are time-consuming or cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. C. The obsessive-compulsive symptoms do not arise from the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or another medical condition. D. The symptoms of another mental disorder do not better explain the disturbance (e.g., excessive worries, as might be found in a generalized anxiety disorder; preoccupation with appearance, as seen in a body dysmorphic disorder; difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, as found in a hoarding disorder; hair pulling, as in trichotillomania a hair-pulling disorder; skin picking, as appears in excoriation [skin-picking] disorder; stereotypies, as found in a in stereotypic movement disorder; ritualized eating behavior, as found in eating disorders; preoccupation with substances or gambling, as seen in a in substance-related and addictive disorders; preoccupation with having an illness, as found in illness anxiety disorder; sexual urges or fantasies, as found in a paraphilic disorders; impulses, as seen in a disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders; guilty ruminations, as occurs in a major depressive disorder; thought insertion or delusional preoccupations, as found in schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders; or repetitive behavior patterns, as found in an autism spectrum disorder). Obsessions are defined as intrusive thoughts or urges that cause significant distress; the patient attempts to neutralize this distress by diverting thoughts or performing rituals. Compulsions are actions the patient feels pressured to do in response to the anxiety/distress producing obsessions or to prevent an uncomfortable situation from occurring. These compulsions may be illogical or excessive. The most common obsessions include fears of contamination, fears of aggression/harm, sexual fears, religious fears, and need to make things “just right.” The compensatory compulsions for these obsessions include washing and cleaning, checking, reassurance-seeking, repeating, and ordering, and arranging. As OCD has the possibility of hindering one’s social grown and development, the WHO lists OCD as one of the ten most disabling conditions by financial loss and a decrease in quality of life. Termed “obsessional neurosis” by Freud in 1895, OCD has had acknowledgment for centuries. However, only recently has the DSM listed OCD as less of an “anxiety” disorder, and more of a disorder similar to hoarding, body dysmorphia, trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) and excoriation (skin-picking) disorder. The use of modern technology has allowed us to map areas of the brain that have been affected by this disorder. These areas of the brain do not typically correspond with anxiety and fear as previously thought and further separate OCD as an “anxiety” disorder.
- Kleptomania treated with naltrexone in a patient with intellectual disability [Journal Article]J Psychiatry Neurosci 2020; 45(1):71-72JP
- [Gambling and Gaming disorders and physical health of players: A critical review of the literature]. [Journal Article]Presse Med 2019; 48(12):1551-1568PM
- CONCLUSIONS: Data reported in this review documented that individuals with gaming or gambling disorders have an impaired physical health. Knowledge of the symptoms reported could help primary care physicians to better screen for gambling and gaming disorders among their patients.
- Response Inhibition and Emotional Regulation in the Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbidity of Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders. [Journal Article]Psychiatry Investig 2019; 16(11):872-874PI
- Validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the kleptomania symptom assessment scale: A comparison between individuals with kleptomania and prisoners in Japan. [Journal Article]Compr Psychiatry 2020; 96:152133CP
- CONCLUSIONS: The Japanese version of the K-SAS is a useful assessment tool for distinguishing between individuals with kleptomania and shoplifters not affected by the disorder in Japan.
- Legislative Capture: A Critical Consideration in the Commercial Determinants of Public Health. [Journal Article]J Law Med 2019; 26(4):764-785JL
- Contemporary public health literature contains an increasing emphasis on the commercial determinants of health including the influence of unhealthy food, beverage and tobacco industries on government harm prevention policy agendas and global sustainable development goals. Effective capture by the industries of the crucial legislative process associated with the harm prevention initiatives would h…
Contemporary public health literature contains an increasing emphasis on the commercial determinants of health including the influence of unhealthy food, beverage and tobacco industries on government harm prevention policy agendas and global sustainable development goals. Effective capture by the industries of the crucial legislative process associated with the harm prevention initiatives would have a detrimental impact on public health. This article proposes a qualitative multi-spectrum prototype legislative capture test with broad application to a range of industries and jurisdictions at all levels of government where legislative capture may be suspected. It is predicated on a finding of significant encroachment of the public interest (PI) by special interest groups and reciprocating beneficial conduct between the lawmakers and the group. The test is populated from a critical case study of key New South Wales (NSW) alcohol industry statutory amendments within a doctrinal and social inquiry/power framework. It relies upon parliamentary records and secondary data to analyse critically the 2015 "fit for purpose" (FFP) reforms to NSW alcohol supply laws and their consistency with the PI and other constitutional safeguards. It aligns the reforms with other research relating to the magnitude of alcohol and gambling industry political donations and the operation of the alcohol outlet post reform approval process. The application of the test to the case study finds that the 2015 FFP amendments are indicative of legislative capture and associated clientele corruption - critical new considerations in the commercial determination of health. It also identifies the commodification of the PI.
- Isolating the impact of specific gambling activities and modes on problem gambling and psychological distress in internet gamblers. [Journal Article]BMC Public Health 2019; 19(1):1372BP
- CONCLUSIONS: This study advances our understanding of how specific gambling activities are associated with disordered gambling and psychological distress in users of Internet gambling services. Our results suggest that among Internet gamblers, online and land-based EGMs are strongly associated with gambling disorder severity. High overall gambling engagement is an important predictor of gambling-related harms, nonetheless, venue-based EGMs, sports betting and casinos warrant specific attention to address gambling-related harms and psychological distress among gamblers.
- Efficacy of an Individualized Computer-Assisted Social Competence Training Program for Children With Oppositional Defiant Disorders/Conduct Disorders. [Journal Article]Front Psychiatry 2019; 10:682FP
- Group-based child-centered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children with aggressive behavior has been found to significantly reduce child behavior problems. Nevertheless, most children suffer from residual symptoms at the end of treatment. Therefore, individualized interventions that treat the specific problem-maintaining factors and that use digital support may enhance treatment effects. …
Group-based child-centered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for children with aggressive behavior has been found to significantly reduce child behavior problems. Nevertheless, most children suffer from residual symptoms at the end of treatment. Therefore, individualized interventions that treat the specific problem-maintaining factors and that use digital support may enhance treatment effects. However, enhanced computer-facilitated interventions have not been examined in clinical samples. Therefore, we tested the efficacy of an individualized computer-facilitated social skills training for children with clinically referred aggressive behavior problems. Fifty children aged 6-12 years with peer-related aggressive behavior problems were included in a within-subject design with two phases (waiting, treatment). The course of the outcome measures during an 8-week waiting phase was compared with that in the subsequent treatment phase (16 weekly child sessions and 2 parent psychoeducation contacts at the beginning of the treatment) using multilevel modeling. The primary outcome was peer-related aggressive behavior rated by parents. Further outcome measures included parent ratings and patient self-reports of aggressive and prosocial behavior. No significant changes occurred for any of the outcome variables during the waiting phase. During treatment, most parent-rated outcome measures (including the primary outcome measure) showed a significant decrease, which was stronger than changes in the waiting phase. Most self-rated outcome measures also showed significant decreases during treatment, but a stronger decrease than in the waiting phase was only found for peer-related aggressive behavior. The computer-facilitated social skills training appears to be an effective CBT intervention for children with peer-related aggressive behavior.
- Cognitive Distortions of Patients in the Gambling Addicts' Club - Differences with Regard to Age and Length of Treatment. [Journal Article]Psychiatr Danub 2019; 31(3):316-324PD
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study lead to the indirect conclusion that length of treatment is a positive factor, which likely influences gamblers' cognitive distortions. This conclusion certainly requires additional examination using longitudinal studies, which would provide a better overview of whether these differences are in fact due to the length of treatment and also to confirm its value for future abstinence from gambling activities.
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- Gatekeeper functions of general practices regarding behavioural addiction. [Letter]Br J Gen Pract 2019; 69(687):489BJ