- Understanding the Orthodox Jewish family during childbirth. [Journal Article]
- NFNurs Forum 2019; 54(2):220-226
- CONCLUSIONS: The GEM facilitated students' understanding and knowledge of cultural traditions of the Orthodox Jewish childbirth experience. Lonergan's GEM provided insights and reflection so students could become culturally competent in providing nursing care.
- Hope, Material Resources, and Subjective Well-Being of 8- to 12-Year-Old Children in Israel. [Journal Article]
- CDChild Dev 2019; 90(2):344-358
- Few studies have examined the links among hope, material resources, and subjective well-being (SWB) of children from their own perspectives. The article examines lack of material resources as a risk …
Few studies have examined the links among hope, material resources, and subjective well-being (SWB) of children from their own perspectives. The article examines lack of material resources as a risk factor, hope as a human strength, and a possible moderator regarding children's SWB. The study employed a nationally representative sample of 2,977 Jewish and Arab Israeli children (ages 8-12). As predicted, there was a significant positive relation between hope and SWB, and a negative relation between lack of material resources and SWB. Hope was found to moderate the relation between lack of material resources and SWB. Furthermore, for 10- and 12-year olds, differences were found regarding the strength of the relations of the variables, suggesting a possible developmental trend.
- Novel multiplex PCR-RFLP assay discriminates bovine, porcine and fish gelatin substitution in Asian pharmaceuticals capsule shells. [Journal Article]
- FAFood Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2018; 35(9):1662-1673
- Gelatin is widely used in pharmaceuticals as a protective coating, such as soft and hard capsule shells. However, the animal source of gelatin is a sensitive issue because certain gelatins such as po…
Gelatin is widely used in pharmaceuticals as a protective coating, such as soft and hard capsule shells. However, the animal source of gelatin is a sensitive issue because certain gelatins such as porcine and bovine gelatins are not welcome in Halal, Kosher and Hindus' consumer goods. Recently, we have documented DNA barcoding and multiplex PCR platforms for discriminating porcine, bovine and fish gelatins in various fish and confectionary products; but those assays were not self-authenticating and also not tested in highly refined pharmaceutical products. To address this knowledge gap, here we report a self-authenticating multiplex PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay to identify animal sources of various gelatin in pharmaceutical capsules. Three different restriction enzymes, BsaAI, Hpy188I and BcoDI were used to yield distinctive RFLP patterns for gelatin-based bovine (26, 94 bp), fish (97, 198 bp) and porcine (17, 70 bp) DNA in control experiments. The specificity was cross-tested against 16 non-target species and the optimised assay was used to screen gelatin sources in 30 halal-branded pharmaceuticals capsule shells. Bovine and porcine DNA was found in 27 and 3 of the 30 different capsules products. The assay was suitable for detecting 0.1 to 0.01 ng total DNA extracted from pure and mixed gelatins. The study might be useful to authenticate and monitor halal, kosher, vegetarian and Hindu compliant pharmaceuticals, foods and cosmetics.
- A stepwise approach for the detection of carminic acid in saffron with regard to religious food certification. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2018 Nov 30; 267:410-419
- The stepwise approach takes advantage of simple, versatile, low-cost screening tools that can be applied to several posts of the saffron trade chain to specifically detect adulteration with carminic …
The stepwise approach takes advantage of simple, versatile, low-cost screening tools that can be applied to several posts of the saffron trade chain to specifically detect adulteration with carminic acid (CA). This natural dye is of insect origin and should not be present in Kosher and Halal foods such as saffron. For gross adulteration levels (>25.0%, w/w) reaction with diphenylamine-sulfuric acid was found adequate to indicate the presence of extraneous matter but not its identity. FT-IR analysis of the dry material combined with chemometrics served to rapidly sort out samples containing >10.0% CA without any sample pretreatment except grinding. Aqueous extracts prepared according to ISO 3632-2 were then examined by tristimulus colorimetry and derivative UV-Vis spectrometry to detect adulteration down to the level of 2.0% (w/w). Determination of CA down to 0.2%, w/w was achieved by RP-HPLC-DAD using aqueous acetonitrile elution solvent (pH=2.8).
- Structural Modification of Fish Gelatin by the Addition of Gellan, κ-Carrageenan, and Salts Mimics the Critical Physicochemical Properties of Pork Gelatin. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Sci 2018; 83(5):1280-1291
- Pork gelatin is not suitable for halal and kosher application; however, fish gelatin (FG) can be modified for use as a pork gelatin (PG) mimetic. Herein, low-acyl gellan (GE), κ-carrageenan (KC), and…
Pork gelatin is not suitable for halal and kosher application; however, fish gelatin (FG) can be modified for use as a pork gelatin (PG) mimetic. Herein, low-acyl gellan (GE), κ-carrageenan (KC), and salts (CaCl2 or KCl) were combined with a 180 Bloom tilapia FG. A formulation comprising 5.925% (w/v) FG + 0.025% (w/v) GE + 3mM CaCl2 best matched the physicochemical properties of PG. The modification increased the FG gel strength from 115 ± 2 to 149 ± 2 g (matching the 148 ± 2 of PG), while the Tm increased from 27.9 ± 1.0 to 32.4 ± 0.8 °C (matching the 33.1 ± 0.3 °C of PG). Nanoaggregates (diameter between 150 and 300 nm) could be an important structural factor affecting the physicochemical properties, as both PG and GE-modified FG showed a similar frequency distribution in this size group (57.4 ± 1.6% (PG) compared with 56.3 ± 2.2% (modified FG)). To further explore the differences between KC and GE in modifying of FG's structure, the FG-KC and FG-GE gels were compared. The zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results for the FG-KC gel supported an associative interaction with complex formation, as indicated from the large aggregates and amorphous phase under atomic force microscopy (AFM). Contrastingly, a segregative FG-GE interaction took place in presence of CaCl2 . These structures and interaction differences between FG-GE and FG-KC influenced the macro-properties of FG, possibly explaining the differences in the modification of the melting temperature of FG. A diagram representing the interaction-structure-physicochemical properties was proposed to explain the differences between the FG-GE and FG-KC gels.
- Analysis of Stress Indicators for Evaluation of Animal Welfare and Meat Quality in Traditional and Jewish Slaughtering. [Journal Article]
- AAnimals (Basel) 2018 Mar 21; 8(4)
- Sixty Charolais male beef cattle of eight months of age were divided into two groups according to the slaughtering method, i.e., traditional or Kosher (religious Jewish rite). The aim of the study wa…
Sixty Charolais male beef cattle of eight months of age were divided into two groups according to the slaughtering method, i.e., traditional or Kosher (religious Jewish rite). The aim of the study was to detect and compare the plasma concentrations of cortisol and catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine), by Elisa and HPLC test. These four stress indicators were evaluated during three different stages of each animal productive life: on the farm (step 1), after transportation (step 2) and during bleeding (step 3). The patterns of the parameters measured were similar and, interestingly, revealed significant changes throughout the three steps considered. The greatest variation between the two methods of slaughtering was observed in step 3, where we found a statistically significant difference with all the parameters except epinephrine. In the animals slaughtered by the religious rite, cortisol, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine were 68.70 ± 30.61 nmol/L; 868.43 ± 508.52 ng/L; 3776.20 ± 1918.44 ng/L; and 4352.20 ± 3730.15 ng/L, respectively, versus 45.08 ± 14.15 nmol/L; 513.87 ± 286.32 ng/L; 3425.57 ± 1777.39 ng/L; and 3279.97 ± 1954.53 ng/L, respectively, in the other animals. This suggests that the animals slaughtered by the Kosher rite are subjected to higher stress conditions at the exsanguination phase. The animals slaughtered by the religious Jewish rite showed lower cortisol and catecholamine levels on the farm (step 1) and after transportation to the slaughterhouse (step 2). This was likely because the animals selected at the end of step 1 by the Rabbis for the religious rite are usually the most docile and gentle.
- Evaluation of Catalytic Effects of Chymotrypsin and Cu2+ for Development of UV-Spectroscopic Method for Gelatin-Source Differentiation. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Food Sci 2017; 2017:2576394
- The consumers interest in gelatin authentication is high due to allergic reactions and adoption of Halal and Kosher eating cultures. This research investigated browning development due to enzymatic h…
The consumers interest in gelatin authentication is high due to allergic reactions and adoption of Halal and Kosher eating cultures. This research investigated browning development due to enzymatic hydrolysis and presence of Cu2+ during Maillard reaction of fish, porcine, and bovine gelatin. The rate of browning index samples showed two phases-rapid and slow-for all the gelatin samples and changes in browning index (ΔBindex) were increased (>100%) in presence of Cu2+. ΔBindex of enzymatic hydrolysates were different among the gelatin species. Fish gelatin hydrolyzate displayed > 400% increase in browning in the first six hours compared to gelatin hydrolyzates from porcine (200%) and bovine (140%). The variation in ΔBindex of chymotrypsin digested gelatin in presence of Cu2+ could be valuable for the development of an efficient UV-spectroscopic method for gelatin differentiation.
- Regulatory science requirements of labeling of genetically modified food. [Review]
- CRCrit Rev Biotechnol 2018; 38(3):386-393
- This paper provides an overview of the evolution of food labeling in the USA. It briefly describes the three phases of agricultural development consisting of naturally occurring, cross-bred, and gene…
This paper provides an overview of the evolution of food labeling in the USA. It briefly describes the three phases of agricultural development consisting of naturally occurring, cross-bred, and genetically engineered, edited or modified crops, otherwise known as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). It uses the Best Available Regulatory Science (BARS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science Claims (MERSC) to evaluate the scientific validity of claims applicable to GMO and the Best Available Public Information (BAPI) to evaluate the pronouncements by public media and others. Subsequently claims on health risk, ecological risk, consumer choice, and corporate greed are evaluated based on BARS/MERSC and BAPI. The paper concludes by suggesting that labeling of food containing GMO should consider the consumer's choice, such as the food used by those who desire kosher and halal food. Furthermore, the consumer choice is already met by the exclusion of GMO in organic food.
- Public awareness of halal and kosher slaughter. [Letter]
- VRVet Rec 2017 08 05; 181(6):149-150
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- Meat from cattle slaughtered without stunning sold in the conventional market without appropriate labelling: A case study in Italy. [Journal Article]
- MSMeat Sci 2017; 134:1-6
- In the European Union, slaughter without stunning is allowed for religious slaughter to obtain halal and kosher meat. Especially in the case of Jewish slaughtering, cuts which are not deemed as koshe…
In the European Union, slaughter without stunning is allowed for religious slaughter to obtain halal and kosher meat. Especially in the case of Jewish slaughtering, cuts which are not deemed as kosher are sold to regular market without any specific labelling. This survey, conducted in Tuscany in 2016, aimed to quantify the carcasses rejected in relation to the type of religious slaughter. 656 bovines were slaughtered without stunning: 538 (82%) for halal and 118 (18%) for kosher. All carcasses slaughtered by the Islamic procedure (dhabiha) were considered halal, while 77.1% of carcasses slaughtered by the Jewish procedure (shechita) did not pass the approval. Carcasses were rejected after chest cavity inspection (50%) and after the lungs control (50%). This study provides an important insight in this field and postulates how to amalgamate the concepts of freedom of religion, as enshrined by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU, with consumer rights and animal welfare.