- Comparative gill and liver pathology of Tilapia zilli, Clarias gariepinus and Neochanna diversus in owan river (Nigeria): Relative ecological risks of species in a pesticide-impacted river. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2019 Jun 08; 234:1-13
- The dissimilar ecological behavior of species including, extent of mobility and feeding strategies, may predispose them to greater toxic effects. This hypothesis was tested by histological-based asse…
The dissimilar ecological behavior of species including, extent of mobility and feeding strategies, may predispose them to greater toxic effects. This hypothesis was tested by histological-based assessment of gills and liver of pelagic (Tilapia zilli) and benthic (Clarias gariepinus and Neochanna diversus) fish species of River Owan. The fish species were sampled monthly across seasons from river sites where they were observed to be most abundant. The pathologies were examined from light micrographs, and severity was evaluated by semi-quantitative analyses. Gill pathology of Tilapiazilli showed a moderate occurrence of shortened secondary lamellae, compared with Clarias gariepinus and Neochanna diversus which showed a high incidence of very distinct structural disruptions including epithelial lifting, collapsed secondary lamella structure due to pilaster disruption. Although hepatocellular damage, fibrotic biliary disruptions and parasite incidence were the most evident pathological features in liver of all species, parasite variety and lesion severity differed across species. Principal component analysis (PCA) associated benthic species with more severe gills and liver pathologies, indicating that, benthic species in the Owan riverscape were more at risks compared to pelagic species. As such, we successfully demonstrate that relative ecological risks and potential adverse health effects on fish species could be dependent on ecological behavior and preferences. Conservation efforts particularly for endangered species could be better developed if relative risks and vulnerability of species are understood.
- Synthesis of Nanohydroxyapatite from Cuttlefish Bone (Sepia sp.) Using Milling Method. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biomater 2019; 2019:1831208
- The synthesis of nanohydroxyapatite from cuttlefish bone (Sepia sp.) has been done by using High Energy Milling (HEM) and its characterization in vitro as bone repair. This study aimed to determine t…
The synthesis of nanohydroxyapatite from cuttlefish bone (Sepia sp.) has been done by using High Energy Milling (HEM) and its characterization in vitro as bone repair. This study aimed to determine the effect of the milling process on microscopic properties and mechanical properties of nano-HA through XRD, TEM, and compressive strength tests. The hydroxyapatite (HA) used in this study consisted of 1M CaCO3 from aragonite which was extracted from cuttlefish lamella bone (Sepia sp.) and 0.6 M NH4H2PO4, which was hydrothermally processed at 200°C for 12 h and then sintered at 900°C for 1h. Parameter milling includes the variation of milling time, i.e., 3 h, 6 h, and 9 h at rotational speed of 350 rpm. An increase in milling time causes a decrease in HA particle size. This is shown from the results of TEM at the milling time of 9 h with the smallest size up to 65 nm. The result of cell viability test showed that all samples are not toxic with cell viability value of >80%. The milling time of 9 h was an optimum condition with a compressive strength of 4.35952 MPa that can be applied to cancellous bone.
- Structural Evolution in Isothermal Crystallization Process of Poly(L-lactic acid) Enhanced by Silk Fibroin Nano-Disc. [Journal Article]
- MMaterials (Basel) 2019 Jun 10; 12(11)
- The nucleating effect of silk fibroin nano-disc (SFN) on the crystallization behavior of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was investigated by simultaneous synchrotron small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering…
The nucleating effect of silk fibroin nano-disc (SFN) on the crystallization behavior of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was investigated by simultaneous synchrotron small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements. For the isothermal crystallization at 110 °C from the melt, the induction period of the PLLA specimens containing 1% SFN was reduced compared to that of the neat specimens, indicating the acceleration of the nucleation of PLLA. The final degree of crystallinity was also increased, and the crystallization half-time was decreased, which indicates that the overall crystallization process was accelerated. Furthermore, the final value of the crystallite size (the lateral size of the crystalline lamella) was slightly lower for the specimens containing 1% SFN than that for the PLLA neat specimen, although the crystallites started growing much earlier. However, it was found that there was no effect of SFN on the growth rate of the crystallite size. The lamellar thickening process was also accelerated with a clear overshooting phenomenon with the inclusion of 1% SFN. As for the polymorphism, the α' phase is dominant with about 96%, but a small amount of the α phase (4%) is found to exist. It was found that the SFN can also accelerate the formation of the minor α phase as well as the major α' phase.
- Droplet impact: Viscosity and wettability effects on splashing. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Colloid Interface Sci 2019 May 31; 553:22-30
- The wettability of a surface affects the splashing behavior of a droplet upon impact onto a surface only when surface exhibits either a very high or a very low contact angle. Viscosity affects the sp…
The wettability of a surface affects the splashing behavior of a droplet upon impact onto a surface only when surface exhibits either a very high or a very low contact angle. Viscosity affects the splashing threshold in a non-monotony way.
- Lower eyelid reconstruction with pericranium graft and Mustarde flap. [Journal Article]
- ASArch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2019 Jun 03
- We report the case of a 68-year-old man with a left lower eyelid basal cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Resection was performed under frozen section technique and the defect (inner canth…
We report the case of a 68-year-old man with a left lower eyelid basal cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Resection was performed under frozen section technique and the defect (inner canthus, two thirds of the lower eyelid and 2.5cm of the cheek) reconstructed 2 days after surgery in a single surgical operation: posterior lamella with pericranial graft and anterior lamella with Mustarde flap. After one year of follow-up, the patient has an adequate appearance, good eyelid support and position, vascularized tissue like the native eyelid and no tumor recurrence.
- POSTOPERATIVE THINNING OF LAMELLAR DONOR GRAFT AFTER CONVENTIONAL DESCEMET'S STRIPPING AUTOMATED ENDOTHELIAL KERATOPLASTY. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Clin Croat 2018; 57(4):653-657
- - The purpose of this study was to evaluate postoperative deturgescence of lamellar donor graft after conventional Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). It was a prospectiv…
- The purpose of this study was to evaluate postoperative deturgescence of lamellar donor graft after conventional Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). It was a prospective study that included 55 eyes of patients (mean age 70.9±9.4 years; female 61.8%, male 38.2%). Preoperative thickness of lamella was compared with postoperative thickness six months after surgery. Central lamellar graft thickness decreased from 142±27 µm preoperatively to 124±20 µm 6 months postoperatively (p<0.01). After performing conventional DSAEK corneal transplantation, surgeons should expect deturgescence of corneal graft and reduction in thickness of lamellae by about 12% of initial thickness according to our results. We found this information important for better planning of surgical procedures and knowing what to expect after surgery, as well as for better cooperation with eye banks when ordering pre-cut corneal tissue.
- Development of the human principal inferior olivary nucleus: A morphometric and computerized 3D-reconstruction study. [Journal Article]
- NLNeurosci Lett 2019 May 29; 707:134302
- CONCLUSIONS: After mid-gestation, the period of 21-29 PW may be critical, because the PO undergoes extensive folding after massive neuronal death.
- p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) phosphorylates myosin phosphatase and thereby controls edge dynamics during cell migration. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Chem 2019 May 28
- Cell migration is essential to embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer cell dissemination. Cells move via leading-edge protrusion, substrate adhesion, and retraction of the cell's rear. The …
Cell migration is essential to embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer cell dissemination. Cells move via leading-edge protrusion, substrate adhesion, and retraction of the cell's rear. The molecular mechanisms by which extracellular cues signal to the actomyosin cytoskeleton to control these motility mechanics are poorly understood. The growth factor-responsive and oncogenically activated protein extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) promotes motility by signaling in actin polymerization-mediated edge protrusion. Using a combination of immunoblotting, co-immunoprecipitation and myosin binding experiments, and cell migration assays, we show here that ERK also signals to the contractile machinery through its substrate, p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). We probed the signaling and migration dynamics of multiple mammalian cell lines and found that RSK phosphorylates myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) at Ser-507, which promotes an interaction of Rho kinase (ROCK) with MYPT1 and inhibits myosin targeting. We find that by inhibiting the myosin phosphatase, ERK and RSK promote myosin II-mediated tension for lamella expansion and optimal edge dynamics for cell migration. These findings suggest that ERK activity can coordinately amplify both protrusive and contractile forces for optimal cell motility.
- Subcellular dissolution of xylan and lignin for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis of microwave assisted deep eutectic solvent pretreated Pinus bungeana Zucc. [Journal Article]
- BTBioresour Technol 2019 May 14; 288:121475
- The mechanism for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis during microwave-assisted deep eutectic solvent (Mw-DES) pretreatment in deconstruction of plant cell wall was proposed by combining wet chemical anal…
The mechanism for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis during microwave-assisted deep eutectic solvent (Mw-DES) pretreatment in deconstruction of plant cell wall was proposed by combining wet chemical analysis and microscopic measurements. Mw-DES pretreatment achieved significantly higher enzymatic conversion of 81.90% with lower lignin and comparable xylan removal (42.81% and 74.73%, respectively). While DES pretreated sample with higher lignin and xylan removal (66.59% and 74.93%, respectively) obtained limited sugar yield (45.67%). There were no significant differences with respect to chemical structures of lignin fraction between DES and Mw-DES pretreatment but primary discrepancies of topochemical and morphological changes were observed. Non- or low-substituted xylan was directly removed from secondary walls (SW) exposed more cellulose for enzyme attacking after Mw-DES pretreatment. Meanwhile, high-substituted xylan and lignin were synergistically dissolved from cell corner middle lamella (CCML). These topochemical changes of components resulted in cracked and porous cell wall structure, thus facilitating the accessibility of cellulose.
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- Rosa hybrida RhERF1 and RhERF4 Mediate Ethylene and Auxin-Regulated Petal Abscission by Influencing Pectin Degradation. [Journal Article]
- PJPlant J 2019 May 20
- The timing of plant organ abscission is modulated by the balance of two hormones, ethylene and auxin, while the mechanism of organ shedding depends on the loss of middle lamella pectin in the absciss…
The timing of plant organ abscission is modulated by the balance of two hormones, ethylene and auxin, while the mechanism of organ shedding depends on the loss of middle lamella pectin in the abscission zone (AZ). However, the mechanisms involved in sensing the balance of auxin and ethylene, and that affect pectin degradation during abscission, are not well understood. In this study, we identified two APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor family members in rose (Rosa hybrida), RhERF1 and RhERF4, which play a role in petal abscission. The expression of RhERF1 and RhERF4 was influenced by ethylene and auxin, respectively. Reduced expression of RhERF1 or RhERF4 was observed to accelerate petal abscission. Global expression analysis and real time (RT)-PCR assays revealed that RhERF1 and RhERF4 modulate the expression of genes encoding pectin metabolizing enzymes. A reduction in the abundance of pectin epitopes was detected in the AZs of RhERF1 or RhERF4-silenced plants by immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. In addition, RhERF1 and RhERF4 were shown to bind to the promoter of pectin metabolizing gene β-GALACTOSIDASE 1 (RhBGLA1), and reduced expression of RhBGLA1 delayed petal abscission. We conclude that during petal abscission, RhERF1 and RhERF4 integrate and coordinate ethylene and auxin signals to modulate pectin metabolism in part by regulating RhBGLA1 expression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.