- One plus one does not always equal two, especially with regard to hypomethylating agents: The question of synergy of azacitidine and lenalidomide for treatment of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes post allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. [Journal Article]
- ERExpert Rev Hematol 2019 Jun 21
- Key paper evaluation: Craddock C, et al. Combination Lenalidomide and Azacitidine: A Novel Salvage Therapy in Patients Who Relapse After Allogeneic Stem-Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemi…
Key paper evaluation: Craddock C, et al. Combination Lenalidomide and Azacitidine: A Novel Salvage Therapy in Patients Who Relapse After Allogeneic Stem-Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2019; 37: 580-8. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) is the only potentially curative treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). However, most patients relapse after allo-HSCT and treatment options are limited. Craddock et al. reported recently in the Journal of Clinical Oncology results from a small phase Ib study combining azacitidine (AZA) and lenalidomide (LEN) for treatment of 29 patients (24 AML and 5 MDS patients) who relapsed after allo-HSCT. Overall response rate was 24%. Patients who received ≥3 cycles of treatment had a higher response rate and responders had a better survival compared to non-responders (27 months vs. 10 months; p=0.004). Combination treatment was well-tolerated with 3 cases of graft-versus-host disease. While this study suggests a potential synergistic effect of LEN + AZA combination therapy, many questions remain. Efficacy and safety should be confirmed in larger, ideally randomized, studies. Further research on mechanism of action of this combination, comparison with other treatment combinations (e.g. AZA + venetoclax) and use during other disease stages are needed.
- Daratumumab-based regimens are highly effective and well tolerated in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma regardless of patient age: subgroup analysis of the phase 3 CASTOR and POLLUX studies. [Journal Article]
- HHaematologica 2019 Jun 20
- The phase 3 POLLUX and CASTOR studies demonstrated superior benefit of daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone or bortezomib/dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Efficacy and sa…
The phase 3 POLLUX and CASTOR studies demonstrated superior benefit of daratumumab plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone or bortezomib/dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Efficacy and safety of daratumumab was analysed according to age groups of 65 to 74 years and ≥75 years. Patients received ≥1 prior line of therapy. In POLLUX, patients received lenalidomide/dexamethasone ± daratumumab (16 mg/kg weekly, Cycles 1-2; every 2 weeks, Cycles 3-6; monthly until progression). In CASTOR, patients received eight cycles of bortezomib/dexamethasone ± daratumumab (16 mg/kg weekly, Cycles 1-3; every 3 weeks, Cycles 4-8; monthly until progression). Patients aged >75 years received dexamethasone 20 mg weekly. For patients aged ≥75 years in POLLUX (median follow-up: 25.4 months), daratumumab/lenalidomide/dexamethasone prolonged progression-free survival versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (median: 28.9 versus 11.4 months; hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.69; P=0.0042) and increased overall response rate (93.1% versus 76.5%; P=0.0740). Neutropenia was the most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse event (daratumumab: 44.8%; control: 31.4%). Infusion-related reactions occurred in 12 (41.4%) patients. For patients aged ≥75 years in CASTOR (median follow-up: 19.4 months), daratumumab/bortezomib/dexamethasone prolonged progression-free survival versus bortezomib/dexamethasone (median: 17.9 versus 8.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.65; P=0.0022) and increased overall response rate (95.0% vs 78.8%; P=0.1134). Thrombocytopenia was the most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse event (daratumumab: 45.0%; control: 37.1%). Infusion-related reactions occurred in 13 (65.0%) patients. Similar findings were reported for patients aged 65 to 74 years in both studies. Taken together, this subgroup analysis of efficacy and safety of daratumumab was largely consistent with the overall populations.
- Variable global distribution of cell-of-origin from the ROBUST phase 3 study in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. [Journal Article]
- HHaematologica 2019 Jun 20
- Outcome of paraosseous extra-medullary disease in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients treated with new drugs. [Journal Article]
- HHaematologica 2019 Jun 20
- Extramedullary disease is relatively frequent in multiple myeloma, but our knowledge on the subject is limited and mainly relies on small case series or single center experiences. Little is known reg…
Extramedullary disease is relatively frequent in multiple myeloma, but our knowledge on the subject is limited and mainly relies on small case series or single center experiences. Little is known regarding the role of new drugs in this setting. We performed a meta-analysis of 8 trials focused on the description of extramedullary disease characteristics, clinical outcome, and response to new drugs. A total of 2332 newly diagnosed myeloma patients have been included, 267 (11.4%) had extramedullary disease, defined as paraosseous in 243 (10.4%), extramedullary plasmocytoma in 12 (0.5%), and not classified in 12 (0.5%) patients. Median progression-free survival was 25.3 months and 25.2 in extramedullary disease and non-extramedullary disease patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis the presence of extramedullary disease did not impact on progression-free survival (hazard ratio 1.15, p=0.06), while other known prognostic factors retained their significance. Patients treated with immunomodulatory drugs, mainly lenalidomide, or proteasome inhibitors had similar progression-free survival and progression-free survival-2 regardless of extramedullary disease presence. Median overall survival was 63.5 months and 79.9 months (p=0.01) in extramedullary and non-extramedullary disease patients, respectively, and in multivariate analysis the presence of extramedullary disease was associated with a reduced overall survival (hazard ratio 1.41, p<0.001), in line with other prognostic factors. With the limits of the low sensitivity imaging techniques used in this trial, that lead to an underestimation of extramedullary disease, we conclude that in patients treated with new drugs the detrimental effect of extramedullary disease at diagnosis is limited, that lenalidomide is effective as are proteasome inhibitors, and that these patients tend to acquire a more aggressive disease in later stages. (EUDRACT2005-004714-32, NCT01063179 NCT00551928, NCT01091831, NCT01093196, NCT01190787, NCT01346787, NCT01857115).
- A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and adverse events of azacitidine-plus-lenalidomide treatment for patients with acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia 1. [Journal Article]
- HHematology 2019; 24(1):498-506
- CONCLUSIONS: The current study may serve as a preliminary data to suggest that the addition of LEN may offer incremental benefit to patients with high-risk MDS, AML and CMML. However, randomized-controlled studies that directly compare the efficacy and adverse events of AZA-plus-LEN regimen versus AZA monotherapy are still needed.
- Orthotopic heart transplant rejection in association with immunomodulatory therapy for AL amyloidosis: a case series and review of the literature. [Case Reports]
- AJAm J Transplant 2019 Jun 17
- Although end-organ damage caused by AL amyloidosis historically portends a poor prognosis, advances in therapy in combination with solid organ transplantation can lead to significant improvements in …
Although end-organ damage caused by AL amyloidosis historically portends a poor prognosis, advances in therapy in combination with solid organ transplantation can lead to significant improvements in survival. Immunomodulatory agents (IMiDs), such as lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are an effective class of drugs in the treatment of AL amyloidosis. However, there is growing concern that these agents may precipitate acute transplant rejection via upregulation of interleukin-2 and inhibition of immune tolerance. This case series describes three patients who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation for AL amyloidosis and later had progression of their underlying plasma cell dyscrasia, leading to treatment with IMiD therapy. Two patients subsequently developed acute allograft rejection, including the first reported case of pomalidomide-associated allograft rejection. The third patient tolerated long-term therapy without signs of rejection: the first reported case of IMiD tolerability after heart transplant. These cases, together with a review of the literature, demonstrate variable outcomes and elucidate the potential risk of organ rejection associated with the use of IMiDs. When treatment with IMiDs is necessary, close surveillance and modification of immunosuppression may mitigate risks of rejection and complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- [Evaluation and Comparison of Thromboelastography and Conventional Coagulation Tests for Blood Coagulation Function in Children with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura]. [Journal Article]
- ZSZhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2019; 27(3):850-854
- CONCLUSIONS: Conventional and low doses of lenalidomide possess the same control effects and survival time for treatment of newly dingnosed patients with multiple myeloma; Despite, the initiation of effects from the low dose lenalidomide is relatively slower, it contributes to raise the overall quality of life and reduce the risk of drug toxicity.
- Molecular mechanisms of cereblon-based drugs. [Review]
- P&TPharmacol Ther 2019 Jun 14
- Thalidomide, well known for its potent teratogenicity, has been re-evaluated as a clinically effective drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Although the direct target of thalidomide had been u…
Thalidomide, well known for its potent teratogenicity, has been re-evaluated as a clinically effective drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Although the direct target of thalidomide had been unclear until recently, we identified cereblon (CRBN) as a primary direct target of this drug by affinity purification using ferrite glycidyl methacrylate (FG) beads in 2010. CRBN functions as a unique substrate receptor of cullin-RING ligase 4 (CRL4). Various ligands including thalidomide bind to CRBN and alter substrate specificity depending on compound shape, resulting in multiple beneficial effects and/or teratogenicity. Lenalidomide, a thalidomide derivative approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), induces the degradation of onco-proteins such as Ikaros and casein kinase 1 alpha (CK1α), resulting in anti-cancer effects. Recently, novel CRBN-binding compounds have been developed and their mechanisms of action have been analyzed, including identification of CRBN-related ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2s). Moreover, the 3D structure of several CRBN-ligand-substrate complexes has been determined. Ligands were shown to work as a molecular glue between CRBN and its neosubstrate. In addition, investigators have been recently developing CRBN-based proteolysis-targeting chimeras to achieve degradation of proteins of interest. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of classical and new CRBN-based drugs are described, and recent advances in this field are discussed.
- Cereblon modulators: Low molecular weight inducers of protein degradation. [Review]
- DDDrug Discov Today Technol 2019; 31:29-34
- Targeted protein degradation has become an exciting new paradigm in drug discovery with the potential to target new protein families for therapeutic intervention. In 2010, Hiroshi Handa and colleague…
Targeted protein degradation has become an exciting new paradigm in drug discovery with the potential to target new protein families for therapeutic intervention. In 2010, Hiroshi Handa and colleagues discovered that the drug thalidomide binds to the protein cereblon, a component of the CRL4CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase. In contrast to the heterobifunctional small molecule degraders reported in the literature, thalidomide is of very low molecular weight (∼258Da) with molecular properties (solubility, metabolic stability, permeability etc) that readily support pharmaceutical dosing. It was subsequently shown that thalidomide and the analogues lenalidomide and pomalidomide are able to degrade the transcription factors Ikaros and Aiolos. CK1α and GSPT1 were subsequently identified as substrates for specific ligands, indicating that this molecular class could be tuned for selective protein degradation. Structural studies showed that the thalidomide analogues bind to a shallow hydrophobic pocket on the surface of cereblon, and scaffold a protein-protein interaction with target proteins. Target proteins do not need any affinity for the cereblon modulators, and as such undruggable, or even unligandable, proteins can be targeted for degradation. A similar mechanism of action was subsequently identified for the clinical molecule indisulam, indicating that low molecular weight degraders are not unique to cereblon. The groundbreaking work on cereblon represents a case study for the discovery and characterization of low molecular weight protein degraders for other ligases.
New Search Next
- Novel and Future Therapeutic Drugs for Advanced Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome. [Review]
- FMFront Med (Lausanne) 2019; 6:116
- Mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) are the most common subtypes of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The majority of MF cases present with only patches and plaques and the lesions are usually l…
Mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) are the most common subtypes of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The majority of MF cases present with only patches and plaques and the lesions are usually limited to the skin. On the other hand, in some cases, patients show skin tumors or erythroderma followed by lymph node involvement and rarely visceral organ involvement. SS is a rare, aggressive cutaneous T-cell lymphoma marked by exfoliative erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, and leukemic blood involvement. Because patients with relapsed or refractory MF/SS display a poor prognosis and the current treatment options are characterized by high rates of relapse, there is unmet need for the efficient treatment. This review provides a discussion of the recent and future promising therapeutic approaches in the management of advanced MF/SS. These include mogamulizumab, brentuximab vedotin, alemtuzumab, immune checkpoint inhibitors, IPH4102 (anti-KIR3DL2 antibody), histone deacetylase inhibitors (vorinostat, romidepsin, panobinostat, belinostat, and resminostat), pralatrexate, forodesine, denileukin diftitox, duvelisib, lenalidomide, and everolimus.