- Mitochondrial Respiration and H2O2 Emission in Saponin-permeabilized Murine Diaphragm Fibers: Optimization of Fiber Separation and Comparison to Limb Muscle. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Cell Physiol 2019 Jul 17
- Diaphragm abnormalities in aging or chronic diseases include impaired mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 emission, which can be measured using saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers. Mouse diaphragm pre…
Diaphragm abnormalities in aging or chronic diseases include impaired mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 emission, which can be measured using saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers. Mouse diaphragm presents a challenge for isolation of fibers due to relatively high abundance of connective tissue in healthy muscle that is exacerbated in disease states. We tested a new approach to process mouse diaphragm for assessment of intact mitochondria respiration and ROS emission in saponin-permeabilized fibers. We used the red gastrocnemius (RG) as 'standard' limb muscle. Markers of mitochondrial content were 2-4 fold higher in diaphragm (Dia) than RG (p < 0.05). Maximal O2 consumption (JO2: pmol/s/mg) in Dia was higher with glutamate, malate, and succinate (Dia 399 ± 127, RG 148 ± 60; p < 0.05) and palmitoyl-CoA + carnitine (Dia 15 ± 5, RG 7 ± 1; p < 0.05) than RG, but not different between muscles when JO2 was normalized to citrate synthase activity. Absolute JO2 for Dia was 2-4 fold higher than reported in previous studies. Mitochondrial JH2O2 was higher in Dia than RG (p < 0.05), but lower in Dia than RG when JH2O2 was normalized to citrate synthase activity. Our findings are consistent with an optimized diaphragm preparation for assessment of intact mitochondria in permeabilized fiber bundles. The data also suggest that higher mitochondrial content potentially makes the diaphragm more susceptible to 'mitochondrial-onset' myopathy. Overall, the new approach will facilitate testing and understanding of diaphragm mitochondrial function in mouse models that are used to advance biomedical research and human health.
- Malonyl CoA Decarboxylase Inhibition Improves Cardiac Function Post-Myocardial Infarction. [Journal Article]
- JBJACC Basic Transl Sci 2019; 4(3):385-400
- Alterations in cardiac energy metabolism after a myocardial infarction contribute to the severity of heart failure (HF). Although fatty acid oxidation can be impaired in HF, it is unclear if stimulat…
Alterations in cardiac energy metabolism after a myocardial infarction contribute to the severity of heart failure (HF). Although fatty acid oxidation can be impaired in HF, it is unclear if stimulating fatty acid oxidation is a desirable approach to treat HF. Both immediate and chronic malonyl coenzyme A decarboxylase inhibition, which decreases fatty acid oxidation, improved cardiac function through enhancing cardiac efficiency in a post-myocardial infarction rat that underwent permanent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. The beneficial effects of MCD inhibition were attributed to a decrease in proton production due to an improved coupling between glycolysis and glucose oxidation.
- Effects of Co-Administration of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and L-Carnitine on The Recovery of Damaged Ovaries by Performing Chemotherapy Model in Rat. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Fertil Steril 2019; 13(3):196-202
- CONCLUSIONS: The effect of co-administration of BMSC+Lc is probably more effective than the effect of their separate administration on the recovery of damaged ovaries by chemotherapy.
- Short-Term Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors α and γ Induces Tissue-Specific Effects on Lipid Metabolism and Fatty Acid Composition in Male Wistar Rats. [Journal Article]
- PRPPAR Res 2019; 2019:8047627
- Dietary fatty acids (FAs) affect certain metabolic routes, including pathways controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), but tissue-specific effects are not well-defined. …
Dietary fatty acids (FAs) affect certain metabolic routes, including pathways controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), but tissue-specific effects are not well-defined. Thus, the aim was to compare the metabolic response in hepatic, adipose, and cardiac tissues after treatment with specific PPAR agonists. Male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: a control group receiving placebo (n=8); a PPARα agonist group receiving WY-14,643 (n=6); and a PPARγ agonist group receiving rosiglitazone (n=6) for 12 days. All animals received a low-fat standard chow diet and were given a daily dose of placebo or agonist orally. Lipids and FA methyl esters were measured in plasma, liver, and heart and gene expression was measured in liver and adipose tissue, while enzyme activities were measured in liver. Treatment with the PPARα agonist was associated with higher liver mass relative to body weight (liver index), lower plasma, and hepatic total cholesterol, as well as lower plasma carnitine and acylcarnitines, compared with control. In heart, PPARα activation leads to overall lower levels of free FAs and specific changes in certain FAs, compared with control. Furthermore, β-oxidation in liver and the enzymatic activities of well-known PPARα targeted genes were higher following PPARα administration. Overall, rats treated with the PPARα agonist had higher hepatic saturated FAs (SFAs) and monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) and lower n-6 and n-3 PUFAs, compared to control. Treatment with the PPARγ agonist was associated with a lower liver index, lower plasma triglycerides (TAG) and phospholipids, and higher hepatic phospholipids, compared with control. PPARγ target genes were increased specifically in adipose tissue. Moreover, lower total cardiac FAs and SFA and higher cardiac n-6 PUFA were also associated with PPARγ activation. Altogether, there were characteristic effects of PPARα activation in liver and heart, as well as in plasma. PPARγ effects were not only confined to adipose tissue, but specific effects were also seen in liver, heart, and plasma. In conclusion, short-term treatment with PPAR agonists induced tissue-specific effects on FA composition in liver and heart. Moreover, both PPARα and PPARγ activation lowered plasma TAG and phospholipids, most likely through effects on liver and adipose tissue, respectively. In future studies we aim to reveal whether similar patterns can be found through diet-induced activation of specific pathways.
- New serum biomarker identification and analysis by mass spectrometry in cervical precancerous lesion and acute cervicitis in South China. [Journal Article]
- CMCancer Manag Res 2019; 11:6151-6162
- CONCLUSIONS: By applying molecular markers to assess the progression of the disease, the accuracy and specificity of the diagnosis can be improved, which has certain prospects in clinical applications.
- Lipoprotein(a): Current Evidence for a Physiologic Role and the Effects of Nutraceutical Strategies. [Review]
- CTClin Ther 2019 Jul 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Definitive long-term clinical trials are needed to confirm the effects of dietetic interventions and nutraceutical agents on Lp(a) concentration when anticipating improved CV outcomes. (Clin Ther. 2019; 41:XXX-XXX) © 2019 Elsevier Inc.
- Resveratrol shifts energy metabolism to increase lipid oxidation in healthy old mice. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2019 Jul 12; 118:109130
- CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a controlled dose of resveratrol activates fatty acid mobilization and degradation and inhibits fatty acid synthesis in old mice. This is the first time that these effects of resveratrol in lipid metabolism in healthy old (non-obese) animals are reported.
- [SLC22A5 gene mutation analysis and prenatal diagnosis for a family with primary carnitine deficiency]. [Journal Article]
- ZYZhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jul 10; 36(7):690-693
- CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis can prevent further child with carnitine deficiency. The identification of c.517delC, a novel mutation, enriched the spectrum of SLC22A5 mutations.
- Is Expanded Newborn Screening Adequate to Detect Indian Biochemical Low Excretor Phenotype Patients of Glutaric Aciduria Type I? [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Pediatr 2019 Jul 13
- CONCLUSIONS: The MS/MS, C5DC screening is a sensitive technique and detected 10 GA-I patients. Irrespective of the urine organic acid levels, Indian GA-I patients including low excretors seem to have a significantly elevated C5DC level and well above the stipulated cut-off values and therefore, expanded newborn screening is probably adequate to diagnose them.
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- The carnitine-butyrobetaine-TMAO pathway after cardiac transplant: Impact on cardiac allograft vasculopathy and acute rejection. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Heart Lung Transplant 2019 Jun 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals alterations of the carnitine-γBB-TMAO pathway after heart transplant, with increasing levels of γBB being associated with acute rejection and increase in total atheroma volume during 3 years of follow-up. Future studies should clarify whether interactions between dietary factors, immunosuppressive drugs, and the gut microbiota could influence acute rejection and CAV development to delineate mechanisms and potential novel treatment targets.